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Dairy Industry Situation in Hokkaido, Japan (Sanitary Quality of Raw Milk) (일본 북해도의 낙농 ${\cdot}$ 유업현항 (위생적 유질을 중심으로))

  • Jeong, Chung-ll
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 1997
  • Hokkaido, as center of Japanese dairying, 3.48 million tons of raw milk which was about 40% of total production in Japan were produced from 11,400 farms in 1996. The average herd size and the annual volume of milking per head in Hokkaido were 78 head, 7,200kg, and the quality of raw milk also is much better than that of other area in Japan. Raw milk having less than 100,000/ml in viable count and less than 300,000/ml of somatic cell count were 99.6%, 93% respectively. In spite of producing large amount of high quality milk, only 26% of total amount was processed as market milk and 76% was used for making dairy products like butter, cheese and milk powder. Therefore, because of big difference in price between the raw milk for market milk and for dairy products. the income of dairy farms are much less comparing to other parts of Japan, where most of the raw milk are consumed as market milk.

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Changes of the Chemical and Microbiological Quality in Milk from Jeju-Do after Raw Milk Grading System (등급제 실시 이후 제주산 원유의 품질 변화)

  • Lee, Hyun-Jong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was performed to identify the improvement of raw milk quality after introducing raw milk grading system(1993, June). The purpose of this experiment was to investigate chemical component and microbiological quality of raw milk in jeju. This experiment made it possible to spread high standard of quality of raw milk or milk product including yoghurt, ice cream etc., and to provide dairy industry information for the construction of Jeju international free city master plan. As a result, automatic milking system is improved a lot after introducing raw milk grading system and sustained good condition compared with other provinces. High ratio was shown dairy farm in jeju for pre-milking, pre-cooling system equipment and self laboring. Otherwise, the ratio of dairy farm doing test of mastitis is low. The ratio of first grade distribution in Jeju is 80.64%, which means that was improved before introducing raw milk grading system. The number of somatic cells found in summer more than that of other seasons in raw milk. However, these data is a little higher than the nation wide data medium. Also, general components, annual lipid ratio is 3.90% that improved compared with before introducing raw milk grading system. These data showed low in summer and similar to nation wide.

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A Study on the Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk in the North of Kyeongnam Area (경남 북부지역 납유원유의 미생물학적 품질에 관한 연구)

  • 이국천;손성기;안동원
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1990
  • This study was carried out to obtain basic data for the Improvement of microbiological quality of raw milk. Total bacterial, psychrotrophic, thermoduric and spore counts of raw milk samples taken from milk tankers in the nothern part of kyeongnam were investigated for one year from March, 1989. The result obtained were summarized as follow 1. The number of total bacteria in raw milk averaged $4.0{\times}10^6$ CFU / ml and was not affected by seasons 2. The psychrotrophic counts of raw milk averaged $1.5{\times}10^6$ CFU / ml and it was higher in winter than in summer 3. The thermoduric counts of raw milk averaged $5.8{\times}10^4$ CFU / ml and was the lowest in winter 4. The spore counts of raw milk ranging from 3-1, 880/ ml averaged 306/ ml and was the lowest in summer

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Fundamental Studies on the Food Sanitation for Raw Milk in Korea (국내산 원유에 대한 식품위생학적 연구)

  • 이원창;이상목;추범수;용준환
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 1986
  • Sanitary condition for raw milk in Korea was investigated in this study. It is hoped that the information will be used for reference in future endeavors of study in the field of public health and food sanitation in Korea. The results were summerized as follows: 1) The viable cell counts of bacteria in raw milk were tend to be increased under the various atmospheric temperature, and the correlation coefficient between temperature and total viable cells was r=+0.921(p<0.01). 2) The correlation coefficient between methylene blue reduction time test and viable cell counts of bacteria in raw milk was r=-0.799(p<0.01). 3) The relationship between total solid rate(%) and milk fat rate(%) was highly significant level as r=+0.745(p<0.01). 4) Highly significant correlation coefficient was r= +0.945(p<0.01) between milk fat and protein rate in raw milk.

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Current Issues on the Free Trade System for Dairy Industry (수입자유화와 낙농에 관한 소고)

  • Lee, Man-Jae
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.43-56
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    • 1996
  • The world dairy industry has been driving their dairy policy on the basis of the self-supportihg principle. With progressing the GATT negotiation, the objective production amount has been reduced to maintain the optimum level, which decreasing the extra supply and over-stock before the U.R talks. The Oceania countries, where has the price competition capability, are continually increasing the milk production amount. Even through the USA is trying to increase their production amount with new export policy, the U.S.S.R collapse-down caused to decrease the milk production in world-wide basis. Because the U.S.S.R produced the highest amount of milk in the world. Moreover Europe Union countries, which recorded the half amount of dairy products in the world was decreasing their milk production. Therefore, about 4% of shortage is encountering at major dairy production countries in the standpoint of supply and demand. The drastic increasement of foreign dairy product import affects the domestic dairy industry with raw milk replacement and new dairy food demands creation since 1995, the initial period of free import system. Now, the domestic dairy industry are facing the inevitable problems such as the correction of producting and processing system. First of all, our dairy industry should resettle down the dairy production structure on the basis of self-supply of raw milk and offer the accurate dairy food informations. We still need to improve the raw milk quality. Also, more efforts are needed to have proper raw milk price policy. General domestic policies including the settlement of raw milk supply and demand, the reliability of inspection system in raw milk, ideal raw milk price system, centralization of raw milk collection, specially separated dairy organization should be improved legally in our dairy industry.

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Effects of Heat Treatment on the Nutritional Quality of Milk: II. Destruction of Microorganisms in Milk by Heat Treatment (우유의 열처리가 우유품질과 영양가에 미치는 영향: II. 열처리에 의한 우유의 미생물 사멸효과)

  • Kim, Kwang-Hyun;Park, Dae Eun;Oh, Sejong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.55-72
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    • 2017
  • The second article of 'Effects of heat treatment on the nutritional quality of milk,' titled 'Destruction of microorganisms in milk by heat treatment' and authored by Dr. Seong Kwan Cha, who worked at the Korea Food Research Institute, covers the heat-stable microorganisms that exist in milk after pasteurization. The article focusses on the microbiological quality of raw milk and market milk following heat treatment, and is divided into four sub-topics: microbiological quality of raw milk, survey and measurement of microorganisms killed in raw milk, effect on psychrophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, and effect of heat treatment methods on thermoduric microorganisms. Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. are sporeforming gram-positive organisms commonly found in soil, vegetables, grains, and raw and pasteurized milk that can survive most food processing methods. Since spores cannot be inactivated by LTLT (low temperature long time) or HTST (high temperature short time) milk pasteurization methods, they are often responsible for food poisoning. However, UHT (ultra high temperature) processing completely kills the spores in raw milk by heating it to temperatures above $130^{\circ}C$ for a few seconds, and thus, the UHT method is popularly used for milk processing worldwide.

A Price System of Raw Milk for Increasing Competitive Power of Korean Dairy Industry (낙농 산업 경쟁력 제고를 위한 원유 가격 제도 개선 방향)

  • Jang, Jong-Geun
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2006
  • Producer prices of raw milk include following elements: a basic price, payment according to fat content, payment according to bacteriological quality and somatic cell count. The quality of raw milk has increased since last change of payment system according somatic cell count. But last change of payment system according to fat content is not effective. It is necessary to widen the range of equal price by fat content. Also it is necessary to include payment according to protein content.

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Quantitative Detection of Cow Milk in Goat Milk Mixtures by Real-Time PCR

  • Jung, Yu-Kyung;Jhon, Deok-Young;Kim, Kang-Hwa;Hong, Youn-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to develop a fluorogenic real-time PCR-based assay for detecting and quantifying amounts of cow milk in cow/goat milk mixtures or goat milk products. In order to quantify the exact amount of cow milk in cow/goat raw milk mixtures and commercial goat milk products, it was necessary to achieve quantitative extraction of total genomic DNA from the raw milk matrix. Both mammalian-specific PCR and cow-specific PCR were performed. A cow-specific 252 bp band obtained from the raw cow milk and raw goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified, along with the relationship between the cow milk amount and band intensity of the electrophoresis image. The detection threshold was found to be 0.1%. The expression of cow's 12S rRNA in the cow/goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified. The expression quantity of the milk 12S rRNA increased with increasing ratios of the cow/goat milk mixtures. Using these calibrated relative expression levels as a standard curve in the cow/goat raw milk mixtures, the contents of cow milk were 1.8% in the commercial goat milk, 9.6% in goat milk powder A, and 11.6% in goat milk powder C. However, cow milk was not detected in goat milk powder B.

Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in raw milk produced in different regions of Korea

  • Kim, In Seon;Hur, Yoo Kyung;Kim, Eun Ji;Ahn, Young-Tae;Kim, Jong Geun;Choi, Yun-Jaie;Huh, Chul Sung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1643-1650
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The control of psychrotrophic bacteria causing milk spoilage and illness due to toxic compounds is an important issue in the dairy industry. In South Korea, Gangwon-do province is one of the coldest terrains in which eighty percent of the area is mountainous regions, and mainly plays an important role in the agriculture and dairy industries. The purposes of this study were to analyze the indigenous microbiota of raw milk in Gangwon-do and accurately investigate a putative microbial group causing deterioration in milk quality. Methods: We collected raw milk from the bulk tank of 18 dairy farms in the Hoengseong and Pyeongchang regions of Gangwon-do. Milk components were analyzed and the number of viable bacteria was confirmed. The V3 and V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced on an Illumina Miseq platform. Sequences were then assigned to operational taxonomic units, followed by the selection of representative sequences using the QIIME software package. Results: The milk samples from Pyeongchang were higher in fat, protein, lactose, total solid, and solid non-fat, and bacterial cell counts were observed only for the Hoengseong samples. The phylum Proteobacteria was detected most frequently in both the Hoengseong and Pyeongchang samples, followed by the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Notably, Corynebacterium, Pediococcus, Macrococcus, and Acinetobacter were significantly different from two regions. Conclusion: Although the predominant phylum in raw milk is same, the abundances of major genera in milk samples were different between Hoengseong and Pyeongchang. We assumed that these differences are caused by regional dissimilar farming environments such as soil, forage, and dairy farming equipment so that the quality of milk raw milk from Pyeongchang is higher than that of Hoengseong. These results could provide the crucial information for identifying the microbiota in raw milk of South Korea.

Quality of Milk and Psychrotophic Bacteria (우유의 품질과 저온성균)

  • Chung, Chung-Il
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.38-46
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    • 2000
  • Since generalization of cold storage of raw and processed milk, psychrotrophic bacteria has become more important. The number present in raw milk is related to sanitary conditions during pro-duction and to length and temperature of storage before pasteurization. Growth of psychrotrophs In raw milk often reduces the quality of pasteurized products. Recently, some pathogenic bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus are reported to grow at low temperature and cause food poisoning. The presence of gram positive psychrotrophic bacteria which can survive pasteurization can limit the shelf life of pasteurized milk during extended storage and the survival of heat stable proteases and lipases produced by gram negative psychrotrophic bacteria often brings about proteolytic damage to milk protein in the products. Therefore, in order to prevent the deteorioration of milk and milk products by the growth of psychrotrophs, it is necessary to cool down the temperature of raw milk as soon as possible after milking and to keep the temperature below 5t during storage at farm. As psychrotrophic bacteria become readily predominant in raw milk under refregeration, it can be considered to change the traditional incubating temperature for SPC from 30${\sim}$32$^{\circ}C$ to 25${\sim}$27$^{\circ}C$ at which the psychrotrophs prefer to grow. The psychrotrophic bacterial count(PBC) is of limited use in dairy industry, because of the 10 days incubation period. Although estimates of psychrotrophic bacteria may provide an acceptable shelf-life prediction, there is no single, generally acceptable rapid method for replacing the PBC at the moment. Consequently, faster method for esmating psychrotrophic bacteria has to be developed.

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