• Title, Summary, Keyword: red pepper

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Use of HPLC for the Determination of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Red Peppers (HPLC를 이용한 고추 및 고추 가공품의 비타민 A 함량 측정)

  • 김영남
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 1992
  • Provitamin A carotenoids($\alpha$- $\beta$-carotene lutein capsanthin) cintents in various red pepper and red pepper products were analyzed by HPLC and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The amounts of $\beta$-carotene and capsanthin were at its highest in powdered red pepper and lutein in red pepper leaves. There are little $\alpha$-carotene present in all samples analyzed. So vitamin A activity was calculated only from $\beta$-carotene content. Capsanthin and $\beta$-carotene contents of red pepper were higher than those of green pepper whereas lutein content of red pepper was lower than that of green pepper. whereas lutein content of red pepper was lower than that of green pepper. Vitamin A activity from colorimetric analysis was higher than that from chromatographic method and results were not generally in accordance with the vitamin A data presented in current food composition tables. Vitamin A activities in retinol equivalent(R. E. ) of green pepper red pepper powdered red pepper fermented red pepper paste and red pepper leaves were 70, 570, 1, 340, 140, 980 R. E respectively.

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Using the Red Pepper in Korean Traditonal Cuisine (우리나라 전통조리에서 고추의 활용)

  • 한복진
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.173-186
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    • 2002
  • Red pepper have affected traditional cuisines through various ways since they were first introduced in Korea over 400 years. But we on easily determine that red pepper powder and red pepper paste were not used daily dishes until 1940 as we look into traditional cookbooks. Chinese pepper and black pepper were used for hot spices before red pepper was introduced in Korea. It is estimated that red pepper was introduced during the last of 1500s the Japanese invasion of Chosun dynasty, but it was first used to make Sunchang red pepper paste in $\boxDr$Sumunsasul(수문사설)$\boxUl$(1740), and to make Kimchi in $\boxDr$Jeungbo Sanlimkungje(증보 산림경제)$\boxUl$(1766), and it became a general spice for vegetables in the middle of the 1800s. Pepper is mostly used to make Kochujang(red pepper paste), Kimchi, Jutkal(salted flesh) and Jangaji(salited very.) etc as fermentable cuisines. The attribute of using pepper was developed fur fermentable spices, and to give spicy flavor to cuisines. The types of peppers using traditional cuisines are various such as unripened pepper, red pepper, red pepper powder, red pepper paste, and pepper leaves. Traditional dishes with vegetables mostly use red peppers. Fish dishes(soup, stew, bracing, roasting, steaming) also use red peppers. Soup '||'&'||' stew with meat item partly use red pepper but steaming, roasting dishes with meat item not use pepper. roasted pork, pork ribs, steamed chicken of spicy meat cuisines in the 1930s did not use pepper. Kochujangbokkum(고추장볶음) is one of the oldest cuisines for using red pepper paste in the 1800s. Sliced red peppers and red pepper powder are mostly used for garnishing of cuisines.

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Microbiological Contamination of Fresh-Red Pepper and Packaged-Red Pepper Powder in South Korea

  • Jeong, A-Ram;Jo, Mi-Jin;Koo, Min-Seon;Oh, Se-Wook;Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Jae-Bok;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to determine microbiological contamination of fresh-red pepper and packaged-red pepper powder commercially available in South Korea. Thirty-seven fresh-red peppers were collected from 5 farms and 31 packaged-red pepper powders were purchased from retail markets in South Korea. Foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), total viable counts, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, yeast and mold, and Aspergillus flavus were determined. Detection percentage of contamination of Bacillus cereus in fresh-red pepper was 8.1%, which was lower than the 39% of detection rate in packaged-red pepper powder. The contamination level of Bacillus cereus was 1~3 log CFU/g in packaged-red pepper powder. Escherichia coli was detected in 5.4% of fresh-red pepper samples and was not detected in packaged-red pepper powder. Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in both of fresh-red pepper and packaged-red pepper powders. Foodborne pathogens, except Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, were not detected.

Quality Characteristics of Instant Gochujang added with Red Pepper Seeds Powder (고추씨를 첨가한 즉석 고추장의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Keum-Ok;Kim, Ki-Bbeum
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2018
  • This study produced instant Gochujang(red pepper paste) with enhanced convenience by increasing nutritional value and palatability, and by reducing production period, adding in the red pepper seed in the red pepper paste production in order to increase the use of the red pepper seed that is not used often as a food ingredient even though its nutrition value when producing red pepper paste was proven. Moisture content, pH, L-value, a-value, b-value, sugar contents, and salinity of instant Gochujang tended to increase as the amount of red pepper seed increased, while viscosity manifested the opposite trend. Sensory evaluations were conducted on instant Gochujang to assess differences in characteristics, which demonstrated that as the amount of red pepper seeds powder increased, the intensity of redness for the red pepper paste's external appearance, luster, spicy flavor and taste, and savory taste were evaluated strong. Meanwhile, fermentation value, which is red pepper paste's foremost weakness was evaluated as weak. Moreover, there was no difference in the size of the grain when compared to the contrast group consisting of regular red pepper paste. The results of preference test demonstrated that the RG3 with 30% of red pepper seed is optimal in terms of the external appearance, taste, texture and overall preference.

The Antimutagenic and Antioxidant Effects of Red Pepper Seed and Red Pepper Pericarp (Capsicum annuum L.)

  • Sim, Ki-Hyeon;Han, Young-Sil
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we examined the antimutagenicity of red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp ethanol extracts using the standard Ames test in the presence and absence of S9 mix. The extracts showed inhibitory effects on both the TA98 and TA100 Salmenella Typhimurium strains against the mutagenic activity of promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, and were also protective against the directly acting mutagens sodium azide and 2-nitrofluorene. The red pepper seed elicited stronger antimutagenicity than the red pepper pericarp. Both the red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp directly quenched nitric oxide to different degrees and the scavenging activities increased with increasing concentrations. Nitric oxide scavenging activity ranged from $22{\sim}77%$ in the red pepper seed, and from $36{\sim}49%$ in the red pepper pericarp. The TEAC values for red pepper seed extract were $47.89{\pm}1.64mg\;g^{-1}$ in the ABTS radical scavenging assays, while those of red pepper pericarp extract were $94.18{\pm}1.61mg\;g^{-1}$. Therefore, we conclude that red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp have antimutagenic activities as well as antioxidant activity.

Effects of MA Storage with Fine Holes For Red Chili Pepper and Red Bell Pepper Fruits (홍고추 및 홍피망의 미세공 MA저장 효과)

  • 이귀현;정천순
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2001
  • The effects of modified atmosphere(MA) storage for fresh red chili pepper and red bell pepper fruits were investigated with storing in polyethylene film with various fine holes. During the storage of the both pepper fruits, the weight loss, color change, mold emergence, and firmness were evaluated. The weight loss of pepper fruits packaged without holes on film was less than 3%, even though it was each 50% and 25% for non packaged red chili pepper and red bell pepper fruits. The rates of mold emergence of red chili pepper and red bell pepper fruits were reached to each 60% and 50% at the end of storage period as stored in film without holes. However, the rate of mold emergence of pepper fruits was lowered when fruits were stored in MA with low relative humidity (70∼80%). The color and firmness of pepper fruits were not much changed when fruits were stored in MA with high humidity.

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The analysis on the production and consumption of red-pepper in Korea (고추의 생산 및 소비 실태에 대한 비교 분석)

  • Hong, Seungjee;Kim, Sounghun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.405-410
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    • 2013
  • Even though red pepper is one of the most important agricultural products in Korean, the red pepper industry is decaying due to several reasons. In order to solve this problem, more specific studies are required. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the production and consumption sector of Korean red pepper market and to present the implications for the promotion of Korean red pepper industry. Survey analyses to producers and consumers were conducted for this research. The results of studies present a few findings: First, Korean consumers consume foreign red pepper products as well as domestic red pepper products, Second, more RPPC (Red Pepper Processing Complex) should be introduced, Third, WTP (Willingness To Pay) of consumers to red pepper products is different from WTP of producers, Forth, Consumers' requirements to promote the red pepper market is also different from producers' strategies.

Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

  • Yu, Mi-Sang;Kim, Jeong-Mee;Lee, Chi-Ho;Son, Yoon-Jeong;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.408-414
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    • 2014
  • Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt.

Development of a General Drying Model of Red Pepper (고추의 범용(汎用) 건조모형(乾燥模型) 개발(開發)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Y.J.;Koh, H.K.;Park, J.B.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.60-82
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    • 1991
  • Drying process of red pepper is very important in terms of drying cost and quality of the end product. Recently, many studies on red pepper drying have been performed. Nevertheless, an optimum drying condition is not established yet. Drying characteristics of red pepper is much affected by drying factors such as variety and initial state of red pepper as well as by environmental drying factors such as temperature and relative humidity of drying air. Various varieties of red pepper are being cultivated and the initial state of red pepper at harvest is very ambiguous. For this reason, it is very costly and time-consuming to establish an optimum drying condition of red pepper by experiment. A general drying model to descirbe a drying process has not been developed due to diversity of drying characteristics of red pepper. This study was, therefore, performed to develop a general drying model describing a drying process of red pepper. The results from this study are summarized as follows. 1. A basic model was established to develop an appropriate mositure content model and temperature model describing a drying process of red pepper, and the basic model was validated with experimental data. 2. The bone dry weight of fruit and mositure content were accepted satisfactorily as parameter to define the arbitrary red pepper. 3. The equilibrium moisture content of red pepper was found out to be different according to the variety of red pepper, air temperature and relative humidity. Also, the EMC model was developed using the parameters of air temperature, relative humidity and bone dry weight of fruit. 4. A general drying model for red pepper was developed, parameters of which were expressed as the function of drying factors related with drying phenomena. The developed drying model was found out to describe well the drying process of red pepper.

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Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Red Pepper Powder on Physicochemical Properties of Kakdugi, a Korean Traditional Radish Kimchi

  • Lee, Jeung-Hee;Sung, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2005
  • Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of kakdugi prepared with red pepper powder gamma-irradiated up to 7 kGy were determined during fermentation at 5℃. The overall fermentation patterns between kakdugies with irradiated and nonirradiated red pepper powder were similar. Kakdugi prepared with irradiated red pepper powder required one week longer time for optimal ripening compared to the kakdugi control. Irradiated red pepper powder did not affect the hardness and fracturability of kakdugi during fermentation. Kakdugi prepared with irradiated red pepper powder maintained a redder color than the kakdugi control. No significant differences were observed in taste, odor, texture, and overall acceptability (p<0.05) except for color. It can be concluded that irradiation of red pepper powder, up to 7 kGy, did not affect the quality of kakdugi with regard to physicochemical and sensory characteristics during fermentation. Moreover, irradiated red pepper powder was better for maintaining the red color and delaying optimum ripening time of kakdugi fermentation.