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Changes of Germination Rate of Pulses Seed Germplasm after Long-term Conservation

  • Baek, Hyung-jin;Lee, Young-yi;Jung, Yeon-ju;Yoon, Mun-seop
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.44-44
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    • 2018
  • The seeds of soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), mung bean (Vigna radiata), and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were examined the germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage ($-18^{\circ}C$) conservation. For soybean seeds, 2,313 accessions were examined and germination rate of 1,082 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 227 accessions of soybean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 589 accessions was increased and showed no change for 415 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage. For adzuki bean seeds, 2,058 accessions were examined and germination rate of 739 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 63 accessions of adzuki bean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 535 accessions was increased and showed no change for 721 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage. For mung bean seeds, 438 accessions were examined and germination rate of 139 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 5 accessions of mung bean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 155 accessions was increased and showed no change for 139 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage. For kdney bean seeds, 366 accessions were examined and germination rate of 7 accessions was decreased with below 15% of initial germination rate. For 65 accessions of kidney bean, germination rate was decreased with above 15% of initial germination rate after 10 years of long-term storage, which is needed to be rejuvenated. Germination rate of 201 accessions was increased and showed no change for 93 accessions after 10 years of long-term storage.

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The Study of the Caries Experience of Korean Mental Disorders (정신장애자의 치아우식병역학적 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Kyu
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 1979
  • The author, through oral examination, had surveyed the caries experienced teeth in 250 Korean mental Disorders(153 males and 97 fameles) who took it a rule consume a Vegetable diet and had litte chance to Consume refimed Corbohydrates, unlike the Common populars. DMF rate DMFT rate index DT rate MT rate and FT rate had been calculated and Compared with Common Popular's in same ages group. Following are the obtained results 1. In the mental Disorders, Caries experience rate was 52.19% 2. D.M.F. rate and index were lower in the females than in the males 3. The Caries experience rate in the mental Disorders was lower than in the Common Populars 4. In the mental Disorders the F.T. rate was higher in females than in males D.T. rate higher in males than in females and MT rate, lower in males than in females 5. In generally D.T. rate in the mental Disorders was lower than in Controls, M.T. rate resembled as Controls and F.T. rate higher

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Improvement of Bit Rate applying the Speaking Rate and PSOLA Technique of Speech in CELP Vocoder (음성신호의 발성율과 PSOLA기법을 적용한 음성 보코더 전송률 개선에 관한 연구)

  • 장경아;서지호;배명진
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.45-48
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    • 2003
  • In general, speech coding methods are classified into the following three categories: the waveform coding, the source coding and the hybrid coding. Fast speaking is possible to encode with a few information compared with slow speaking rate. In case of speaking rate, low frequency band is more important than high frequency band while listening. Speech vocoding technique is developing to way with low bit rate and complexity and high sound quality. the CELP type of vocoder support very good sound quality with low bit rate but these vocoders don't consider about the speaking rate. When we consider speaking rate and encode the frame depending on the speaking rate, the bit rate is able to reduce the bit rate than the conventional vocoder. We propose the technique to estimate the speaking rate and applied PSOLA technique in case of the frame of slow speaking rate. As a result of simulation bit rate can be reduced about 300 bps.

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Implementation of Dual Rate G.723 ADPCM Speech codec (16Kbps와 40Kbps의 Dual Rate G.723 ADPCM 음성 codec 구현)

  • Kim, Jae-Ohe;Han, Kyong-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2480-2482
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    • 1998
  • In this paper, the implementation of dual rate ADPCM using G.723 16Kbps and 40Kbps speech codec algorithm is handled. For small signals, the low rate 16Kbps coding algorithm shows the same SNR as the high rate 40Kbps coding algorithm, while the low rate 16Kbps coding algorithm shows the lower SNR than the high rate 40Kbps coding algorithm for large signal. To obtain the good trade-off between the data rate and synthesized speech quality, we applied low rate 16Kbps for the small signal and high rate 40Kbps for the large signal. Various threshold values determining the rate are tested for good trade off data rate and speech quality. Also the low pass filter effect of speech input and output devices is simulated at several cut-off frequencies. To simulation result shows the good speech quality at a low rate comparing with 16Kbps & 40Kbps.

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Effects of Bio-diesel blending rate on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Common Rail Diesel Engine with EGR rate (커먼레일식 디젤기관의 EGR율과 바이오디젤 혼합율에 따른 연소 및 배기 특성)

  • Yoon, Sam-Ki;Choi, Nag-Jung
    • Journal of the Korea Society For Power System Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.5-11
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the specific characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions on a 4-cylinder common rail diesel engine as EGR rate and the rate of blended bio-diesel was altered. Bio-diesel fuel which is a sort of alternative fuels can be adapted to diesel engine directly without modifying. This study was performed to 2000rpm of engine speed with torque 30Nm while EGR rate and the rate of blended bio-diesel was changed. Decreasing combustion pressure and increasing the rate of heat were occurred when we had changed the EGR rate on the 20% of bio-diesel blended diesel fuel. The maximum pressure of combustion and the IMEP became higher as the EGR rate and the rate of blended bio-diesel were changed. Exhaust gas temperature was increased the higher rate of the blended bio-diesel under the fixed EGR rate. However, it went down as the EGR rate increased. The amounts of CO and Soot were reduced with increasing the rate of the blended bio-diesel without changing EGR rate and raised with increasing of the EGR rate. On the fixed EGR rate, NOx was increased along with growing the rate of the bio-diesel. On the other hand, it was decreased while EGR rate were going up.

Portion Control by Analyzing Kimchi Intake Rate on the School Lunch Program Menu (학교급식에서의 메뉴 구성에 따른 김치 섭취율 조사를 통한 김치의 1인분량 설정에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Myung-Sook;Lee, Se-Ra;Lee, Jin-Mee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.521-534
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    • 2006
  • The Kimchi intake of elementary students in both school and home is decreasing due to their westernized eating habits which have been affected by the rapid economic growth and industrialization in our modem society. The purposes of this study were to examine the influence of menu selections on the Kimchi intake rate and to provide basic data for an appropriate Kimchi serving size to reduce the plate-waste rate. The results showed that the average daily intake rate of Kimchi of low-grade students was 58.2%, equating to 6${\sim}$18 g, compared to 64.6% for high-grade students, equivalent to 13${\sim}$24 g. Correlation analysis of the intake rate of menu items and Kimchi showed that the Kimchi intake rate increased with increasing total meal intake rate, rice intake rate, soup intake rate, rice mixed with grains intake rate, clear soup intake rate and soybean-paste soup intake rate, but that it decreased as the intake rate of seasoned uncooked vegetables of high-grade students increased. This study is expected to be utilized as a solution to increase the Kimchi intake rate of elementary school students, and also to determine the proper serving size per person on the menu items by grade.

Speech rate in Korean across region, gender and generation (한국어 발화 속도의 지역, 성별, 세대에 따른 특징 연구)

  • Lee, Nara;Shin, Jiyoung;Yoo, Doyoung;Kim, KyungWha
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.27-39
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    • 2017
  • This paper deals with how speech rate in Korean is affected by the sociolinguistic factors such as region, gender and generation. Speech rate was quantified as articulation rate (excluding physical pauses) and speaking rate (including physical pauses), both expressed as the number of syllables per second (sps). Other acoustic measures such as pause frequency and duration were also examined. Four hundred twelve subjects were chosen from Korean Standard Speech Database considering their age, gender and region. The result shows that generation has a significant effect on both speaking rate and articulation rate. Younger speakers produce their speech with significantly faster speaking rate and articulation rate than older speakers. Mean duration of total pause interval and the total number of pause of older speakers are also significantly different to those of younger speakers. Gender has a significant effect only on articulation rate, which means male speakers' speech rate is characterized by faster articulation rate, longer and more frequent pauses. Finally, region has no effect both on speaking and articulation rates.

Improved H.263+ Rate Control via Variable Frame Rate Adjustment and Hybrid I-frame Coding

  • 송환준
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.25 no.5A
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    • pp.726-742
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    • 2000
  • A novel rte control algorithm consisting of two major components, i.e. a variable encoding frame rate method and a hybrid DCT/wavelet I-frame coding scheme, is proposed in this work for low bit rate video coding. Most existing rate control algorithms for low bit rate video focus on bit allocation at the macroblock level under a constant frame rate assumption. The proposed rate control algorithm is able to adjust the encoding frame rate at the expense of tolerable time-delay. Furthermore, an R-D optimized hybrid DCT/wavelet scheme is used for effective I-frame coding. The new rate-control algorithm attempts to achieve a good balance between spatial quality and temporal quality to enhance the overall human perceptual quality at low bit rates. It is demonstrated that the rate control algorithm achieves higher coding efficiency at low bit rates with a low additional computational cost. The variable frame rate method and hybrid I-frame coding scheme are compatible with the bi stream structure of H.263+.

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On a Study of Measurement Method of Utterance Velocity for the Reduction of Transmission Rate in CELP Vocoder. (LSP 파라미터를 이용한 발성측정법)

  • 장경아;배명진
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.199-202
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    • 2000
  • Speaking Rate has variety depends on the situation and habit of speakers. It has been many studied about speaking rate In speaker recognition. The study of speaking rate in speech recognition is one of considerable matter when It is recognized the speakers and it is measured by many speech data base and complicate estimation for accuracy. In this paper, conventional vocoder process the speech signal when encoding and transmitting without regard to speaking rate so in order to apply the speaking rate for vocoder It should be considered the simpler algorithm and less computation amount than the conventional method of speaking rate used In speech recognition. We proposed the speaking rate algorithm which is used the simple parameter with Line Spectrum Pair (LSP). The proposed peaking rate method is measured by the information of LSP in speech. We measured the variety rate of phenomenon about utterances which have different velocity, respectively. As a result, It has distinct variation rate of phenomenon between utterances uttered fast and slow and the rate is 42.8% higher in case of uttered fast than in case of uttered slow.

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A Comparative Analysis of Failure Rate, Effective Failure Rate and Equivalent Failure Rate of A System Composed of Identical Parallel Units (병렬구조 시스템의 고장률, 유효(有效) 고장률과 대등(對等) 고장률의 비교분석)

  • Cho, Kyung-Hwan
    • Journal of Applied Reliability
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this paper is to present some issues to be discussed in relation to failure rate of a system that has identical parallel units. It is assumed that Time-to-Failure of each unit has the same exponential distribution and all units are repairable with a periodic maintenance of time interval T. Effective failure rate is widely recommended for nonrepairable systems as the reciprocal of MTTF but it should not be applied for repairable systems if delayed maintenance is used. And equivalent failure rate of an imaginary system is taken into consideration, the reliability value of which is the same as that of the redundant system when time interval T is given. With a numerical example, failure rate, effective failure rate, and equivalent failure rate of the redundant system are analyzed comparatively.