• Title, Summary, Keyword: raffinose

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The Changes of $\alpha$-galactosidase Activities and Stachyose and Raffinose Contents During Fermentation of Soybeans (대두의 발효에 따른 $\alpha$-Galactosidase활성 및 Stachyose, Raffinose 함량 변화)

  • Kim, Sung-Soo;Yoon, Sun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.509-512
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    • 1998
  • Changes in the contents of stachyose and raffinose were determined during soybean fermentation. ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase activities were also monitored in soybean and its fermented products. The stachyose contents were 31.8239 mg/g of soybean, 4.2217 mg/g of Meju, and 2.1184 mg/g of Doenjang. The raffinose contents were 2.6914 mg/g of soybean, 1.7413 mg/g of Meju, and negligible of Doenjang. ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase activities was distinct in soybean and Meju. They were 14.5954 units/mg protein of soybean, 13.1489 units/mg protein of Meju, and 1.9157 units/mg protein of Doenjang. The results suggested that the decrease of stachyose and raffinose contents in fermented soy products were due to the ${\alpha}$-galactosidase activity.

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Genotype and Environment Influence on Raffinose and Stachyose Content of Soybean Seed (콩 종자의 Raffinose 및 Stachyose 함량에 대한 유전자형과 환경의 영향)

  • Sung, Mi Kyung;Han, Sung Jin;Seo, Hyung Jin;Choi, Sang Woo;Nam, Sang Hae;Chung, Jong Il
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2014
  • Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop for protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and many other nutrients to humans and animals. But, antinutritional factors in the raw mature soybean are exist. Raffinose and stachyose are main antinutritional factors in soybean seed. Both raffinose and stachyose are carbohydrates, belonging to the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs). RFOs are not readily digested in humans and cause flatulence or diarrhea. The objective of this research is to obtain the information on raffinose and stachyose content according to genotype and environment. A total of twenty two soybean genotypes (11 cultivars, 3 germplasms and 8 breeding lines) were selected. Each genotype was grown in the field for two years with two replications and harvested in bulk at natural maturity for two years. Content of raffinose and stachyose was detected by HPLC. The raffinose content (g/kg) of 22 genotypes was $2.68{\pm}0.21-5.87{\pm}2.43$ in year 1 and was $3.24{\pm}0.37-9.05{\pm}0.16$ in year 2. The stachyose content (g/kg) was $4.23{\pm}0.98-27.68{\pm}9.90$ at year 1 and was $5.11{\pm}1.09-25.32{\pm}0.35$ in year 2. Genotype and environment have highly significant effects on raffinose and stachyose content. Three genotypes (Da-7, 116-13, and RS-78) have low stachyose content at 5% significant level in two years. A positive correlation ($R^2=0.1985^*$) between raffinose and stachyose was observed in year 2. These informations are valuable in soybean genetics and breeding program related with raffinose and stachyose content.

Quantitative Determination of Flatulence Factors in Legume Seeds and Soy Products (두류 및 대두제품중 가스발생인자의 함량 분석)

  • Bae, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.387-391
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    • 1987
  • The contents of flatulence factors such as raffinose and stachyose were determined by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography using a guide-strip technique for some legume seeds and soy products consumed in Korea. Raffinose contents in bean samples were 1.34% in domestic soybean, 1.17% in imported soybean, 0.65% in kidney bean, 0.49% in red bean and 0.49% in mung bean. Stachyose contents were 4.1% in doemstic soybean, 3.6% in imported soybean, 3.0% in kidney bean, 2.9% in red bean and 1.9% in mung bean. The flatulence factors were not detected in soy sauce whereas soy paste contained 46.6mg% of raffinose and none of stachyose. The contents of raffinose and stachyose were 26.7mg% and 53.7mg% in soy curd and 26.5mg% and 41.7mg%, respectively, in soy milk.

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Heparin Release from Polyurethane Devices (폴리우레탄 디바이스로부터의 헤파린 방출)

  • Kim, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.75-78
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    • 1987
  • The release rate of heparin from monolithic devices composed of raffinose, ${\beta}-cyclodextrin$, polyethylene oxide (Mw 20,000, PEO), and hydrophobic polyether urethane (biomer) was investigated. Water soluble raffinose, ${\beta}-cyclodextrin$, and PEO blended into the biomer provided a controlled release of heparin. The release rate of heparin could be controlled by the content of raffinose, ${\beta}-cyclodextrin$, and PEO in the devices. The mechanism of release rate increased by the raffinose, ${\beta}-cyclodextrin$, and PEO may result from the formation of channels and pores in the biomer matrices following the swelling and the change in the physical structure of polymer net work. Hydrophobic polyurethane containing raffinose, ${\beta}-cyclodextrin$, and PEO can provide a hydrophilic antithrombogenic material for prolonged release of heparin.

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Characterization of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ from Bifidobacterium sp. Int-57 (Bifidobacterium sp. Int-57 ${\alpha}-galactosidase$의 효소 특성)

  • Yeo, Na-Im;Lee, Se-Kyung;Ji, Geun-Eog
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.689-693
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    • 1993
  • ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ releases galactoside from raffinose and stachyose which are the major sugars in soybean, Although raffinose and stachyose were known as flatulence factors, these sugars were recently claimed as bifidus factors. In this experiment we studied the properties of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ and its production from Bifidobacterium sp. Int-57. Int-57 produced higher level of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ than other intestinal bacteria. The production of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ was greater when grown on raffinose compared with other carbohydrates tested. Partially purified ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ was obtained after sonication of harvested cell pellet followed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration, and assayed using PNP-${\alpha}-galactosidase$ as a substrate. Optimum pH for activity was 7.0 and optimum temperature was $40^{\circ}C$. At 5 mM concentration of metal ions, $CoCl_{2}\;and\;CuCl_{2}$ and inhibited the enzyme activity by 33% and 21% respectively. The enzyme was shown to hydrolyse genuine substrates, i.e. raffinose and stachyose.

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Sugar Leakage from Differently-aged Seeds of Rape, Chinese Cabbage and Radish (퇴화처리에 따리 유채, 배추, 무 종자의 당 누출)

  • 홍승범;이석순
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.322-327
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    • 1995
  • Experiments were conducted to know the relationships between seed quality and leakage of sugars from differently-aged seeds of rape, Chinese cabbage and radish. Seeds were artificially aged at 90% relative humidity and 45$^{\circ}C$ to get different seed qualities. Significant amounts of total sugars were leaked from the dead seeds of all crops during the 8~24 hours soaking period, while high quality seeds leaked negligible amounts of total sugars. High quality seeds of all crops contained lots of sucrose and glucose and some stachyose, raffinose and fructose. During the artificial aging of seeds stachyose, raffinose, and sucrose decreased, while glucose and fructose increased.

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Induction of Melibiase in Yeast

  • Park, Sang-Shin
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1964
  • Exposing yeast cells with a certain genotype to different inducers, the ability of the yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to obtain enhanced fermentation for carbohydrates was observed. Regardless of the preexposure to any substrate, the inherent character incapable of fermenting a certain carbohydrate was maintained, while utilization of carbohydrates by the cells with a certain gene markers was varied by the previous conditions where they were exposed. Galactose was the best inducer for the cells to elaborate melibiase, even the galactose was not utilized as a substrate. Preexposure to galactose seemed to be necessary for the cells to utilize galactose and melibiose. Galactose fermentation by GA cells was enhanced by the exposure of the cells to galactose, but not to melibiose, raffinose, sucrose or glucose. Delayed fermentation of sucrose by the cells exposed to glucose or melibiose, but not to galactose, was observed. Raffinose fermentation was obtained by the cells with either SU RAF or GA ME genes, but the enhanced fermentation of raffinose seemed to be dependent on which inducer the cells were exposed previously and enzymes induced by the inducer to break either one of the linkages of raffinose molecule, the alpha0galactosidic or the beta-fructo-furanosidic.

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Determination of Fructooligosaccharides and Raffinose in Infant Formula by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSC를 이용한 조제분유 중 fructooligosaccharides 및 raffinose 분석)

  • Shin, Man-Sub;Park, Jae-Woo;Cho, Mi-Ran;Song, Sung-Ok;Kim, Chun-Sun;Choi, Chun-Bae;Lee, Seoung-Won;Lee, Ki-Woong;Chang, Chi-Hoon;Kwak, Byung-Man
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.725-729
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    • 2006
  • A method was developed for the determination of fructooligosaccharides and raffinose contents in infant formula. The samples were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography equipped with carbohydrate column and evaporative light scattering detector. The mobile phase used for the gradient mode was water-acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The method showed a mean recovery of 95-99%, the relative standard deviation obtained in the precision study was 0.774-8.982%, the quantification and detection limits were 25-50mg/L.

Agronomic Traits of Soybean Breeding Lines with Low Stachyose and Raffinose Contents (Stachyose 및 Raffinose 저함량 콩 선발계통의 농업적 형질)

  • Ha, Do Su;Moon, Jin Young;Choi, Sang Woo;Shim, Sang In;Kim, Min Chul;Chung, Jong Il
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2017
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed is an important dietary source of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and other nutrients for humans and animals. Raffinose and stachyose are the main antinutritional factors in soybean seed. They are carbohydrates belonging to the raffinose family of oligosaccharides, which are not readily digested in humans and cause flatulence or diarrhea. The genetic reduction of the raffinose and stachyose contents in mature soybean seeds will improve the nutritional value of soybean. The objective of this research was to evaluate agronomic traits with 10 $F_6$ strains selected from breeding populations derived from a cross among seven parents. The contents of raffinose and stachyose in mature seeds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Agronomic traits such as flower color, flowering date, harvesting date, lodging, plant height, seed coat color, hilum color, 100 seed weight, and yield were evaluated. Ten intermediate parents showed low raffinose and stachyose contents. The intermediate parent 883-1 had a small seed size, six intermediate parents (15A1, 15D1, RS-5, RS-33, RS-64, and RS-70) had a medium seed size, and two intermediate parents (14G20 and RS-21) had a large seed size. The intermediate parent RS-21 had a black seed coat and a green cotyledon. Four intermediate parents (883-1, 14G20, RS-5, and RS-21) had elite agronomic traits. The new intermediate parents developed through this study will be used to develop improved soybean cultivars with low contents of raffinose and stachyose.

Characteristics and Action Pattern of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ from Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in Korean Traditional Meju (한국 재래 간장에서 분리한 Scopulariopsis brevicaulis가 생성하는 ${\alpha}-galactosidase$의 특성 및 작용양상)

  • Choi, Kwang-Soo;Lee, Seon-Ho;Hong, Seung-Pyo;Lee, Hee-Duck;Bae, Du-Kyung;Choi, Cheong
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.489-495
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    • 1998
  • The optimum culture condition of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis for the production of ${\alpha}$-galactosidase was as follows: Tryptone 1.5%, $NH_4NO_3$ 0.2%, Raffinose 2.5%, $KH_2PO_4$ 0.5%, yeast extract 0.5%, pH 7.0, $27^{\circ}C$. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity of ${\alpha}$-galactosidase producing Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were pH 7.0 and $27^{\circ}C$, respectively. The enzyme was relatively stable at $pH\;6.0{\sim}8.0$ and at temperature below $40^{\circ}C$. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited by $Ag^{2+},\;Hg^{2+},\;Cu^{2+}$, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and Iodine. These results would indicate the presence of -SH groups in the catalytic site of the enzyme. Km value was 1.9 mM for $p-nitrophenyl-{\alpha}-D-galactopyranoside$ and Vmax value was $9.66{\times}10^2\;{\mu}M/min$. Sugar constituents of culture broth were identified by HPLC that the enzyme liberated sucrose, glucose and fructose from raffinose and raffinose was significantly decreased.

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