• Title, Summary, Keyword: reducing sugar

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Solid Substrate and Submerged Culture Fermentation of Sugar Cane Bagasse for the Production of cellulase and Reducing Sugars by a Local Isolate, Aspergillus terreus SUK-1

  • Wan Mohtar, Yusoff;Massadeh, Muhannad Illayan;Kader, Jalil
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.770-775
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    • 2000
  • Several process parameters were studied to ascertain the effect on degradation of sugar cane bagasse in relation to the production of cellulase enzyme and reducing sugars by Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) and Submerged Culture Fermentation (SCF) of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1. The effect of air-flow rate (0-1.3 v/v/m), of different ratios of substrate weight to liquid volume (1:6, 1:10, 1:20, and 1:30 w/v, g/ml), scale-up effect (10, 20, and 100 times of 1:10 ration, w/v) and the effect of temperature (30, 40, 50, and $60^{\circ}C$) in SSF were studied. Air-flow rate of 1.0 v/v/m gave the highest enzyme activity (FPase 0.25 IU/ml, CMCase 1.24 IU/ml) and reducing sugars concentration (0.72 mg/ml). Experiment using 1:10 ratio (w/v) was found to support maximum cellulase activity (FPase 0.58 IU/ml, CMCase 1.97 IU/ml) and reducing sugar concentration (1.23 mg/ml). Scaling-up the ratio of 1:10(w/v) by a factor of 20 gave the highest cellulase activity (FPase 0.71 IU/ml, CMCase 2.25 IU/ml) and reducing sugar concentration (3.67 mg/ml). The optimum temperature for cellulase activity and reducing sugar production was $50^{\circ}C$(FPase 0.792 IU/ml, CMCase 2.25 IU/ml and 3.85 mg/ml for reducing sugar concentration). For SCF, the activity of cellulase enzyme and reducing sugar concentration was found to be lower than that obtained for SSF. The highest cellulase activity obtained in SCF was 50% lower than the highest cellulase activity in SSF, while for reducing sugar concentration, the highest concentration obtained in SCF was 90% lower than that obtained in SSF.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Marine Algae Hizikia fusiforme (해조류 톳 (Hizikia fusiforme)의 효소 가수분해)

  • Song, Bu-Bok;Kim, Sung-Koo;Jeong, Gwi-Taek
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.347-351
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    • 2011
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of reaction factors on enzymatic hydrolysis of Hizikia fusiforme, which is brown algae in marine biomass resource, using commercial enzymes. The composition of H. fusiforme is 38.9% of reducing sugar, 4.8% of moisture, 17.8% of ash, and 38.5% of others. In the condition of 1-5% substrate, the increase of substrate concentration enhanced the increase of reducing sugar formation; however, the hydrolysis yield did not increase after 24 h. After reaction of 75 h, conversion yield of reducing sugar were obtained to 16.45%, 17.99%, and 14.55% at 1, 2.5, and 5% substrate, respectively. As a result of effect of enzyme amount, the formation of reducing sugar did not show considerable change at 1% substrate. However, in the condition of 2.5% substrate, the great change of reducing sugar formation was observed by the increase of enzyme amount. The conversion yields of reducing sugar were obtained to 18.77% and 22.83% at 1% and 2.5% substrate with 30% enzyme, respectively. As a result of heat treatment of biomass, the high yield was obtained in 2.5% substrate and the yields were increased to 0.06-7.2% by the heat treatment. This result will provide the basic information for production process of biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass H. fusiforme.

Extraction of Reducing Sugar with Anti-Oxidative Scavengers from Peels of Carya cathayensis Sarg.: Use of Subcritical Water

  • Shimanouchi, Toshinori;Ueno, Shohei;Yang, Wei;Kimura, Yukitaka
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 2014
  • The peels of Carya cathayensis Sarg. (PCCS) were treated under subcritical water conditions ($130^{\circ}C$ to $280^{\circ}C$ for 0 to 120 min). The extract from PCCS included reducing sugar, proteins, and compounds with radical scavenging activity. Addressing the reducing sugar that is a resource of bioethanol, we could maximize the reducing sugar under the subcritical water ($190^{\circ}C$ for 60 min) and obtain 0.24 g/g-sample together with 9.7 units/mg-sample of radical scavenging activity. The obtained extract was estimated to correspond to 1 L of bioethanol/100 g-sample. It was therefore considered that the treatment by subcritical water could yield reducing sugar and natural compounds with radical scavenging activity.

Effect of MH and FA on the Change of Several Metabolites in Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) III . Invertase Activiy and Sugar metabolites (MH 및 FA이 황색종 잎담배의 몇가지 대사산물 변화에 미치는 영향 III. Invertase Activity 및 당질 대사물)

  • Han, Sang-Bin;Yook, Chang-Soo;Cho, Seong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.144-151
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    • 1994
  • Using a flue-cured tobacco variety, BU 109, effect of growth regulators(Fatty Alcohol and C-MH) on the change of invertase activity and sugar metabolites were investigated. Invertase activity in untreated leaf tissue was decreased along with maturation of leaf, However, a momentary increase of the activity was observed in leaves by the dual treatment of fatty alcohol and C-MH regardless of leaf position while sole C-MH treatment resulted in activity increase by 14 days after the treatment. Similar tendency was observed in stalk. Sugar content in leaf was increased immediately after the treatment but no significant increase at large resulted until 14 days after treatment. After harvest, reducing sugar was increased by the growth regulators. Nevertheless, in case of dual treatment, the total sugar content was not different with that of untreated control. R/T ratio was gradually increased after topping stage and reached maximum at 14 days after treatment of growth regulators. It decreased a little after harvest but the RR ratio was relatively higher due to increase of reducing sugar resulted by the treatment of the chemicals. Upon treatment of growth regulators, reducing sugar content was increased in lugs and leaves compared to untreated control and the content of sugar metabolites was increased by the use of the chemicals either at lower or higher than recommended dose. Key words : MH, FA, invertase activity, total sugar, reducing sugar

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Effect of Reducing Sugar Content in Chines Cabbage on Kimchi Fermentation (배추의 환원당 함량이 김치 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동관;김병기;김명환
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate and make comparison between treatment which was reduced the reducing sugar content from Chinese cabbage using salting and desalting processes prior to Kimchi fermentation , and control for the effect of reducing sugar content on Kimchi fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. In the early stage of Kimchi fermentation , the amount of reducing sugar (5.7mg/ml) in treatment was much smaller than that (15.1mg/ml) in control. Reducing sugar content of treatment decreased drastically during the first two days and then levelled off . Whereas, that of control dropped significantly up to the first four days of fermentation. pHs of treatment and control decreased significantly during the first two days and then showed gentle slopes. Acidities of treatment and control were increased continuously during the entire range of fermentation . The acidity of control reached to 0.75% in 3 days of fermentation, while that of treatment was shown after 6 days. Hardnesses of treatment and control using a puncture test were almost constant and the hardness value of treatment was higher than that of control during whole fermentation period. The total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria counts increased drastically during the first day of fermentation and the increase of total bacteria counts was mainly caused by that of lactic acid bacteria counts.

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ESTIMATION OF SUGAR AND REDUCING SUGAR IN MOLASSES USING NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

  • Mehrotra, Ranjana;Gupta, Alka;Tewari, Jagdish;Varma, S.P.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1258-1258
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    • 2001
  • Estimation of sugar and reducing sugar content in molasses is very important task in sugar refineries. Conventional methods of determination of sugar content in molasses samples are highly time consuming and employ hazardous chemicals. Due to the physical properties of molasses, probability of error in conventional analytical techniques is high. These methods have proven to be inefficient for a process control in any sugar industry. Hence development of a rapid, inexpensive, physical and also accurate method for sugar determination in molasses will be highly useful. Near Infrared spectroscopy is being widely used worldwide as an analytical technique in food industry. The technique offers the advantage of being non-destructive and rapid. The present paper highlights the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a rapid and automated analytical technique for determination of sugar and reducing sugar content in molasses. A number of molasses samples were collected during and after the sugar season from Havana Sugar Industry, Havana. The samples were chosen so as to obtain a wide range of concentration of sugar and reducing sugars. This was done in order to achieve a good calibration curve with widely spread data points. These samples were scanned in the region of 1100 - 2500 nm in diffuse reflectance mode. An indigenous ELICO NIR spectrophotometer, modified according to the requirements of sugar industry was used for this purpose. Each sample was also analyzed simultaneously by standard chemical methods. Chemical values were taken as reference for near infrared analysis. In order to obtain the most accurate calibration for the set of samples, various mathematical treatments were employed. Partial Least Square method was found to be most suitable for the analysis. A comparison is made between the actual values (chemical values) and the predicted values (NIR values). The actual values agree very well with the predicted values showing the accuracy of the technique. The validity of the technique is checked by predicting the concentration of sugar in unknown molasses samples using the calibration curve. The present investigation assesses the feasibility of the technique for on-line monitoring of sugars present in molasses in sugar industries.

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The Characteristics of Brown Stock Prepared by High Pressure Cooking (고압 가열 방식으로 추출한 Brown Stock의 특성)

  • 최수근;최희선;이재성
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.281-288
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    • 2001
  • The autoclave method and the traditional cooking method were compared for nutrients(especially, minerals), color difference, viscosity, reduction of sugar and amino nitrogen content of brown stock. The autoclave cooking method is better than the traditional cooking method for retaining protein and amino nitrogen contents, as well as for reducing sugar content. Also, reducing sugar content increased by the autoclave cooking method. Since the color of brown sauce was related with the reducing sugar content, the autoclave cooking method was more effective than the traditional cooking method for the color development of brown stock. Since the autoclave method can reduce the cooking time without a loss of quality in brown stock, the autoclave method is a viable alternative to the traditional method of preparing brown stock.

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Uncertainty of Total Alkaloids and Reducing Sugar Determination in Flue-cured Tobacco (황색종 담배중 전알카로이드와 환원당 분석에 대한 불확도 측정)

  • 백순옥;장기철;이운철;한상빈
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the uncertainty in the analysis of total alkaloids and reducing sugar content in flue-cured tobacco. The sources of uncertainty associated with the analysis of total alkaloids and reducing sugar were the weighing of sample, the preparation of extracting solution, the addition of extracting solution into the sample, the preparation of standard solution, the precision of calibration curve for standard solution, the reproducibility of analysis, and the determination of water content in tobacco, etc. For the calculating uncertainties, Type A of uncertainty was evaluated by the statistical analysis of a series of observation, and Type B by the information based on supplier’s catalogue and/or certificated of calibration. It was shown that the main source of uncertainty was caused by the calibration curve of standard solution, the reproducibility of analysis, the volume measurement of 1$m\ell$, and the purity of nicotine reference material in the preparation of standard solution. The uncertainty in the addition of extracting solution, the sample weighing, the volume measurement of 100$m\ell$, and the determination of water content of tobacco contributed relatively little to the overall uncertainty. The expanded uncertainty of total alkaloids and reducing sugar in flue-cured tobacco at 95% level of confidence was $\pm$0.12% and $\pm$0.54%, respectively.

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Effect of Plant Hormones on the Invertase Activity in the Senescing Leaves of Phaseoius radiatus

  • Dong Hee Lee;Chi
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 1993
  • Effect of plant hormones on the leaf senescence of mung bean (Phseoln radiatus) was investigated by measuring the changes of reducing sugar contents and invertase isozyme activities in detached leaves treated with NAA, $GA_3$ or BA. During dark-induced senescence, reducing sugar contents in the detached leaves increased temporarily at 4 6, thereafter decreased rapidly and reached minimum values within 7-14 6. The pattern of soluble acid invertase activity in the senescing leaves kept in the dark was similar to that of reducing sugar accumulation, whereas the activities of alkaline and extracellular invertases were not significantly changed during leaf senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that soluble acid invertase, but not alkaline and extracellular invertases, induces the accumulation of reducing sugar during leaf senescence of Rung bean plants. Exogenous NAA application had little or no effect In the increase of soluble acid invertase activity during dark-induced senescence compared to the control. However, exogenous applications of $GA_3$ and BA led to the increase of soluble acid invertase activity in the senescing leaves. Particularly, BA application was very effective In enhancing the activity of soluble acid invertase as well as in delaying chlorophyll breakdown during dark-induced senescence. These results suggest, therefore, that BA regulates the activity of soluble acid invertase, which leads to the accumulation of reducing sugar, and the stability of photosynthetic apparatus to delay leaf senescence.

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Effect of Plant Hormones on the Invertase Activity in the Senescing Leaves of Phaseolus radiatus

  • Lee, Dong-Hee;Lee, Chin-Bum;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 1998
  • Effect of plant hormones on the leaf senescence of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) was investigated by measuring the changes of reducing sugar contents and invertase isozyme activities in detached leaves treated with NAA, $GA_3$ or BA. During dark-induced senescence, reducing sugar contents in the detached leaves increased temporarily at 4 d, thereafter decreased rapidly and reached minimum values within 7-14 d. The pattern of soluble acid invertase activity in the senescing leaves kept in the dark was similar to that of reducing sugar accumulation, whereas the activities of alkaline and extracellular invertases were not significantly changed during leaf senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that soluble acid invertase, but not alkaline and extracellular invertases, induces the accumulation of reducing sugar during leaf senescence of mung bean plants. Exogenous NAA application had little or no effect in the increase of soluble acid invertase activity during dark-induced senescence compared to the control. However, exogenous applications of $GA_3$ and BA led to the increase of soluble acid invertase activity in the senescing leaves. Particularly, BA application was very effective in enhancing the activity of soluble acid invertase as well as in delaying chlorophyll breakdown during dark-induced senescence. These results suggest, therefore, that BA regulates the activity of soluble acid invertase, which leads to the accumulation of reducing sugar, and the stability of photosynthetic apparatus to delay leaf senescence.

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