• Title/Summary/Keyword: radio-resistant

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The Effect of Potassium Cyanate (KCN) on Radiation Treatment of the Colorectal Cancer Cell Line, HCT 116

  • Chang, Jeong Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2013
  • Radiation is one of the major therapy for the removal of cancer cells. The results of the radiation therapy depend on the radio-resistance of cancer cells. For the effective treatment in these radio-resistant cancers, the use of chemicals that act on cancer cells is known to enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation therapy. In this study, I investigated the effect of potassium cyanate (KCN) on the irradiated-colorectal cancer cell line, HCT 116 cells. KCN induces the carbamylation of proteins and can change the biological activity of various human cells. To understand the effect of KCN on the radiosensitivity of HCT 116 cells, I examined alteration of the cell cycle, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell viability, apoptosis and intracellular signaling proteins in the irradiated cells with/without KCN treatment. Combination treatment caused significant increase in sub $G_0/G_1$ and ROS generation in HCT 116 cells. KCN inhibited the proliferation and cell viability in irradiated HCT 116 cells. KCN-induced apoptosis of irradiated cells was processed via the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. Apoptosis-associated signal proteins, including Bax and Bcl-2 were regulated by irradiation with KCN treatment. Taken together, these results may indicate that KCN enhances the radiosensitivity of radio-resistant cell and then has a synergistic effect on radiation therapy in colorectal cancer.

Changes of testosterone production in adult mouse testis and serum after wholebody irradiation

  • Chun, Ki-Jung;Kim, Jihyang;Kim, Woo-Jung;Kim, Jin-Kyu;Kim, Bonghee;Yoon, Yong-Dal
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.178-179
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    • 2003
  • The testis is composed of four cell types like supporting cells, steroid-producing cells, connective tissue cells and germ cells. Apoptosis is a common phenomenon during spormatogenesis. Apoptosis of germ cells can also be induced by exposure to radiation. Previous studies have shown that most types of germ cells are rather radiosensitive while somatic cells in testis are much more radio-resistant. The somatic cells in testis are divided to mainly Sertoli and Leydig cells. Though somatic cells are more radio-resistant than germ cells, radiation can induce the impairment of their function. This damaged function of somatic cells may accelerates degeneration of germ cell indirectly. Tn the present study, we have examined the apoptotic effect of mouse testis and irradiation effect of steroidogenesis of Leydig cells after irradiation.

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Screening of Radio-resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria

  • Hwang, E-Nam;Kang, Sang-Mo;Kim, Jae-Kyung;Lee, Ju-Woon;Park, Jong-Heum
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2013
  • This study screened for radio-resistant strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by evaluating their capability to survive exposure to ionizing radiation. Ten strains of LAB - Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbruekii, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Pediocuccos pentosaceus - were selected and subcultuted twice. The LAB was then further cultured for 3 d at $37^{\circ}C$ to reach 7-10 Log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL prior to irradiation and immediately exposed to gamma rays or electron beams with absorbed doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation gradually decreased the number of the tested viable LAB, and the effect was irradiation dose dependent. A similar effect was found in electron beam-irradiated LAB. Radiation sensitivity of LAB was calculated as $D_{10}$ values, which ranged from 0.26 kGy to 0.9 kGy and 0.5 kGy to 1.44 kGy with exposure to gamma and electron beam irradiation, respectively, in all tested LAB. L. acidophilus was the most resistant to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with $D_{10}$ values of 0.9 kGy and 1.44 kGy, respectively. These results suggest that L. acidophilus might be suitable for the preparation of probiotics as direct-fed microbes for astronauts in extreme space environments.

The Aqueous Extract of Radio-Resistant Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2T Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Inflammation in RAW264.7 Cells

  • Kim, Myung Kyum;Jang, Seon-A;Namkoong, Seung;Lee, Jin Woo;Park, Yuna;Kim, Sung Hyeok;Lee, Sung Ryul;Sohn, Eun-Hwa
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.583-590
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    • 2020
  • Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2T (GenBank: KT448814) is a radio-resistant bacterium that is newly isolated from the soil of a rocky hillside in Seoul. As an extremophile, D. actinosclerus BM2T may possess anti-inflammatory properties that may be beneficial to human health. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of BM2U, an aqueous extract of D. actinosclerus BM2T, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. BM2U showed antioxidant capacity, as determined by the DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 349.3 ㎍/ml) and ORAC (IC50 = 50.24 ㎍/ml) assays. At 20 ㎍/ml, BM2U induced a significant increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression (p < 0.05). BM2U treatment (0.2-20 ㎍/ml) significantly suppressed LPS-induced increase in the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 (p < 0.05). BM2U treatment also suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which are involved in the production of inflammatory mediators. BM2U treatment also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): JNK, ERK, and p-38 (p < 0.05). Collectively, BM2U exhibited anti-inflammatory potential that can be exploited in attenuating inflammatory responses.

Radiation Sensitivity of Basidiospore and Mycelium in Pleurotus ostreatus

  • Lee, Young-Keun;Chang, Hwa-Hyoung
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 1999
  • To assess the effects of gamma-ray (Co-60) on radiation sensitivity and genetic similarity of the basidiospore and mycelium in oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, the D$_{10}$ values and RAPD patterns were analysed. Three strains were isolated from basidiospores (PO-Bl, -B2, and - B3 from 2 kGy irradiation group) and five strains from mycelia (PO-Ml, -M2 from 1 key, PO-M3 from 2 kGy, and PO-M4 and -M5 from 2+1 key irradiation group). The D$_{10}$ values of basidiospore and mycelium of P. Preurotus ostreatus were 1,250 Gy and 500 Gy, respectively. The growth rates of the eight strains on the five media were various and the activities of extracellular chitinases of them were generally higher than those of the control. By the gamma-ray radiation, 22-25% of genetic similarities were changed in the basidiospore strains and 23-36% of them in the mycelium strains. From these results, it seems that the basidiospore could be more radio-resistant than the mycelium of P. ostreatus and that the genetic similarity of the mycelium of P ostrentus could be changed easier than that of the basidiospore by the gamma-ray radiation.ion.

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Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Postharvest Fungal Pathogens

  • Jeong, Rae-Dong;Shin, Eun-Jung;Chu, Eun-Hee;Park, Hae-Jun
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.176-180
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    • 2015
  • Postharvest diseases cause losses in a wide variety of crops around the world. Irradiation, a useful nonchemical approach, has been used as an alternative treatment for fungicide to control plant fungal pathogens. For a preliminary study, ionizing radiations (gamma, X-ray, or e-beam irradiation) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer through mycelial growth, spore germination, and morphological analysis under various conditions. Different fungi exhibited different radiosensitivity. The inhibition of fungal growth showed in a dose-dependent manner. Three fungal pathogens have greater sensitivity to the e-beam treatment compared to gamma or X-ray irradiations. The inactivation of individual fungal-viability to different irradiations can be considered between 3-4 kGy for B. cinerea and 1-2 kGy for P. expansum and R. stolonifer based on the radiosensitive and radio-resistant species, respectively. These preliminary data will provide critical information to control postharvest diseases through radiation.

CHANGE OF BLOOD VISCOSITY AND DEFORMABILITY IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS (구강편평세포암종 환자에서의 혈액 점도와 혈액 변형성 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Yun, Pil-Young;Myoung, Hoon;Lee, Jong-Ho;Choung, Pill-Hoon;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.181-185
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    • 2004
  • Malignant tumor have hypoxic cell fraction, which makes radio-resistant and hypoxia in tumor is a result from the blood flow decrease caused by increase in blood flow resistance. Blood viscosity increase is major factor of increased blood flow resistance and it could be attributed to the decrease in blood deformability index. For the evaluation of the change of blood viscosity and blood deformability in oral squamous cell carcinoma, we perform the test of the change of those factors between the normal control group and oral squamous cell carcinoma cell patient group. Relative viscosity measured against distilled water was $5.25{\pm}0.14$ for normal control group, and $5.78{\pm}0.26$ for the SCC patient group and there was statistical significance between the groups. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in blood viscosity between the groups by tumor size (T1+T2 vs T3+T4). Also, there was no significant difference between the normal control group and SCC patient group in blood deformability index and between the groups by tumor size (T1+T2 vs T3+T4). Increase in blood viscosity was confirmed with this study and it can be postulated that modification blood viscosity might contribute to decrease of hypoxia fraction in oral squamous cell carcinoma, thus improve the effect of radiotherapy and it can be assumed that the main factor of blood viscosity increase is not decrease of blood deformability in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

BLOOD VISCOSITY CHANGE IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA XENOTRANSPLANTED NUDE MICE (구강편평세포암종 이식 누드마우스에서의 혈액 점도 변화)

  • Myoung, Hoon;Lee, Jong-Ho;Choung, Pill-Hoon;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.81-84
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    • 2004
  • It is well known that malignant tumor have hypoxic cell fraction, which is radio resistant and is one of the most important cause of local recurrence after radiotherapy. One of the causes of hypoxia in tumor is blood flow decrease due to increase in blood flow resistance and one of the causes of increased blood flow resistance could be attributed to the increase in blood viscosity. For the evaluation of the change of blood viscosity in oral cancer, experiments were carried out to test the change of blood viscosity among the normal control and xenografted oral cancer nude mice. Relative viscosity measured against distilled water was $3.30{\pm}0.14$ for normal control, and $3.67{\pm}0.62$ for tumor bearing mice at the first time of blood sampling in experimental period ($100mm^3$ $200mm^3$). There was no statistically significant difference between the control group and experimental group (p>0.05). However, as the tumor grew, significant difference of blood viscosity was detected at the third time of blood sampling (control group:$3.37{\pm}0.59$, and experimental group: $4.31{\pm}0.41\;300mm^3$

Differential Expressions of Apoptosis-related Genes in Lung Cancer Cell Lines Determine the Responsiveness to Ionizing Radiation

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Choi, Moon-Kyung;Lim, Jung-Min;Wu, Hong-Gyun;Kim, Ju-Han;Park, Woong-Yang
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 2008
  • Radiotherapy would be the choice of treatment for human cancers, because of high cost-effectiveness. However, a certain population of patients shows a resistance to radiotherapy and recurrence. In an effort to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy, many efforts were driven to find the genes causing the unresponsiveness to ionizing radiation. In this paper, we compared the gene expression profiles of two lung cancer cell lines, H460 and H1299, which showed differential responses to ionizing radiations. Each cell were irradiated at 2 Gy, and harvested after 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours to examine the expressions. Two-way ANOVA analysis on time-series experiments of two cells could select 2863 genes differentially expressed upon ionizing radiation among 32,321 genes in microarray (p<0.05). We classified these genes into 21 clusters by SOM clustering according to the interaction between cell types and time. Two SOM clusters were enriched with apoptosis-related genes in pathway analysis. One cluster contained higher levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K) subunits in H1299, radio-resistant cells than H460, radiosensitive cells. TRAIL receptors were expressed in H460 cells while the decoy receptor for TRAIL was expressed in H1299 cells. From these results, we could characterize the differential responsiveness to ionizing radiation according to their differential expressions of apoptosis-related genes, which might be the candidates to increase the power of radiotherapy.

Prognostic Analysis of Primary Pulmonary Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors Treated Surgically

  • Sayan, Muhammet;Kankoc, Aykut;Ozkan, Dilvin;Celik, Ali;Kurul, Ismail Cuneyt;Tastepe, Abdullah Irfan
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.356-360
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    • 2021
  • Background: Primary pulmonary malignant mesenchymal tumors are rare, constituting only 0.4% of all lung cancers. Since sarcomas are chemo/radio-resistant, surgical resection is the optimal treatment choice for patients with suitable medical conditions and tumor stage. In the present study, we analyzed the surgical outcomes and survival of primary pulmonary malignant mesenchymal tumors treated surgically. Methods: We retrospectively examined the records of patients with primary pulmonary malignant mesenchymal tumors who underwent surgical resection at our department between January 2010 and December 2020. Patient data were analyzed according to age, sex, tumor grade and stage, resection completeness, surgical type, and tumor histopathology. Results: Twenty patients were included in the study. There were 13 men (65%) and 7 women (35%). The median survival rate was 36 months (range, 19-53 months), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 37%. Unfavorable prognostic factors for overall survival included parietal pleural invasion (p=0.02), high tumor grade (p=0.02), advanced tumor stage (p=0.02), and extensive parenchymal resection (pneumonectomy and bilobectomy, p=0.01). The median length of disease-free survival was 31 months (interquartile range, 21-41 months), and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 32%. The most unfavorable prognostic factors for recurrence were parietal pleural invasion (p=0.02), high tumor grade (p=0.01), and tumors requiring lung resection with chest wall resection (p=0.02). Conclusion: Primary malignant mesenchymal lung tumors are aggressive and have a high mortality rate. However, acceptable overall and disease-free survival rates can be obtained with surgical therapy.