• Title, Summary, Keyword: receptor binding ELISA

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Development of ELISA System for Screening of Specific Binding Inhibitors for Src Homology (SH)2 Domain and Phosphotyrosine Interactions

  • Lee, Sang-Seop;Lee, Kyung-Im;Yoo, Ji-Yun;Jeong, Moon-Jin;Park, Young-Mee;Kwon, Byoung-Mog;Bae, Yun-Soo;Han, Mi-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.537-543
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    • 2001
  • In the present study, an in vitro ELISA system to assess the interaction between Src homology (SH)2 domains and phosphotyrosine that contain peptides was established using purified GST-conjugated SH2 proteins and synthetic biotinylated phosphotyrosine that contain oligopeptides. The SH2 domains bound the relevant phosphopeptides that were immobilized in the streptavidin-coated microtiter plate in a highly specific and dose-dependent manner. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-, T antigen (T Ag)-, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-derived phosphopeptides interacted with the growth factor receptor binding protein (Grb)2/SH2, Lck/SH2, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85/SH2, respectively. No cross-reactions were observed. Competitive inhibition experiments showed that a short phosphopeptide of only four amino acids was long enough to determine the binding specificity. Optimal concentrations of the GST-SH2 fusion protein and phosphopeptide in this new ELISA system for screening the binding blockers were chosen at 2nM and 500nM, respectively. When two candidate compounds were tested in our ELISA system, they specifically inhibited the Lck/SH2 and/or p85/SH2 binding to the relevant phosphopeptides. Our results indicate that this ELISA system could be used as an easy screening method for the discovery of specific binding blockers of protein-protein interactions via SH2 domains.

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A Simple ELISA for Screening Ligands of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ

  • Cho, Min-Chul;Lee, Hae-Sook;Kim, Jae-Hwa;Choe, Yong-Kyung;Hong, Jin-Tae;Paik, Sang-Gi;Yoon, Do-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2003
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are orphan nuclear hormone receptors that are known to control the expression of genes that are involved in lipid homeostasis and energy balance. PPARs activate gene transcription in response to a variety of compounds, including hypolipidemic drugs. Most of these compounds have high affinity to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of PPARs and cause a conformational change within PPARs. As a result, the receptor is converted to an activated mode that promotes the recruitment fo co-activators such as the steroid receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1). Based on the activation mechanism of PPARs (the ligand binding to $PPAR{\gamma}$ induces interactions of the receptor with transcriptional co-activators), we performed Western blot and ELISA. These showed that the indomethacin, a $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand, increased the binding between $PPAR{\gamma}$ and SRC-1 in a ligand dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that the in vitro conformational change of $PPAR{\gamma}$ by ligands was also induced, and increased the levels of the ligand-dependent interaction with SRC-1. Collectively, we developed a novel and useful ELISA system for the mass screening of $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligands. This screening system (based on the interaction between $PPAR{\gamma}$ and SRC-1) may be a promising system in the development of drugs for metabolic disorders.

Production of expressed protein from cloned ShigatoxinG 2e gene and Receptor Binding Affinity of the toxin (재조합 Shigatoxin 2e 유전자의 발현단백 생산 및 독소의 수용체 결합 친화성 확인)

  • Dong, Bun-youn;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Yeong-Il;Cho, Hyun-Ho;Lee, Woo-won;Kim, Kon-Sup;Kang, Ho-Jo;Kim, Yong-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 2004
  • This study was designed to determine optimal condition for expression of cloned Shigatoxin2e(Stx2e) gene from transformed E. coli PED18, to compare the cytotoxicity titer between cloned Stx2e and Stx2e from original strain, and to confirm of receptor binding affinity of Stx2e for use of development of receptor binding ELISA to detect of Stx2e. The optimum composition of medium for expression of Stx2e gene in E.coli host-vector system was definded as the medium containing 0.5% glucose and 0.5 mM IPTG. The cytotoxicity titer of expressed Stx2e for Vero cell was 1000 fold higher than that of Stx2e from original strain AY93258. The binding affinity of Stx2e to receptor globotetraosyl ceramide($Gb_4$) was confirmed by immunobloting.

A Monoclonal Anti-peptide Antibody against $\beta$2-adrenergic Receptor Which Specifically Binds [$^{3}H$] dihydroalprenolol

  • Shin, Chan Young;Noh, Min Su;Lee, Sang Derk;Lee, Sang Bong;Ko, Kwang Ho
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 1995
  • The analysis of membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters has progressed considerably by pharmacological and biochemical means and more recently through the use of specific antibodies. To generate and characterize a moloclonal antibody against $\beta$-adrenergic receptor, a synthetic $\beta$2-adrenergic receptor peptide (Phe-Gly-Asn-Phe-Trp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Thr-Ser-lle-Asp-Val-Leu) which may comprise part of $\beta$-adrenergic receptor ligand binding pocket was coupled to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and used as an immunogen. Male BALB/C mice were immunized with this antigen and the immunized spleen was fused with myeloma SP2/0-Ag14 cells to produce monoclonal antibodies. Two clones were obtained but one of monoclonal antibodies, mAb5G09, was used throughout in this study because the other clone, mAb5All showed weak immunoreactivity against KLH as well. The mouse monoclonal antibody mAb5G09 produced in this study showed immunoreactivity to peptide-KLH conjugates and also to human A43l cells and guinea pig lung $\beta$2-adrenergic receptor as revealed by ELISA and western blot. In the course of determination of the effects of mAb5G09 on $\beta$-receptor ligand binding, it was observed that mAb5G09 specifically bound $\beta$-adrenergic radioligand [$^3$H]dihydroalprenolol (DHA) with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 60 nM. The [$^3$H]DHA binding activity of mAb5G09 had characteristics of immunoglobulins and the binding activity was not observed in the control anti-KLH monoclonal antibody. The monoclonal antibody, mAb5G09 produced in this study may provide useful models for the study of the structure of receptor binding sites.

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Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid on Vitellogenin Synthesis and $E_2$-ER Binding Affinity of Hepatocytes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (무지개송어, Oncorhynchus mykiss 배양 간세포에서 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid이 Vitellogenin 합성과 $E_2$-ER Binding Affinity에 미치는 영향)

  • 황운기
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2002
  • Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on vitellogenin (VTG) production and estrogen ($E_2$)-estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity were examined in primary hepatocyte cultures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Hepatocytes were pre-cultured for 2 days; subsequently, $E_2$( 2$\times$$10^{-6}$/ M) and 2,4-D ($10^{-9}~10^{-6}/M$) were simultaneously added to the incubation medium. They were cultured for more than 5 days. VTG and $E_2$-ER binding affinities were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and ELISA, respectively. 2,4-D concentration used had no appreciable effect on the morphology, viability, and DNA content of hepatocytes in culture. It had also no effect on VTG production. However, it interfered with $E_2$-ER binding affinity, which was reduced with increasing concentration of 2,4-D. The affinity was inhibited by 25 and 30% at $10^{-7}$ M and $10^{-6}$ M of 2,4-D, respectively. This result suggested that although 2,4-D had no effect on VTG production, it acted as reno-estrogenic contaminant in ER.

The development of anti-DR4 single-chain Fv (ScFv) antibody fused to Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (대장균의 alkaline phosphatase가 융합된 anti-DR4 single-chain Fv (ScFv) 항체의 개발)

  • Han, Seung Hee;Kim, Jin-Kyoo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2016
  • Enzyme immunoassay to analyze specific binding activity of antibody to antigen uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). Chemical methods are usually used for coupling of these enzymes to antibody, which is complicated and random cross-linking process. As results, it causes decreases or loss of functional activity of either antibody or enzyme. In addition, most enzyme assays use secondary antibody to detect antigen binding activity of primary antibody. Enzymes coupled to secondary antibody provide a binding signal by substrate-based color development, suggesting secondary antibody is required in enzyme immunoassay. Additional incubation time for binding of secondary antibody should also be necessary. More importantly, non-specific binding activity caused by secondary antibody should also be eliminated. In this study, we cloned AP isolated from Escherichia coli (E. coli) chromosome by PCR and fused to) hAY4 single-chain variable domain fragment (ScFv) specific to death receptor (DR4) which is a receptor for tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$ related apoptosis induced ligand (TRAIL). hAY4 ScFv-AP expressed in E. coli showed 73.8 kDa as a monomer in SDS-PAGE. However, this fusion protein shown in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) exhibited 147.6 kDa as a dimer confirming that natural dimerization of AP by non-covalent association induced ScFv-AP dimerization. In several immunoassay such as ELISA, Western blot and immunocytochemistry, it showed antigen binding activity by color development of substrates catalyzed by AP directly fused to primary hAY4 ScFv without secondary antibody. In summary, hAY4 ScFv-AP fusion protein was successfully purified as a soluble dimeric form in E. coli and showed antigen binding activity in several immunoassays without addition of secondary antibody which sometimes causes time-consuming, expensive and non-specific false binding.

The development of anti-DR4 single-chain Fv (ScFv) antibody fused to Streptavidin (Streptavidin이 융합된 DR4 항원에 특이적인 single-chain Fv 항체의 개발)

  • Kim, Seo Woo;Wu, Sangwook;Kim, Jin-Kyoo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.330-342
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    • 2018
  • The Streptavidin and Biotin system has been studied most extensively as the high affinity non-covalent binding of Biotin to STR ($K_D=10^{-14}M$) and four Biotin binding sites in tetrameric Streptavidin makes this system useful for the production of multivalent antibody. For the application of this system, we cloned Streptavidin amplified from Streptomyces avidinii chromosome by PCR and fused to gene of hAY4 single-chain Fv antibody specific to death receptor 4 (DR4) which is a receptor for tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$ related apoptosis induced ligand. The hAY4 single-chain Fv antibody fused to Streptavidin expressed in Escherichia coli showed 43 kDa monomer in heated SDS-PAGE. However, this fusion protein shown in both non-heated SDS-PAGE and Size-exclusion chromatography exhibited 172 kDa as a tetramer suggesting that natural tetramerization of Streptavidin by non-covalent association induced hAY4 single-chain Fv tetramerization. This fusion protein retained a Biotin binding activity similar to natural Streptavidin as shown in Ouchterlony assay and ELISA. Death receptor 4 antigen binding activity of purified hAY4 single-chain Fv fused to Streptavidin was also confirmed by ELISA and Westernblot. In addition, surface plasmon resonance analysis showed 60-fold higher antigen binding affinity of the hAY4-STR than monomeric hAY4 ScFv due to tetramerization. In summary, hAY4 single-chain Fv fused to Streptavidin fusion protein was successfully expressed and purified as a soluble tetramer in E. coli and showed both Biotin and DR4 antigen binding activity suggesting possible production of bifunctional and tetrameric ScFv antibody.

Construction and Characterization of an Anti-Hepatitis B Virus preS1 Humanized Antibody that Binds to the Essential Receptor Binding Site

  • Wi, Jimin;Jeong, Mun Sik;Hong, Hyo Jeong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1336-1344
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    • 2017
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With recent identification of HBV receptor, inhibition of virus entry has become a promising concept in the development of new antiviral drugs. To date, 10 HBV genotypes (A-J) have been defined. We previously generated two murine anti-preS1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), KR359 and KR127, that recognize amino acids (aa) 19-26 and 37-45, respectively, in the receptor binding site (aa 13-58, genotype C). Each mAb exhibited virus neutralizing activity in vitro, and a humanized version of KR127 effectively neutralized HBV infection in chimpanzees. In the present study, we constructed a humanized version (HzKR359-1) of KR359 whose antigen binding activity is 4.4-fold higher than that of KR359, as assessed by competitive ELISA, and produced recombinant preS1 antigens (aa 1-60) of different genotypes to investigate the binding capacities of HzKR359-1 and a humanized version (HzKR127-3.2) of KR127 to the 10 HBV genotypes. The results indicate that HzKR359-1 can bind to five genotypes (A, B, C, H, and J), and HzKR127-3.2 can also bind to five genotypes (A, C, D, G, and I). The combination of these two antibodies can bind to eight genotypes (A-D, G-J), and to genotype C additively. Considering that genotypes A-D are common, whereas genotypes E and F are occasionally represented in small patient population, the combination of these two antibodies might block the entry of most virus genotypes and thus broadly neutralize HBV infection.

Production of polyclonal anti-$\beta$-adrenergic receptor antibody and it′s effects on receptor ligand binding

  • Kim, Hee-Jin;Shin, Chan-Young;Noh, Min-Su;Ko, Kwang-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.86-86
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    • 1995
  • The analysis of membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters has progressed considerably by pharmacological and biochemical means and more recently by the use of specific anti-receptor antibodies. A 14-mer peptide (from Phe102 to Leu115 of ${\beta}$2-adrenergic receptor) was synthesized and this peptide was coupled to carrier protein Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin(KLH) by glutaraldehyde method. A 0.5mg of KLH-coupled peptide was emulsified with equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and injected via popliteal lymph node to each of the three Newzealnd White rabbits. Booster injections were repeated at 4 weeks interval for three times with incomplete Freund's adjuvants. One week after the final injection, serum was prepared from ear artery. Nonspecific immunoglobulins were removed by passing the serum through KLH-Sepharose 6B affinity matrix and further by incubation with bovine lung aceton powder. The titer of the antibody for synthetic peptide which was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was about l/l,000. The antibody produced in this study revealed 67kDa protein band in the western blot of partially purified guinea pig lung ${\beta}$-adrenergic receptor preparation. The antibody inhibited ${\beta}$-adrenergic antaginist [3H] Dihydroalprenolol binding to soluble ${\beta}$-adrenergic receptor by 25% while control sera did not show any inhibitory effects, The result of this study suggests that the peptide sequence selected in this study may play some important roles in adrenergic receptor-ligand interaction.

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Definition of the peptide mimotope of cellular receptor for hepatitis C virus E2 protein using random peptide library (Random peptide library를 이용한 C형 간염바이러스 E2 단백질 세포막 수용체의 peptide mimotope 규명)

  • Lee, In-Hee;Paik, Jae-Eun;Seol, Sang-Yong;Seog, Dae-Hyun;Park, Sae-Gwang;Choi, In-Hak
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2001
  • Background: Hepatitis C virus(HCV), a family of Flaviviridae, has a host cell-derived envelope containing a positive-stranded RNA genome, and has been known as the maj or etiological agent for chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. There remains a need to dissect a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis for the development of therapeutic and effective preventive measure for HCV. Identification of cellular receptor is of central importance not only to understand the viral pathogenesis, but also to exploit strategies for prevention of HCV. This study was aimed at identifying peptide mimotopes inhibiting the binding of E2 protein of HCV to MOLT-4 cell. Methods: In this study, phage peptide library displaying a random peptides consisting of 7 or 12 random peptides was employed in order to pan against E2 protein. Free HCV particles were separated from the immune complex forms by immunoprecipitation using anti-human IgG antibody, and used for HCV-capture ELISA. To identify the peptides inhibiting E2-binding to MOLT-4 cells, E2 protein was subj ect to bind to MOLT-4 cells under the competition with phage peptides. Results: Several phage peptides were selected for their specific binding to E2 protein, which showed the conserved sequence of SHFWRAP from 3 different peptide sequences. They were also able to recognize the HCV particles in the sera of HCV patients captured by monoclonal antibody against E2 protein. Two of them, showing peptide sequence of HLGPWMSHWFQR and WAPPLERSSLFY respectively, were revealed to inhibit the binding of E2 protein to MOLT-4 cell efficiently in dose dependent mode. However, few membrane-associated receptor candidates were seen using Fasta3 programe for homology search with these peptides. Conclusion: Phage peptides containing HLGPWMSHWFQR and WAPPLERSSLFY respectively, showed the inhibition of E2-binding to MOLT-4 cells. However, they did not reveal any homologues to cellular receptors from GenBank database. In further study, cellular receptor could be identified through the screening of cDNA library from MOLT-4 or hepatocytes using antibodies against these peptide mimotopes.

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