• Title, Summary, Keyword: redox enzyme

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Electrochemical Properties of Polypyrrole-Glucose Oxidase Enzyme Electrode: 1. An Influence of Glucose Oxidase on Redox Behavior of Enzyme Electrode (Polypyrrole-Glucose Oxidase 효소전극의 전기화학적 특서: 1. 효소전극의 산화환원에 대한 Glucose Oxidase의 영향)

  • 김현철;구할본;사공건
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.520-525
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    • 2000
  • Glucose oxidase was immobilized in polypyrrole by electrosynthesis. The enzyme had an influence on the redox properties of a complex enzyme electrode. In the cyclic voltammograms of the enazyme electrode new peaks were appeared at the potential around 0.7V vs. Ag/AgCl in additional to the typical peaks for polypyrrole. The more immobilized the stronger the peaks became. During the cycling the pH of electrolyte solution was decreased to about 4.4 The reason for that is to be the proton released from the carboxyl in the glucose oxidase in order to keep on a charge neutrality of the oxidized enzyme. This fact suggests that the new peaks in the voltammograms are caused by the redox of glucose oxidase. In the AC impedance spectrum analysis of the electrode the diffusion of electrolyte anion was limited because of chained structure of the enzyme. The faradic impedance was large since the glucose oxidase is an insulator. Therefore when glucose oxidase is entrapped the enzyme should be limited in amount. Because the growth of the polypyrrole is accompanied both charge transfer and mass transport. For the traditional electrosynthesis that means amount of enzyme present in the electrode is limited to as much as film growable.

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Growth-Dependent Variations in Antioxidant and Redox Enzyme Activities of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

  • Cho, Young-Wook;Park, Eun-Hee;Ahn, Ki-Sup;Kim, Dae-Myung;Lim, Chang-Jin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.278-283
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    • 2001
  • Antioxidant and redox enzyme activities are known to be involved in the cellular responses to various stresses. Their variations were observed according to the growth cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Peroxidase activity appeared to be notably higher in the early exponential phase than in the mid-exponential and stationary phases. However, catalase activity showed a variation pattern resembling the growth curve. Glutathione S-transferase activity was higher in the early exponential and late stationary phases. Activities of the two redox enzymes, thioredoxin and thioltransferase (glutaredoxin), were high in the stationary phase. However, their activities appeared to increase from the early exponential to mid-exponential phase. Total glutathione content had a varying pattern similar to that of thioredoxin and thioltransferase. However, its content in the early exponential phase was high. These results propose that antioxidant and redox enzymes tested are also involved in the mechanism of cell growth.

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Redox Potential of a Soybean Ferric Leghemoglobin Reductase

  • Kim, Hyun-Mi
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.444-452
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    • 1998
  • The visible spectra of soybean ferric leghemoglobin reductase exhibited a charge transfer band at 530 nm under aerobic condition. Spectra of the oxidized enzyme show a flavin peak at 454 nm and the enzyme has three redox states associated with the active site of the enzyme. The enzyme has an active disulfide bridge and two-electron transfer may dominate in the ferric state of leghemoglobin reduction. The midpoint potentials of the enzyme were determined by spectrotitration to be -0.294 V for disulfide/dithiol and -0.318 V for FAD/$FADH_2$. Since the midpoint potentials for $NAD^+$/NADH and the ferrous/ferric states of leghemoglobin are -0.32 V and +0.22 V, respectively, it is proposed that two electrons are transferred sequentially from NADH to FAD, to the disulfide group, and then to the ferric state of leghemoglobin in the enzyme reaction.

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Amperometric Detection of DNA by Electroreducation of O2 in an Enzyme-Amplified Two-Component Assay

  • Yoon Chang-Jung;Kim Hyug-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.44-48
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    • 2004
  • The two-component type enzyme amplified amperometric DNA assay is described to use an ambient $O_2$ of the substrate of the DNA labeling enzyme. Although the assay detects DNA only at > 0.5M concentration, a concentration $\~10^6$ fold higher than the sandwich-type enzyme amplified amperometric DNA assay, it can be run with an always available substrate. The assay utilizes screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPEs) which were pre-coated by a co-electrodeposited film of an electron conducting redox hydrogel and a 37-base long single-stranded DNA sequence. The DNA in the electron conducting film hybridizes and captures, when present, the 37-base long detection-DNA, which is labeled with bilirubin oxidase (BOD), an enzyme catalyzing the four-electron reduction of $O_2$ to water. Because the redox hydrogel electrically connects the BOD reaction centers to the electrode, completion of the sandwich converts the film from non-electrocatalytic to electrocatalytic for the reduction of $O_2$ to water when the electrode is poised at 200 mV vs. Ag/hgCl. The advantage or the assay over the earlier reported sandwich type enzyme amplified amperometric DNA assay, in which the amplifying enzyme was horseradish peroxidase, is that it utilizes ambient $O_2$ instead of the less stable and naturally unavailable $H_2O_2$.

Design and Synthesis of Devices Releasing Insulin in response to Redox Reaction of Glucose (Glucose의 Redox 반응에 의한 인슐린 방출 Device의 설계와 합성)

  • Chung, Dong-June;Ito, Yoshihiro;Imanishi, Yukio;Shim, Jyong-Sup
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 1990
  • New insulin-releasing system on the basis of the redox reaction of glucose was synthesized by immobilizing insulin through a disulfide bond(5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) to polymer membrane(poly(methyl methacrylate)) and enzyme(glucose oxidase). The disulfide bonds were cleaved upon oxidation of glucose with glucose dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase, releasing insulin from the membrane and enzyme. Sensitivity to glucose concentration was enhanced by coimmobilization of enzyme cofactors(nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide and flavin adenin dinucleotide) acting as electron mediator(for the membrane device), and further enhanced by direct immobilization of insulin on glucose oxidase(for the protein device). Both systems were specific to glucose, and the released insulin was indistinguishable from native insulin. The biological activity of released insulin was 81% of native insulin.

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Knockdown of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase enhances MPP+-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells

  • Yang, Eun-Sun;Park, Jeen-Woo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2011
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium ion (MPP$^+$) have been shown to induce Parkinson's disease-like symptoms as well as neurotoxicity in humans and animal species. Recently, we reported that maintenance of redox balance and cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of the novel antioxidant enzyme cytosolic NADP$^+$-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc). In this study, we examined the role of IDPc in cellular defense against MPP$^+$-induced oxidative injury using PC12 cells transfected with IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA). Our results demonstrate that MPP$^+$-mediated disruption of cellular redox status, oxidative damage to cells, and apoptotic cell death were significantly enhanced by knockdown of IDPc.

Modulation of MnSOD in Cancer: Epidemiological and Experimental Evidences

  • Kim, Ae-Kyong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.83-93
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    • 2010
  • Since it was first observed in late 1970s that human cancers often had decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression and activity, extensive studies have been conducted to verify the association between MnSOD and cancer. Significance of MnSOD as a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme is unquestionable; results from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies are in harmony. On the contrary, studies regarding roles of MnSOD in cancer often report conflicting results. Although putative mechanisms have been proposed to explain how MnSOD regulates cellular proliferation, these mechanisms are not capitulated in epidemiological studies. This review discusses most recent epidemiological and experimental studies that examined the association between MnSOD and cancer, and describes emerging hypotheses of MnSOD as a mitochondrial redox regulatory enzyme and of how altered mitochondrial redox may affect physiology of normal as well as cancer cells.

A Panoramic Overview of Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Redox Biology

  • Kim, Aekyong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.221-234
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    • 2014
  • Mitochondria dysfunction was first described in the 1960s. However, the extent and mechanisms of mitochondria dysfunction's role in cellular physiology and pathology has only recently begun to be appreciated. To adequately evaluate mitochondria-mediated toxicity, it is not only necessary to understand mitochondria biology, but discerning mitochondrial redox biology is also essential. The latter is intricately tied to mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondrial free radicals, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes are players in mitochondrial redox biology. This review will provide an across-the-board, albeit not in-depth, overview of mitochondria biology and mitochondrial redox biology. With accumulating knowledge on mitochondria biology and mitochondrial redox biology, we may devise experimental methods with adequate sensitivity and specificity to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity, especially in vivo in living organisms, in the near future.

Antioxidant enzymes as redox-based biomarkers: a brief review

  • Yang, Hee-Young;Lee, Tae-Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2015
  • The field of redox proteomics focuses to a large extent on analyzing cysteine oxidation in proteins under different experimental conditions and states of diseases. The identification and localization of oxidized cysteines within the cellular milieu is critical for understanding the redox regulation of proteins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and it will in turn provide important information that are potentially useful for the development of novel strategies in the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes that catalyze oxidation/reduction processes are able to serve as redox biomarkers in various human diseases, and they are key regulators controlling the redox state of functional proteins. Redox regulators with antioxidant properties related to active mediators, cellular organelles, and the surrounding environments are all connected within a network and are involved in diseases related to redox imbalance including cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as normal aging. In this review, we will briefly look at the selected aspects of oxidative thiol modification in antioxidant enzymes and thiol oxidation in proteins affected by redox control of antioxidant enzymes and their relation to disease. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(4): 200-208]

Simple Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Determination of Rabbit IgG Using Osmium Redox Polymer Films

  • Choi, Young-Bong;Lee, Seung-Hwa;Tae, Gun-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.229-232
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    • 2007
  • An amperometric immunosensor for the determination of rabbit IgG is proposed. The immunoassay utilizes a screen-printed carbon electrode on which osmium redox polymer is electrodeposited. This immunoassay detects 0.1 ng/ml of rabbit IgG, which is ${\sim}10^2$ fold higher than the most sensitive enzyme amplified amperometric immunoassay. The assay utilizes a screen-printed carbon electrode which was pre-coated by a co-electrodeposited film of an electron conducting redox hydrogel and a rabbit IgG. The rabbit IgG in the electron conducting film conjugates captures, when present, the anti-rabbit IgG. The captured anti-rabbit-IgG is labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which catalyzes the two-electron reduction of $H_2O_2$ to water. Because the redox hydrogel electrically connects HRP reaction centers to the electrode, completion of the sandwich converts the film from non-electrocatalytic to electro-catalytic for the reduction of $H_2O_2$ to $H_2O$ when the electrode is poised at 200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl.