• 제목, 요약, 키워드: rainfall index

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Heavy Rainfall prediction using convective instability index (대류성 불안정 지수를 이용한 집중호우 예측)

  • Kim, Young-Chul;Ham, Sook-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is possibility of the heavy rainfall prediction using instability index. The convective instability index using this study is Convective Available Potential Energy(CAPE) concerned the growth energy of the storm, Bulk Richardson Number(BRN) concerned the type and strength of the storm, and Sotrm Relative Helicity(SRH) concerned maintenance of the storm. To verify the instability index, the simulation of heavy rainfall case experiment by Numerical Weather Prediction(NWP) model(MM5) are designed. The results of this study summarized that the heavy rainfall related to the high instability index and the proper combination of one more instability index made the higher heavy rainfall prediction.

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Rail Transport Operation Control for Railway Embankment under rainfall (강우시 성토사면의 열차운전규제기준)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ki;Shin, Min-Ho;Choi, Chan-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2009
  • Infiltration of rainfall causes railway slopes to be unstable and may result in failure. Basic relationship between the rainfall and stability of railway embankment is defined to analyze its stability by rainfall. An experimental study for defining of infiltration rate of rainfall into slope is conducted in the lab. The results of Rainfall infiltration show that rainfall infiltration is not equal to infiltration as like reservoir because rate of rainfall infiltration is controlled by slope angle. Based on these results, boundary condition of rainfall is altered and various numerical analysis are performed. The variation of shear strength, the degree of saturation and pore-water pressure for railway slope during rainfall can be predicted and the safety factor of railway slope can be expressed as the function of rainfall amount, namely rainfall index. And suggested rainfall index is compared with the rail transport operation control which is used in KORAIL. It is judged that this rainfall index can be a good tool for the rail-transport operation control.

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The Development of Rail-Transport Operation Control using the Variation of Slope Stability under Rainfall (강우시 사면안전율 변화를 이용한 열차운전규제기준 개발)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ki;Lee, Jin-Wook;Shin, Min-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 2003
  • Infiltration of rainfall causes railway embankment to be unstable and may result in failure. Basic relationship between the rainfall and stability of railway embankment are defined to analyze the stability of embankment by rainfall. An experimental study for defining of infiltration rate of rainfall into slope is conducted in the lab. The results of Rainfall infiltration show that rainfall infiltration is not equal to infiltration as like reservoir because rate of rainfall infiltration is controlled by slope angle. Based on these results, boundary condition of rainfall is altered and various numerical analysis are performed. The variation of shear strength, the degree of saturation and pore-water pressure for railway slope during rainfall can be predicted and the safety factor of railway slope can be expressed as the function of rainfall amount, namely rainfall index. Therefore, it is judged that this rainfall index can be a good tool for the rail-transport operation control.

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Rainfall Variations of Temporal Characteristics of Korea Using Rainfall Indicators (강수지표를 이용한 우리나라 강수량의 시간적인 특성 변화)

  • Hong, Seong-Hyun;Kim, Young-Gyu;Lee, Won-Hyun;Chung, Eun-Sung
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.393-407
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    • 2012
  • This study suggests the results of temporal and spatial variations for rainfall data in the Korean Peninsula. We got the index of the rainfall amount, frequency and extreme indices from 65 weather stations. The results could be easily understood by drawing the graph, and the Mann-Kendall trend analysis was also used to determine the tendency (up & downward/no trend) of rainfall and temperature where the trend could not be clear. Moreover, by using the FARD, frequency probability rainfalls could be calculated for 100 and 200 years and then compared each other value through the moment method, maximum likelihood method and probability weighted moments. The Average Rainfall Index (ARI) which is meant comprehensive rainfalls risk for the flood could be obtained from calculating an arithmetic mean of the RI for Amount (RIA), RI for Extreme (RIE), and RI for Frequency (RIF) and as well as the characteristics of rainfalls have been mainly classified into Amount, Extremes, and Frequency. As a result, these each Average Rainfall Indices could be increased respectively into 22.3%, 26.2%, and 5.1% for a recent decade. Since this study showed the recent climate change trend in detail, it will be useful data for the research of climate change adaptation.

Rainfall Trend Detection Using Non Parametric Test in the Yom River Basin, Thailand

  • Mama, Ruetaitip;Bidorn, Butsawan;Namsai, Matharit;Jung, Kwansue
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.424-424
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    • 2017
  • Several studies of the world have analyzed the regional rainfall trends in large data sets. However, it reported that the long-term behavior of rainfall was different on spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this study is to determine the local trends of rainfall indices in the Yom River Basin, Thailand. The rainfall indices consist of the annual total precipitation (PRCTPOP), number of heavy rainfall days ($R_{10}$), number of very heavy rainfall days ($R_{20}$), consecutive of dry days (CDD), consecutive of wet days (CWD), daily maximum rainfall ($R_{x1}$), five-days maximum rainfall ($R_{x5}$), and total of annual rainy day ($R_{annual}$). The rainfall data from twelve hydrological stations during the period 1965-2015 were used to analysis rainfall trend. The Mann-Kendall test, which is non-parametric test was adopted to detect trend at 95 percent confident level. The results of these data were found that there is only one station an increasing significantly trend in PRCTPOP index. CWD, which the index is expresses longest annual wet days, was exhibited significant negative trend in three locations. Meanwhile, the significant positive trend of CDD that represents longest annual dry spell was exhibited four locations. Three out of thirteen stations had significant decreasing trend in $R_{annual}$ index. In contrast, there is a station statistically significant increasing trend. The analysis of $R_{x1}$ was showed a station significant decreasing trend at located in the middle of basin, while the $R_{x5}$ of the most locations an insignificant decreasing trend. The heavy rainfall index indicated significant decreasing trend in two rainfall stations, whereas was not notice the increase or decrease trends in very heavy rainfall index. The results of this study suggest that the trend signal in the Yom River Basin in the half twentieth century showed the decreasing tendency in both of intensity and frequency of rainfall.

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Study on the Method of Development of Road Flood Risk Index by Estimation of Real-time Rainfall Using the Coefficient of Correlation Weighting Method (상관계수가중치법을 적용한 실시간 강우량 추정에 따른 도로 침수위험지수 개발 방법에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Eunmi;Rhee, Kyung Hyun;Kim, Chang Soo
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.478-489
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    • 2014
  • Recently, flood damage by frequent localized downpours in cities are on the increase on account of abnormal climate phenomena and growth of impermeable area by urbanization. In this study, we are focused on flooding on roads which is the basis of all means of transportation. To calculate real-time accumulated rainfall on a road link, we use the Coefficient of Correlation Weighting method (CCW) which is one of the revised methods of missing rainfall as we consider a road link as a unobserved rainfall site. CCW and real-time accumulated rainfall entered through the Internet are used to estimate the real-time rainfall on a road link. Together with the real-time accumulated rainfall, flooding history, rainfall range causing flooding of a road link and frequency probability precipitation for road design are used as factors to determine the Flood Risk Index on roads. We simulated two cases in the past, July, 7th, 2009 and July, 15th, 2012 in Busan. As a result, all of road links included in the actual flooded roads at that time got the high level of flood risk index.

Comparison of Precipitation Characteristics using Rainfall Indicators Between North and South Korea (강수지표를 이용한 남·북한 강수특성 비교)

  • Lee, Bo-Ram;Chung, Eun-Sung;Kim, Tae-Woong;Kwon, Hyun-Han
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.2223-2235
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to understand temporal and spatial trends of rainfall characteristics in South and North Korea. Daily rainfall observed at the 65 stations in South Korea between 1963 and 2010 and the 27 stations in North Korea between 1973 and 2010 were analyzed. Rainfall Indicators for amount, extremes, frequency of rainfall were defined. Province-based indicators in the recent 10 years (i.e., between 2001 and 2010) were compared to those in the past (i.e., between 1963/1973 and 2000 for South/North Korea). In the recent 10 years, all the indicators except for the number of wet days (NWD) and 200-yr frequency rainfall (Freq200) increased in South Korea and all the indicators except for the annual mean daily rainfall over wet days (SDII) and annual total rainfall amount (TotalDR) decreased in North Korea. Furthermore, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test based on the annual indicators. In some stations, decreasing trends in the past and increasing trends in the recent 10 years were found, and such opposite trends between two periods suggest he limitation in predicting and analyzing the rainfall characteristics based on the average. Results from this study can be used in analyzing the impact of climate change and preparing adaptation strategies for the water resources management.

Estimation of Rainfall-runoff Erosivity Using Modified Institute of Agricultural Sciences Index (수정 IAS 지수를 이용한 강우침식인자 추정)

  • Lee, Joon-Hak;Oh, Kyoung-Doo;Heo, Jun-Haeng
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.44 no.8
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    • pp.619-628
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the existing method of calculating rainfall-runoff erosivity using monthly precipitation, such as Fournier's index, modified Fournier's index, IAS (Institute of Agricultural Sciences) index, etc., and to present more reasonable regression model based on monthly rainfall data in Korea. This study introduced a new simplified method of calculating rainfall-runoff erosivity based on monthly precipitation, called by modified IAS index. It was expanded form IAS index which is the simple calculation method by summing up the rainfall amount of two months with maximum amount. Monthly precipitation and annual rainfall-runoff erosivity at 21 weather stations for over 25 years were used to analyze correlation relationship and regression model. The result shows that modified IAS index is the more reasonable parameter for estimating rainfall-runoff erosivity of the middle-western and south-western regions in Korea.

Proposal for an Inundation Hazard Index of Road Links for Safer Routing Services in Car Navigation Systems

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Lee, Jae-Bin;Lee, Won-Hee;Yu, Ki-Yun
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.430-439
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    • 2010
  • Inundation of roads by heavy rainfall has attracted more attention than traffic accidents, traffic congestion, and construction because it simultaneously causes travel delays and threatens driver safety. For these reasons, in this paper, we propose an inundation hazard index (IHI) of road links, which shows the possibility of inundation of road links caused by rainfall. To generate the index, we have used two key data sources, namely the digital elevation model (DEM) and past rainfall records of when inundation has occurred. IHI is derived by statistically analyzing the relationships between the normalized relative height of the road links calculated from DEM within the watershed and past rainfall records. After analyzing the practical applicability of the proposed index with a commercial car navigation system through a set of tests, we confirmed that the proposed IHI could be implemented to choose safer routes, with reduced chances of encountering roads having inundation risks.

An Offer of a Procedure Calculating Hourly Rainfall Excess by Use of Horton Infiltration Model in a Basin (유역 단위 Horton 침투모형을 적용한 시간단위 초과우량 산출 절차 제시)

  • Yoo, Ju-Hwan
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.533-541
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    • 2010
  • It is basic for a flood prediction to calculate direct runoff from rainfall in a basin by the rainfall-runoff model. The direct runoff is calculated from rainfall excess or effective rainfall based on a rainfall-runoff model. The total rainfall minus rainfall loss equals rainfall excess with time. This loss can be treated equal to an infiltration loss under the assumption that the infiltration is a major one among the losses in the rainfall-runoff model. Practically obtaining the infiltration loss $\Phi$ index method, W index method or modified ones of these have been used. In this study it is assumed the loss of rainfall in a basin be a well-known Horton infiltration mechanism. And in case that the parameter set is given in the Horton infiltration model a procedure and assumption for calculating hourly infiltration loss and rainfall excess are offered and the results of its application are compared with those of $\Phi$ index method. By this study it is well shown the value of Horton infiltration function is exponentially decay with time as the Horton infiltration mechanism.