• Title, Summary, Keyword: rat

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Changes of Gangliosides Metabolism in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats and Effect of Deer Antler (Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨병쥐 뇌에서 Gangliosides 대사 변화와 녹용의 효과)

  • 조현진;전길자
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 1994
  • In this study, we examined gangliosides from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat brain. To obtain the diabetic rat brain, we sacrified the rat three days after injecting the streptozotocin into venus in tail. We measured blood glucose level according to Somogy-Nelson method and measured insulin level using $^{125}$ I-insulin RIA kit. The gangliosides were extracted according to Folch-Suzuki method from the rat brain. We also examined the effect of major lipid components extracted from deer antler on diabetic rat brain. The results showed that the major lipids components lowered both blood glucose and insulin level in normal rat. However only the blood glucose level in diabetic rat was lowered with major lipid components. In diabetic rat brain, gangliosides metabolism were changed. The amount of GMla was increased while GDla, GDlb, and GTlb were not synthesized. Furthermore, undefined ganglioside was found. In major lipid component-treated diabetic rat brain, the ganglioside metabolism proceeded as same as the normal rat. On the contrary, in bovine brain gangliosides-treated diabetic rat brain, the gangliosides metabolism was not recovered to normal one.

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Molecular cloning of the Arabidopsis gene rat3 that is involving in the Agobacterium-mediated planttransformation (Agrobacterium에 의한 식물형질전환에 관여하는 Arabidopsis RAT3 유전자의 분리와 분석)

  • 남재성;양보경;김도훈;정순재;이영병
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.423-431
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    • 2001
  • Genomic and cDNA clones containing the RAT3 gene involving in Agobacterium-mediated plant transformation were identified using plant DNA flanking the righ border of a T-DNA rescued from the rat3 mutant as hy-bridization probe. Two highly homologous cDNA clones were identified; one (RAT3-1) weakly hybridized with the probe whereas another (RAT3-2) strongly hybridized with the probe. Both Rat3-1 and Rat3-2 proteins contain a putative signal peptide for secretion. The deduced molecular weights of encoded proteins are 15 kDa. The results of genomic DNA blot analysis and DNA sequencing indicated that RAT3-1 and RAT3-2 exist as single copy genes and they were arranged side by side with just 600 bp distance between them. RAT3-1 was disrupted by the integration of T-DNA into the 3 untranslated region in rat3 mutant. A BLAST search showed that both RAT3-1 and RAT3-2 proteins have homology with only the C-terminal region of $\beta$-1,3-glucanase homologues from Triticum aestivum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Thses $\beta$-1,3-glucanase homologues contain an unusually long C-terminal region with no sig-nificant homology to other $\beta$-1,3-glucanase.

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The Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Extract on Osteoblast in Rat Fetus Calvarial Cells (영지(靈芝) 추출물이 Rat fetus 두개골로부터 분리한 조골세포에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Eun-Hye;Yoo, Dong-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: In this study, the author aimed to evaluate the effect of EtOH extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GLE) on osteoblast proliferation in rat fetus calvarial cells. Methods: The osteoblast separated from rat fetus calvariae was cultivated for 6~21 days and evaluated the cell function. After the addition of GLE on the culture medium, we determined the effect of GLE on the cell viability, cell proliferation, bone matrix protein synthesis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis and calcified nodule formation of the cultivated osteoblast. Results: GLE did not change the survival rate of rat calvarial osteoblast. GLE increased the proliferation of rat calvarial osteoblast. GLE increased ALP activity of rat calvarial osteoblast. GLE increased bone matrix protein synthesis of rat calvarial osteoblast. GLE increased collagen synthesis of rat calvarial osteoblast. GLE slightly affected calcified nodule formation of rat calvarial osteoblast. Conclusions: This study suggests that Ganoderma lucidum might improve the osteoporosis resulted from augmentation of osteoblast proliferation.

Effects of Superovulation Induction on Embryo Quantity and Quality in Rat (과배란 방법이 Rat 수정란의 양과 질에 미치는 영향)

  • 진동일;양무희
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 1997
  • 본 연구는 rat에서 PMSG도는 FSH 처리에 의한 과배란 유도가 배란율과 수정란의 질에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 호르몬 처리하고 교미시킨 후 4일령에 난관과 자궁을 세척하여 정상 8-세포기 난자와 비정상 난자를 조사하였고 각 처리에서 채란된 난자 중에 정상난자를 골라 체외 배양하여 발육율을 비교 평가하였다. 미성숙 rat에서는 평균19.1개의 수정란이 채취되었으며 성숙rat에서는 14.2개가 채취되었고 미성숙 rat에서는 성숙 rat에 비해 더 많은 비율의 비정상적인 난자가 회수되었다. FSH와 LH-RH에 의한 방법이 PMSG와 HCG에 의한 방법보다 유의성 있게 많은 난자를 배란시켰으며, 비정상란의 빈도도 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 호르몬 처리에 의한 두 가지 방법은 자연배란에 의한 방법에 비해 훨씬 높은 비정상난자의 배란을 유도하였다(FSH, 20.1%;PMSG, 41.2%;자연배란 13.4%). 또한 FSH처리에 의해 회수된 난자보다 체외 발육율이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 그러므로 rat에서 PMSG와 FSH를 이용하여 과배란을 유도할 수 있으나 배란된 난자의 비정상율은 자연배란에 비해 훨씬 높았고, 과배란 유도시 호르몬의 종류에 따라 체외 배양율에도 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.

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Calcium Modulation of Insulin Secretion in Perfused Pancreata of Obese Zucker Rats

  • Park, Hyun-Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 1997
  • Insulin secretory response to various calcium concentrations was investigated in 10- to 12-week old male lean and obese Zucker rats using an in vitro pancreatic perfusion procedure. There was no significant difference in insulin secretion response to low, medium, and high calcium concentrations in the lean rat. However, the obese rat shows a characteristics of hypersecretion of insulin. The obese rat pancreas perfused with the low calcium concentration released as low insulin as the lean rat. When perfused with the medium calcium concentration, th obese rat pancreas released twice as much insulin as the lean rat. eh hypersecretory phenomenon was also seen in the obese rat pancreas perfused with the high calcium concentration during the first phase of erfusion period, but his phenomenon was gradually diminished during he second phase of perfusion period. These results indicate that there may be a selective insulin secretory response to the extracellular calcium in he obese Zucker rat pancreas.

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Decreased Voltage Dependent $K^+$ Currents in Cerebral Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells of One-Kidney, One-Clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Rat

  • Oh, Young-Sun;Kim, Se-Hoon;Kim, Hoe-Suk;Jeon, Byeong-Hwa;Chang, Seok-Jong;Kim, Kwang-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.5
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 1999
  • The Kv channel activity in vascular smooth muscle cell plays an important role in the regulation of membrane potential and blood vessel tone. It was postulated that increased blood vessel tone in hypertension was associated with alteration of Kv channel and membrane potential. Therefore, using whole cell mode of patch-clamp technique, the membrane potential and the 4-AP-sensitive Kv current in cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells were compared between normotensive rat and one-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rat (lK,lC-GBH rat). Cell capacitance of hypertensive rat was similar to that of normotensive rat. Cell capacitance of normotensive rat and 1K,lC-GBH rat were $20.8{\pm}2.3$ and $19.5{\pm}1.4$ pF, respectively. The resting membrane potentials measured in current clamp mode from normotensive rat and 1K,lC-GBH rat were $-45.9{\pm}1.7$ and $-38.5{\pm}1.6$ mV, respectively. 4-AP (5 mM) caused the resting membrane potential hypopolarize but charybdotoxin $(0.1\;{\mu}M)$ did not cause any change of membrane potential. Component of 4-AP-sensitive Kv current was smaller in 1K,lC-GBH rat than in normotensive rat. The voltage dependence of steady-state activation and inactivation of Kv channel determined by using double-pulse protocol showed no significant difference. These results suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels playa major role in the regulation of membrane potential in cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells and alterations of 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels would contribute to hypopolarization of membrane potential in 1K,lC-GBH rat.

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Genetic Quality Control of the Rat Strains at the National Bio Resource Project-Rat

  • Kuramoto, Takashi;Nakanishi, Satoshi;Yamasaki, Ken-ichi;Kumafuji, Kenta;Sakakibara, Yuichi;Neoda, Yuki;Takizawa, Akiko;Kaneko, Takehito;Otsuki, Mito;Hashimoto, Ryoko;Voigt, Birger;Mashimo, Tomoji;Serikawa, Tadao
    • Interdisciplinary Bio Central
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.12.1-12.7
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    • 2010
  • The National Bio Resource Project-Rat (NBRP-Rat) comprises the largest bank of laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) strains in the world. Its main focus is to develop infrastructure that will facilitate the systematic collection, preservation, and provision of rat strains. To breed effectively more than 180 rat strains in living stock, we establish the genetic control system in which a systematic set of genetic diagnoses and genetic monitoring are included. Genetic monitoring is performed by using 20 polymorphic markers. Monitoring is carried out when a living animal stock is re-established by using cryopreserved embryos or sperm or when a rat strain is first introduced to the NBRP-Rat by a depositor. Additional monitoring is then carried out on each strain every two years. Genetic diagnosis is performed largely by employing the Amp-FTA method. Protocols which detail how to perform a genetic diagnosis of 11 transgenes and 24 mutations have been made. Among the mutations, nine can be detected by simple gel electrophoresis of the PCR products, 11 by restriction enzyme treatment of the PCR products, and four by direct PCR product sequencing. Using this genetic control system, the NBRP-Rat can guarantee the genetic quality of its rat strains.

Basic experimental research study on Rats in oriental medicine (한의학(韓醫學)에서의 Rat에 대한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究)를 위(爲)한 기초연구(基礎硏究)( I ))

  • Chi, Gyoo-Yong
    • Journal of The Association for Neo Medicine
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.15-30
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    • 1996
  • In the study about the logical basis and interpreting methods of animal experiments using rats in traditional medicine, several conclusions are obtained and summarized as following. 1. The logical basis of the animal experiments in traditional medicine is the essential homogeneity between human and rat defined as various transformation of one Qi(一氣) packed the cosmos. 2. Morphologically, the rat has abundant Yin(陰) and less Yang(陽) in most of anatomical characteristics. 3. Physiologically, the rat has unstable heart and mild temper with good fertility, which shows the features of Yin animal. 4. Pathologically, the rat shows the pathology of injury of viscera by stresses(氣激傷臟) and pathological transformations of internal water(痰飮水濕) mainly. 5. Constitutionally, the rat is alike to water type man(水形人) or Soeumin(小陰人) out of Yin Ren(陰人). 6. So, the rat is the proper experimental animal for diseases of sputum and water, emotional stimulations, endocrine system, heart, kidney, Yin syndrome(陰證) etc..

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Bombesin Immunorectivtiy in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Rat and Mongolian Gerbil after Colchicine Treatment (Colchicine 투여 후 흰쥐와 모래쥐 시각교차위핵내 bombesin에 대한 면역조직화반응)

  • Kim Jin-Sang;Yi Seong-Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the bombesin immunoreactivity in suprachiasmatic nucleus in rat and Mongolian gerbil hypothalamus after colchicine treatment and analyze the morphological difference between rat and Mongolian gerbil which is focused for experimental animal model of neuronal and circulatory diseases. The results were as followings. 1. The shape of suprachiasmatic nucleus was triangle in rat, but oval or kidney-shape in Mongolian gerbil 2. The suprachiasmatic nucleus devided into ventrolateral portion and dorsomedial portion in rat, but dorsolateral portion and ventromedial portion or superior portion and inferior portion in Mongolian gerbil. 3. The area of suprachiasmatic nucleus of rat was greater than one of Mongolian gerbil. 4. The bombesin immunoreactivity showed after colcichine treatment in rat and Mogolian gerbil suprachiasmatic nucleus. 5. The bombesin immunoreactivity was stronger in ventrolateral portion than in dorsomedial portion of suprachiasmatic nucleus in rat, but in ventromedial or inferior portion than in dorsolateral or superior portion of suprachiasmatic nucleus in Mongolian gerbil. 6. The bombesin immunoreactivity showed at the oval, ellipsoid or triangular neurons and varicose nerve terminals in ventrorateral portion of rat, and only nerve terminals in dorsomedial portion of rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. But the bombesin immunoreativity didn't show at neurons of Mongolian gerbil suprachiasmatic nucleus.

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Identification of Plant Factors Involving in Agrobacterium-mediated Plant Transformation

  • Nam, Jaesung
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.387-393
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    • 2000
  • The process by which Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetically transforms plants involves a complex series of reactions communicated between the pathogen and the plants. To identify plant factors involved in agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a large number of T-DNA inserted Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines were investigated for susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection by using an in vitro root inoculation assay. Based on the phenotype of tumorigenesis, twelve T-DNA inserted Arabidopsis mutants(rat) that were resistant to Agrobacterium transformation were found. Three mutants, rat1, rat3, and rat4 were characterized in detail. They showed low transient GUS activity and very low stable transformation efficiency compared to the wild-type plant. The resistance phenotype of rat1 and rats resulted from decreased attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to inoculated root explants. They may be deficient in plant actors that are necessary for bacterial attachment to plant cells. The disrupted genes in rat1, rat3, and rat4 mutants were coding a arabinogalactan protein, a likely cell wall protein and a cellulose synthase-like protein, respectively.

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