• Title, Summary, Keyword: reduction factor

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Modal strength reduction factors for seismic design of plane steel frames

  • Papagiannopoulos, George A.;Beskos, Dimitri E.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.65-88
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    • 2011
  • A new method for the seismic design of plane steel moment resisting frames is developed. This method determines the design base shear of a plane steel frame through modal synthesis and spectrum analysis utilizing different values of the strength reduction (behavior) factor for the modes considered instead of a single common value of that factor for all these modes as it is the case with current seismic codes. The values of these modal strength reduction factors are derived with the aid of a) design equations that provide equivalent linear modal damping ratios for steel moment resisting frames as functions of period, allowable interstorey drift and damage levels and b) the damping reduction factor that modifies elastic acceleration spectra for high levels of damping. Thus, a new performance-based design method is established. The direct dependence of the modal strength reduction factor on desired interstorey drift and damage levels permits the control of deformations without their determination and secures that deformations will not exceed these levels. By means of certain seismic design examples presented herein, it is demonstrated that the use of different values for the strength reduction factor per mode instead of a single common value for all modes, leads to more accurate results in a more rational way than the code-based ones.

Removal and Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus during Manufacture of a High Purity Antihemophilic Factor VIII Concentrate from Human Plasma

  • Kim, In-Seop;Park, Yong-Woon;Lee, Sung-Rae;Lee, Mahl-Soon;Huh, Ki-Ho;Lee, Soungmin
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2001
  • A validation study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of the cryo-precipitation, monoclonal anti-FVIIIc antibody (mAb) chromatography, Q-Sepharose chromatography, and lyophilization steps involved in the manufacture of high purity factor VIII (GreenMono) from human plasma, in the removal and/or inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Samples from the relevant stages of the production process were spiked with HAV and subjected to scale-down processes mimicking the manufacture of the high purity factor VIII concentrate. Samples were collected at each step and immediately titrated using a 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID$\_$50/) and then the virus reduction factors were evaluated. HAV was effectively partitioned from factor VⅢ during cryo-precipitation with the log reduction factor of 3.2. The mAb chromatography was the most effective step far removal of HAV with the log reduction factor of $\geq$4.3. HAV infectivity was not detected in the fraction of factor VⅢ, while most of HAV infectivity was recovered in the fractions of flow through and wash during mAb chromatography. Q-Sepharose chromatography showed the lowest efficacy for partitioning HAV with the log reduction factor of 0.7. Lyophilization was an effective step in inactivating HAV with the log reduction factor of 2.3. The cumulative lag reduction factor, $\geq$10.5, achieved for tile entire manufacturing process was several magnitudes greater than the potential HAV load of current plasma pools.

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Estimation of response reduction factor of RC frame staging in elevated water tanks using nonlinear static procedure

  • Lakhade, Suraj O.;Kumar, Ratnesh;Jaiswal, Omprakash R.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.209-224
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    • 2017
  • Elevated water tanks are considered as important structures due to its post-earthquake requirements. Elevated water tank on reinforced concrete frame staging is widely used in India. Different response reduction factors depending on ductility of frame members are used in seismic design of frame staging. The study on appropriateness of response reduction factor for reinforced concrete tank staging is sparse in literature. In the present paper a systematic study on estimation of key components of response reduction factors is presented. By considering the various combinations of tank capacity, height of staging, seismic design level and design response reduction factors, forty-eight analytical models are developed and designed using relevant Indian codes. The minimum specified design cross section of column as per Indian code is found to be sufficient to accommodate the design steel. The strength factor and ductility factor are estimated using results of nonlinear static pushover analysis. It was observed that for seismic design category 'high' the strength factor has lesser contribution than ductility factor, whereas, opposite trend is observed for seismic design category 'low'. Further, the effects of staging height and tank capacity on strength and ductility factors for two different seismic design categories are studied. For both seismic design categories, the response reduction factors obtained from the nonlinear static analysis is higher than the code specified response reduction factors. The minimum dimension restriction of column is observed as key parameter in achieving the desired performance of the elevated water tank on frame staging.

Evaluation of seismic reliability and multi level response reduction factor (R factor) for eccentric braced frames with vertical links

  • Mohsenian, Vahid;Mortezaei, Alireza
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.537-549
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    • 2018
  • Using vertical links in eccentric braced frames is one of the best passive structural control approaches due to its effectiveness and practicality advantages. However, in spite of the subject importance there are limited studies which evaluate the seismic reliability and response reduction factor (R-factor) in this system. Therefore, the present study has been conducted to improve the current understanding about failure mechanism in the structural systems equipped with vertical links. For this purpose, following definition of demand and capacity response reduction factors, these parameters are computed for three different buildings (4, 8 and 12 stories) equipped with this system. In this regards, pushover and incremental dynamic analysis have been employed, and seismic reliability as well as multi-level response reduction factor according to the seismic demand and capacity of the frames have been derived. Based on the results, this system demonstrates high ductility and seismic energy dissipation capacity, and using the response reduction factor as high as 8 also provides acceptable reliability for the frame in the moderate and high earthquake intensities. This system can be used in original buildings as lateral load resisting system in addition to seismic rehabilitation of the existing buildings.

Evaluation of multi-lane transverse reduction factor under random vehicle load

  • Yang, Xiaoyan;Gong, Jinxin;Xu, Bohan;Zhu, Jichao
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.725-736
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents the two-, three-, and four-lane transverse reduction factor based on FEA method, probability theory, and the recently actual traffic flow data. A total of 72 composite girder bridges with various spans, number of lanes, loading mode, and bridge type are analyzed with time-varying static load FEA method by ANSYS, and the probability models of vehicle load effects at arbitrary-time point are developed. Based on these probability models, in accordance to the principle of the same exceeding probability, the multi-lane transverse reduction factor of these composite girder bridges and the relationship between the multi-lane transverse reduction factor and the span of bridge are determined. Finally, the multi-lane transverse reduction factor obtained is compared with those from AASHTO LRFD, BS5400, JTG D60 or Eurocode. The results show that the vehicle load effect at arbitrary-time point follows lognormal distribution. The two-, three-, and four-lane transverse reduction factors calculated by using FEA method and probability respectively range between 0.781 and 1.027, 0.616 and 0.795, 0.468 and 0.645. Furthermore, a correlation between the FEA and AASHTO LRFD, BS5400, JTG D60 or Eurocode transverse reduction factors is made for composite girder bridges. For the two-, three-, and four-lane bridge cases, the Eurocode code underestimated the FEA transverse reduction factors by 27%, 25% and 13%, respectively. This underestimation is more pronounced in short-span bridges. The AASHTO LRFD, BS5400 and JTG D60 codes overestimated the FEA transverse reduction factors. The FEA results highlight the importance of considering span length in determining the multi-lane transverse reduction factors when designing two-lane or more composite girder bridges. This paper will assist bridge engineers in quantifying the adjustment factors used in analyzing and designing multi-lane composite girder bridges.

Effect of a roughness factor on electrochemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol using porous gold

  • Kim, Jieun;Han, Soomin;Kim, Younghun
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.2498-2501
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    • 2017
  • Porous gold (PAu) was prepared by a paper-based templating method and was used to investigate the effect of a roughness factor on the electrochemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Bare and palladium-loaded PAu electrodes showed open porous structures and large surface areas, compared to the bulk Au electrode. Moreover, its backbone structure was adjustable with the intrinsic pore size of the filter paper. As compared to PAu and bulk Au electrodes, the Pd/PAu electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity and a rapid reduction rate in a 4-NP reduction test. The results for cyclic voltammetry and kinetic analysis revealed that intraparticle diffusion through a porous structure and an electrocatalytically-active surface area (i.e., a high roughness factor) are important factors contributing to the enhancement of the electrocatalytic performance of 4-NP reduction.

Strength reduction factor for multistory building-soil systems

  • Nik, Farhad Abedi;Khoshnoudian, Faramarz
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.301-316
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    • 2014
  • This paper is devoted to investigate the effects of SSI on strength reduction factor of multistory buildings. A new formula is proposed to estimate strength reduction factors for MDOF structure-soil systems. It is concluded that SSI reduces the strength reduction factor of MDOF systems. The amount of this reduction is relevant to the fundamental period of structure, soil flexibility, aspect ratio and ductility of structure, and could be significantly different from corresponding fixed-base value. Using this formula, measuring the amount of this error could be done with acceptable accuracy. For some practical cases, the error attains up to 50%.

Interpretation of Reduction Factor by Creep Deformation Test of Geogrids (지오그리드의 크리프 변형 시험에 의한 감소계수 해석)

  • Jeon Han Yong;Mok Mun Sung;Yoo Chungsik;Kim Eui Hwa
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2005
  • Reduction factor by creep deformation test of geogrids was interpreted to determine the long-term design strength. For this, limit creep strain of geogrids was analyzed to consider the material strain property. Limit creep strain of geogrids in this study was not over $10\%$ during 10000 hours. Sherby-Dorn plots were applied to compare the real limit strain criteria (GRI Test Method GG-4). Through Sherby-Dorn plots of creep deformation behaviors of geogrids. It was seen that the limit creep strain was $11\%$. This value is higher than the existing criteria of $10\%$. From this limit creep strain 11$\%$, reduction factor from the creep deformation test was 1.45 during 10,000 hours for geogrids. Finally, creep reduction factors of $10\%\;and\;11\%$ limit creep strains were compared and analyzed to interpretate the difference of reduction factor $0.06\~0.14.$

Design parameter dependent force reduction, strength and response modification factors for the special steel moment-resisting frames

  • Kang, Cheol Kyu;Choi, Byong Jeong
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.273-290
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    • 2011
  • In current ductility-based earthquake-resistant design, the estimation of design forces continues to be carried out with the application of response modification factors on elastic design spectra. It is well-known that the response modification factor (R) takes into account the force reduction, strength, redundancy, and damping of structural systems. The key components of the response modification factor (R) are force reduction ($R_{\mu}$) and strength ($R_S$) factors. However, the response modification and strength factors for structural systems presented in design codes were based on professional judgment and experiences. A numerical study has been accomplished to evaluate force reduction, strength, and response modification factors for special steel moment resisting frames. A total of 72 prototype steel frames were designed based on the recommendations given in the AISC Seismic Provisions and UBC Codes. Number of stories, soil profiles, seismic zone factors, framing systems, and failure mechanisms were considered as the design parameters that influence the response. The effects of the design parameters on force reduction ($R_{\mu}$), strength ($R_S$), and response modification (R) factors were studied. Based on the analysis results, these factors for special steel moment resisting frames are evaluated.

Manufacturing and Assessment of High Performance Geosynthetic Composites for Reinforcement (보강용 고성능 토목건설 복합 보강재의 제조 및 평가)

  • ;George R. Koerner
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.272-280
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    • 2003
  • The composite type geogrid having 8 ton/m design strength was manufactured to develop the junction and creep properties. Three different types of geogrids(membrane type, textile type(warp/ knitted, woven type) and junction bonded type geogrids) are used to compare the long-term performance by total factor of safety with reduction factors during service periods. To evaluate the reduction factors, wide-width tensile and junction strength, installation damage, creep deformation, chemical and biological degradation were performed. Total factors of safety for these different type geogrids were interpreted through the results of these reduction factors. The long-term performance was evaluated by the long-term design strength of these geogrids to be calculated the constitutive equations of GRI standard Test Method GG4. Reduction factor of creep deformation mainly influenced on the long-term performance and composite type geogrid showed the most excellent long-term performance among these geogrids.