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Effect of Calcium and Iron Loading on Bioavailability of Minerals in Normal and Ca/Fe-deficient Rats (칼슘과 철의 과다섭가 성장기 흰쥐의 체내 무기질 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이연숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.248-258
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    • 1999
  • This study examined the effect of excess loading of calcium (Ca)and iron(Fe) on the bioavailability of minerals in both normal and Ca-and Fe-deficient rats. Three-week-old male rats were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets for six weeks, containing either normal (0.5%) or high(1.5%) Ca and normal (35ppm) or high (350ppm)Fe. Likewise, three-week-old male rats were first fed a Ca-and Fe-deficient diet for three weeks, and then fed one of four experimental diets for additional three weeks. In both normal and Ca-and Fe-deficient rats, ca contents of serum, liver, kidney and femur were not significantly affected by dietary Ca and Fe levels. Apparent Ca absorption(%) decreased in rats fed a high Ca diet regardless of dietary Fe levels. Magnesium(Mg) contents of serum, liver and femur significantly decreased in rats fed a high Ca diet. Fe contents of serum and liver significantly increased in rats fed a high-Fe diet, but decreased in rats fed a high Ca diet. Fe content of serum and liver significantly increased in rate fed a high-Fe diet, decreased in rats fed a high-Ca diet. Apparent Fe absorption increased in rats fed a high-Fe diet, and decreased in rats fed a high-Ca diet in Ca-and Fe-deficient rats, but dietary Ca did not seem to affect Fe absorption in normal rats. Phosphorus(P) contents of serum and femur were not significantly affected by dietary Ca and Fe levels in both normal and Ca-and Fe-deficient rats. Serum copper(Cu) decreased in rats fed a high-Fe diet, while serum zinc(Zn) decreased in rats fed a high-Ca diet in normal rats. Cu contents of liver, and Zn contents of serum and liver decreased in rats fed a high-Fe diet in Ca-and Fe-deficient rats. There results suggest that a dietary overload of Ca and Fe in both normal and Ca-and Fe-deficient rats may decrease mineral bioavailability leading to potential health problems.

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Effects of Dokwhalgisaentang on the Blood in Rats (독활기생탕(獨活寄生湯)이 백서(白鼠)의 혈액(血液)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Hui-Cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 1995
  • In order to study the effect of Dokwhalgisaentang on the blood in normal rats with Dokwhalgisaentang extract solution was adminstrated in rats. The rats carried on every day for 5days, l0days and 15days respecitively on the corresponding blood in rats, and thereafter the contents of serum BUN, creatinine, creatine, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, cholesterol were measured in rats. The following results have been obtained : 1. Dokwhalgisaentang extract decreased the serum BUN significantly in rats. 2. Dokwhalgisaentang extract decreased the serum creatine significantly in rats. 3. Dokwhalgisaentang extract decreased the serum creatinine significantly in rats. 4. Dokwhalgisaentang extract decreased the serum total protein significantly in rats. 5. Dokwhalgisaentang extract decreased the serum albumin significantly in rats. 6. Dokwhalgisaentang extract increased the serum total bilirubin significantly in rats. 7. Dokwhalgisaentang extract decreased the serum cholresterol significantly in rats.

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The Effect of Vitamin {TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} Deficiency and Age on Plasma Cholesterol Profile in Intensely Exercised Rats

  • Cho, Youn-Ok
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitamin {TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} deficiency and age affect the blood cho-lesterol profile in exercising rats. Fifty four rats were fed either a viramin {TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} deficient dief(-{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX}) of a control diet(+{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX}) for 6 weeks, then subdivided into 3 groups:non-exercise group(NE), exercise and sacrifice group(ES), exercise and recuperation group(ER). ES group was exercised in treadmill({TEX}$10^{o}${/TEX}, 0.5~0.8km/h) for 2 hours and sacrifice. ER group was recuperated three days with respective diet after exercise. At week 3 and 6, and level of plasma total cholesterol(TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL_C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL_C) were compared. In NE group, there was no difference in the levels of TC, HDL_C and LDL_C between +{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats and -{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats. The plasma levels of TC and LDL_C of 6 weeks were higher than those of 3 weeks and on difference in HDL_V between 3 weeks rats and 6 weeks rats. In ES group, there was also no difference in the levels of TC, HDL_C and LDL_C between +{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats and -{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats and there was no difference in TC, LDL-cholesterol between 3 weeks rats and 6 weeks rats. The level of HDL_C pf 6 weeks was lower than that of 3 weeks rats. In ER group, there was no difference in the levels of TC and LDL_C not only between +{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats and-{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats but also between 3 weeks rats and 6 weeks rats. The level of HDL_C was lower in -{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats than in +{TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} rats and higher in 6 weeks rats than in 3 weeks rats. These results suggest that vitamin {TEX}$B_{6}${/TEX} deficiency may affect the HDL_C during exercise and after recuperation. The desirable effect of exercise on plasma Cholesterol profile is strengthened in adult age than young age.

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Effects of Green Tea Powder Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes (녹차가루 식이가 당뇨쥐의 혈당 및 혈중 지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Mi-Ja;Kim, Sun-Hwa
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.46-53
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    • 2010
  • The study examined the effects of dietary green tea powder supplementation on blood glucose, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations in diabetic rats. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight $200{\pm}5\;g$) were divided into two groups (diabetic and non-diabetic), which were each randomly divided into two subgroups that were fed a control and 1% green tea powder-supplemented diet. Serum and liver lipid concentrations were measured by established techniques. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated from an established equation. Body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio were lower in diabetic rats than in non-diabetic rats regardless of diet. There were no differences in weight gain in diabetic and non-diabetic rats consuming the control and green tea powder-supplemented diets. The levels of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and atherogenic index of diabetic rats were significantly higher than that of non-diabetic rats. Conversely, the levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) of diabetic rats was significantly lower than that of non-diabetic rats. Fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and atherogenic index were significantly lower in diabetic rats fed the green tea powder diet than in rats fed the control diet, and HDL-C was significantly higher in rats fed the green tea powder diet than in rats fed the control diet. The content of liver total cholesterol and triglyceride of diabetic rats were significantly higher than that of non-diabetic rats. Liver total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in diabetic rats fed green tea powder-supplemented diet than in rats fed the control diet. It is concluded that green tea powder supplementation positively influences blood glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. The present study, although not directly applicable to humans, may have some implications for individuals who habitually consume green tea powder.

Effect of Aging on the Xylene Metabolism in $CCl_4$-Induced Liver Damaged Rats

  • Kim, Hyun-Hee;Yoon, Chong-Guk
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2001
  • To investigate an effect of aging on the xylene metabolism in liver damaged animals, a study was conducted. 50% carbon tetrachloride ($CCl_4$) in olive oil (0.1 ml/100 g body weight) was intraperitoneally given to 5-week and 12-week rats 12 times every other day and then one dose of 50% xylene in olive oil (0.25 ml/100 g body weight) was intraperitoneally given to the rats, and after 24 hr, the animals were sacrificed. On the basis of the functional findings in rat liver, ie, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase activity, liver protein and malonedialdehyde contents, 5-week rats showed less liver damage than 12-week rats. The increasing rate of urinary methylhippuric acid concentration to the control was significantly higher in 5-week rats than 12-week rats in case of xylene treatment after induction of liver damage. On the other hand, liver damaged 5-week rats showed significant rise of hepatic cytochrome P45O content compared with the liver damaged 12-week rats by the xylene treatment. And increasing rate of hepatic alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenase activities to each liver damaged animals was higher tendency in 5-week rats than 12-week rats by the xylene treatment. In conclusion, 5-week rat showed greater metabolic rate of xylene than 10-week rats in case of liver injury because 5-week rats led to a slight liver damaged compared with 12-week rats.

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Gender Difference in the Effects of Gonadectomy and Hypercholesterol Diet on Plasma and Liver Cholesterol and Triglyceride bevels, Platelet Aggregation and Liver Tissue in Sprague Dawley Rats (성소의 제거와 고콜레스테롤 식이 급여가 흰쥐의 혈장과 간의 콜레스테롤, 중성지방 수준과 혈소판 응집성 및 간 조직에 미치는 영향에 있어서 암.수의 차이)

  • 오인숙;강정애;강정숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.12-23
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    • 2002
  • Gender differences in the effects of gonadectomy and high cholesterol diet on body weight and body cholesterol were investigated by using Sprague Dawley rats. Body weight, plasma and liver levels of cholesterol and triglyceride and platelet aggregation were examined in ovariectomized(OVX) or orchidectomized(ODX) rats with their intacts after feeding diet with or without 0.5% cholesterol. Body weight was significantly increased(p < 0.01) in OVX rats and significantly decreased(p < 0.01) in ODX rats compared to their respective intact rats, and cholesterol diet significantly(p < 0.05) decreased body weight in gonadectomized rats. Liver lobes from rats fed cholesterol diet were opaque and larger than those from rats find control dict, resulting in a significant increase(p < 0.01) in LW/BW ratio. Plasma and liver levels of total cholesterol were significantly increased (p < 0.01) in female rats regardless ovariectomy when find 0.5% cholesterol diet, but those levels in male rats were increased only when they were orchidectomized(p < 0.0l). Plasma HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased(p < 0.05) in both sexes when find cholesterol diet. HDL-cholesterol were higher in female than male rats regardless treatments(p < 0.05). Liver triglyceride was significantly increased(p < 0.05) in both sexes when find cholesterol dict. Plasma level of triglyceride was not different among groups except significant decrease(p < 0.05) in cholesterol find ODX rats. Maximum platelet aggregation in female rats was significantly lower(p < 0.05) than male, but ovariectomy and cholesterol diet caused an increase te the level of male rats. Microscopic examination showed cholesterol diet caused a lipid accumulation in liver. Results indicate that intact female rats have higher response to hypercholestcrolemic diet than intact male rats and orchidectomy causes male rats more responsive to hypercholesterolemic diet. However, ovariectomy causes an increase female food efficiency ratio to the level of male rats, significantly increasing body weight.

Effect of Age on Liquid Metabolism in Rats Fed Diets with Different Fat Lieval and in Meal Fed Rats (나이가 다른 흰쥐에서 식이내 지방수준과 식이횟수가 체내 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 정호영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 1986
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of age on the lipid metabolism in the rats fed different diets. In experiment A male Wistar rats of 5 weeks of age and of 32 weeks of age were divided into low fat diet groups and high fat-cholesterol groups. The rats were sacrificed 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after experiment begins. Also after 4 weeks. the rats in low and high fat diet groups were tube-fed 500mg of choelsterol and were sacrified 3 days later. In experiment b, male Wistar rats of 4 weeks of age and of 6 months of age were divided into 2 groups of butter and cron oil groups. And then eachgroup were divided into 2 subgroups ; meal feeding and nibbling groups . Each diet was fed for 4 weeks. In experiment A, age of the rats and experimental diets did not affect the serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were higher in rats fed high fat cholesterol diet than in those fed low-fat or high -fat diets, but age of the animals had no effect on liver lipid content. The weight and cholesterol content of epidymal fat pad, however were higher in adult rats than in young ones regardless of the diets fed. When the rats were challenged with 500mg cholesterol, the rates of increase in serum and hepatic cholesterol level were higher in adult rats compared to young rats regardless of the diets . On the other hand, the rate of increase of small intestinal cholesterol content was lower in adult rats than in young rats. In experiment B, serum cholesterol and triglyceride content were relatively higher in young rats than adult ones. Stored body lipid was higher in adult rats, as judged by epididymal fat pad weight and total carcass lipid. Meal frequency and the kinds of fat in the diet did not affect the serum choelstero concentration . The serum triglyceride levels. however, was higher in butter fed rats thancron oil fed ones. The cholesterol content of live rand epididymal fat pad was lower in butter fed groups than corn oil groups for both young and adult rats, but there was no difference in liver triglycerides livel.

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Effects of Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) on Obesity and Lipid Metabolism In Rats with High Fat Diet (삼정환(三精丸)이 고지방(高脂肪) 식이(食餌) 흰 쥐의 비만에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyung;Kim, Geun-Woo;Koo, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : This study was performed to show the effects of Samjung-hwan ($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract on obesity and lipid metabolism of rats fed high fat diet. Methods : Crushed Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) 245 g was extracted with methyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 21.8 g. 20 rats were divided into normal, control, and two test groups. For 6 weeks, The normal group rats were supplied with a normal diet. The control group rats were supplied with a high fat diet. The test group 1 rats were supplied with a high fat diet and Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract 250 rug/kg and the test group 2 rats were supplied witha high fat diet and Samjunghwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract 500 mg/kg. Results : 1) The control group rats showed significantly increased weight of peritoneal fat than the nornal group rats. The test group 1 rats did not show significant difference compare to the control group rats, and the test group 2 rats showed significantly decreased weight of peritoneal fat than the control group rats. 2) The control group rats showed significantly increased triglyceride than the nornal group rats. The test group 1 rats showed significantly decreased triglyceride than the control group rats, and the test group 2 rats showed significantly decreased triglyceride than the control group rats. 3) The control group rats showed significantly increased LDL-cholesterol than the nornal group rats. The test group 1 rats showed significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol than the control group rats, and the test group 2 rats did not show significant difference compare to the control group rats. Conclusions : These results suggest that effectiveness of Samjung-hwan($S{\={a}}nj{\={i}}ngw{\'{a}}n$) extract to control the obesity and abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet.

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Fermented Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) Effects on Hypolipidemia and Hepatoprotection in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) Rats

  • Cha, Jae-Young;Jun, Bang-Sil;Yoo, Ki-Soo;Hahm, Jong-Ryeal;Cho, Young-Su
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.122-127
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    • 2006
  • The effects of fermented chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) powder on the lipid concentrations and the activities of liver marker enzymes of serum in genetically diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were investigated. Rats were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 50 g/kg chaga mushroom powder (CM) or 50 g/kg fermented chaga mushroom powder (FCM) for 8 weeks (26 to 34 weeks of age). Nondiabetic Long-Evans Toknshima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as age-matched nondiabetic control animals. Water consumption was significantly higher in the OLETF control than the LETO rats. Water consumption in the FCM-fed OLETF rats tended to be less than in both the OLETF control and CM-fed OLETF rats. Serum concentrations of triglycerides and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the OLETF control rats than in the LETO rats while within the OLETF rat groups, the consumption of FCM resulted in a significantly lower serum triglyceride concentration and slightly lowered serum total cholesterol concentration when compared to the OLETF control and CM-fed rats. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was significantly higher in the OLETF control than in the LETO rats, but this difference was significantly reduced compared to the CM-fed rats and essentially no difference in the ALT levels was observed between the LETO and OLETF-FCM rats. This observation suggests an adaptive effect of the fermented chaga mushroom in liver function. Livers of the LETO rats showed no histopathological changes, whereas those of the OLETF control rats were characterized by many fat depositions in the central zone of the hepatocytes. The livers of the OLETF CM-fed rats showed less fatty changes compared to the OLETF control rats and fat deposition in the hepatocytes was nearly absent. These results suggest that orally ingested fermented chaga mushroom has a potential beneficial effect on the complications known to occur in the obesity-related non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM) OLETF rat.

Effects of Buckwheat on the Insulin Sensitivity, Protein Digestibility and Utility in Diabetic Rats

  • Park, Hyun-Ju;Lee, Kyung-Hea
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.356-361
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    • 1998
  • An experiment was performed to determine if buckwheat intake would improve insulin sensitivity in in normal healthy ras and steptozoticin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dauley rats. For four weeks, rats were fed either corn starch as a cotnrol diet or buckwheat as an experimental diet. As a result, the insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose levels in normal rats were not significantly affected by buckwheat fedding. The insulin sensitivity was lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats(p<0.05). Buckwheat tends to decrease the final plasma glucose level and increase insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, but there was no sifnificant difference. Another five-week experiment was conducted to determine protein digestibility and protein utility in normal healty rats ad streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on a control diet or buckwheat diet. The diet composition in this experiment was the same as the preceeding experiment. In the cotnrol diet groups, the protein digestibility in diabetic rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats(p<0.05). Buckwheat reduced protein digestibility in both normal and disbetic rats(p<0.05). Interestingly, in buckwheat diet groups, protei digestibility in diabetic rats was similar to that in normal rats. Protein utility was significantly lower indiabetic rats than in normal rats. This phenomenon was observed as early as the first week of the feeding period. However, protein utility was not sifnificanlty altered in both normal and diabetic rats by buckwheat feeding. It follows that decreased protein digestibility and utility in diabetic rts are not further aggravated by buckwheat feeding, suggesting that buckwheat can be a feasible supplement food for the diabetic therapeutic diet.

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