• Title, Summary, Keyword: raspberry

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Improvement of Cholesterol and Blood Pressure in Fruit, Leaf and Stem Extracts from Black Raspberry in vitro (복분자 열매, 잎, 줄기 추출물의 콜레스테롤과 혈압 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Min Jung;Lee, Su Jung;Choi, Hye Ran;Lee, Jung Hyun;Kwon, Ji Wung;Chae, Kyu Seo;Jeong, Jong Tae;Lee, Tae Bum
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.177-187
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    • 2014
  • We compared effects of fruit, leaf, and stem extracts from black raspberry on improvement of cholesterol and blood pressure in HepG2 and HUVEC cells, respectively. Cholesterol secretion was inhibited by water extracts of unripe fruit and stem, but not leaf of black raspberry in HepG2 cells. Also, water extracts of unripe fruit, leaf, and stem reduced HMG-CoA reductase activity. Furthermore, nitric oxide production and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) protein were regulated by extracts of fruit, leaf, and stem of black raspberry in HUVEC cells. Overall, the rank order according to the improving level of cholesterol and hypertension is as follows: stem > fruit > leaf. In addition, various polyphenol compounds displayed inhibitory effects of HMG-CoA reductase activity and ACE expression. Thus, these data suggested that leaf and stem as wells as fruit of black raspberry can be used as useful food resources for reduction of cholesterol and blood pressure.

RaspberryPi board control with GPIO (GPIO를 사용한 RaspberryPi 보드 제어)

  • Lee, Sung-jin;Choi, Chul-kil;Choi, Byeong-yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.429-431
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    • 2014
  • Raspberry Pi is in the UK (Paspberry Pi) Foundation created a compact / Cheap PC and was developed as part of the educational project. RCA connection jack and has been released in March 2012 was also sold out in one hour. Raspberry Pi Linux kernel based operating system called Raspberry Pi using optimized Raspbian Debian-based operating systems are often used to be free. Raspberry Pi is currently in the field of IoT with the board quite Cubie limelight and Cubie board holds more data. Arduino is quite easy to reach and access to the avr but impossible to include any custom code associated to a library and customize drawbacks must be solved only. Raspberry Pi using the Raj Caribbean and limitations of low cost, but there is a small output. So, for a combination of the two, with GPOI was reminiscent of hardware control. In this paper, using GPIO Cooking Hacks RaspberryPi board for controlling input and output by using the shield is insufficient expansion raspberry pie was confirmed that the good operation was verified.

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Effects of Black Raspberry Wine on Estrogen in Sprague-Dawley Rats (복분자 술이 흰쥐의 estrogen에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Chae-Woong;Choi, Yun-Gi;Lee, Sung-Il;Jeon, Byung-Hun;Baek, Byeong-Kirl
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.426-428
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of black raspberry wine which was administered per os on estrogen levels in Splague-Dawley(SD) rats. Black raspberry wine containing 13% alcohol(v/v) was prepared from ripe fruits of Rubus coreanus fermented with Saccharomyces cervisiae. The rats were divided into 2 groups(A and B): The group A received black raspberry wine and the group B received saline for 7 weeks. All animals were bi weekly monitored for estrogen levels by radioimmunoassay using $125^I$ labeled anti-estrogen monospecific antibody. There was a significant(2.02 fold) increase in estrogen levels in the group A with a peak at the 7th week post administration of black raspberry wine. There was no significant change in estrogen levels of the rats in the group B. These data point to uncharacterized phytoestrogenic bioactivity of black raspberry wine that appears to be a useful phytoestrogenic herbal remedy for human health.

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Superbacterial Activity of Polyphenols Isolated from Black Raspberry

  • Kim, Seong Keun;Kim, Hyuna;Kim, Song Ah;Park, Hee Kuk;Kim, Wonyong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2013
  • The fruit of the black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) has been employed in traditional medicine, and recent studies have demonstrated its measureable biological activities. However, the root of the black raspberry has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of the root and unripe fruit polyphenols of the black raspberry. Both polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the decreased nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 ($PGE_2$) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, root polyphenols showed stronger anti-inflammatory activity than fruit polyphenols. LPS-induced mRNA and protein expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 levels were also decreased, confirming the anti-inflammatory activity. Root polyphenols showed lethal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), and Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, the black raspberry fruit did not demonstrate these properties. These data provide the first demonstration that black raspberry root has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-superbacterial properties that can be exploited as alternatives for use in the food and cosmetic industries and/or as pharmaceuticals.

Blood Pressure Modulating Effects of Black Raspberry Extracts in vitro and in vivo (복분자 추출물의 항고혈압 활성)

  • Lee, Jung-Hyun;Choi, Hye Ran;Lee, Su Jung;Lee, Min Jung;Ko, Young Jong;Kwon, Ji Wung;Lee, Hee Kwon;Jeong, Jong Tae;Lee, Tae-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of 50% ethanol extract of ripe black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis, RBR) on hypertension in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and activation of nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase were significantly regulated by RBR in HUVEC cells. Moreover, the SHR showed significantly higher levels of blood pressure, ACE, renin, endothelin-1, and interleukin-6 than Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). However, treatment with captopril and RBR decreased the levels of these hypertension-related events in the SHR. The renal arteriole showed greater media thickness/lumen diameter (%) in the SHR than in the WKY. However, media thickness/lumen diameter (%) was reduced in SHR by treatment with captopril and RBR. In addition, the number of eosinophilic cardiac muscle cells was decreased in the heart muscles after treatment with captopril and RBR. Therefore, this study suggests that 50% ethanol extract of RBR may be useful for the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure.

Contents of Amino Acids in Raspberry Wine Using Active Dry Yeast Strains (활성 건조 효모를 이용한 복분자주의 아미노산 함량)

  • Moon, Young-Ja;Lee, Myung-Soon;Sung, Chang-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.392-397
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    • 2006
  • To compare the contents of amino acids in raspberry wine, 5 types of active dry yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Montrachet (UCD #522), Saccharomyces bayanus Pasteur Champagne (UCD #595), Saccharomyces cerevisiae Epemay II (CEG), Saccharomyces bayanus Prise do Mousse (PM), Saccharomyces uvarum Latvia W15) were used. In the fermentation experiment two kinds of raspberry wine were used; Rubus coreanus Miquel(RCM), harvested in Gochang, and Rubus crataegifolius Bunge(RCB), harvested in Okcheon. In 5 kinds of RCM raspberry wines, total contents of 17 amino acids were found from $16.77mg/{\ell}$ in the fermented Prise de Mousse, the most amount, to $12.29mg/{\ell}$ in Lalvin W15, the lowest. The content of amino acid in the RCB raspberry wine fermented by Montrachet was approximately 5.5 times higher than that of the RCM raspberry wine; $90.55mg/{\ell}\;to\;16.54mg/{\ell}$. Cystine and isoleucine were detected $2.97mg/{\ell},\;0.34mg/{\ell}$, respectively, in the RCB raspberry wine but not detected in the RCM raspberry wine. The amount of alanine, aspartic acid, and serine in RCB raspberry wine were found approximately 14 to 20 times larger than that of RCM raspberry wine.

Effect of Blending Seeds on Chemical Characteristics of Black Raspberry Wine Fermentation (씨앗의 혼입이 Black Raspberry 발효주의 화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Bo-Kyung;Shin, Hye-Hyun;Jung, Ji-Hyun;Hwang, Keum-Taek;Kim, Tae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.580-586
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    • 2009
  • Black raspberry was fermented with or without seeds. Chemical characteristics were analyzed during wine fermentation. pH of black raspberry wine decreased in the early stage of the fermentation and thereafter increased. Total acidity increased until the 4th day of fermentation with little change afterwards. Both pH and acidity were not affected by the blending of the seeds. Sugar concentration decreased and alcohol concentration increased during the fermentation, and they were not influenced by the blending of the seeds. $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ values of black raspberry wines tended to increase until the 12th day of the fermentation and decreased or little changed thereafter. $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ values of black raspberry wines made from the fruits with seeds (BRSW) were lower than those of black raspberry wines without seeds (BRW) with no significance. Monomeric anthocyanin (MA) and polyphenol contents (PC) decreased during fermentation. MA was not significantly influenced by the blending of the seeds. PC in BRSW were higher than those in BRW with no significance. Alcohols were the major volatile components, and there were no differences between alcohol compositions in the two wines. There were also no differences in color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability in sensory characteristics. Similarity in the chemical characteristics between the BRSW and BRW suggests that development of black raspberry wine with seeds blended is possible.

Anthocyanins, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activities of Black Raspberry Exudates (Black Raspberry 침출액의 Anthocyanin 및 Polyphenol 함량과 항산화능)

  • Lee, Bo-Kyung;Shin, Hye-Hyun;Jung, Ji-Hyun;Hwang, Keum-Taek;Lee, Yeon-Sook;Kim, Tae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2009
  • Intact black raspberry fruits, which were crushed by hand or ground using a blender, were immersed in 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% ethanol (125 g fruits per 900 mL ethanol) and exuded for 30, 60, and 90 days at room temperature. Monomeric anthocyanin contents (MAC) and polyphenol contents (PHC) of the exudates were determined measuring absorbance using a spectrophotometer. DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities (50%: $SC_{50}$) were determined for the antioxidant activities of the exudates. Twenty % ethanol exudates from black raspberry had significantly lower MAC and PHC regardless of the fruit types. $SC_{50}$ were higher in 20% ethanol exudates, suggesting 20% ethanol exudates from black raspberry had lower antioxidant activities. MAC and PHC of the black raspberry exudates decreased with time. This study suggests that MAC and PHC in the black raspberry could be exuded more efficiently using 40% or higher concentration of ethanol and that crushing and grinding little affect exuding MAC and PHC. The exudates with higher MAC and PHC showed higher antioxidant activities.