• Title, Summary, Keyword: reinfection

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An Evaluation on the Prevalence and Reinfection after Medication of Patients with Clonorchis sinensis in an Endemic Locality (간흡충 만연 일 지역에서 투약 후 유병률 및 재감염율 조사)

  • Kim, Suk-Il;Park, Jong;Kim, Ki-Soon;Yang, Ae-Hyang;Kim, Young-Lak
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 1999
  • A survey of an endemic locality at Songjung Ri, Ogok Myun, Goksung County, South Cholla Province for the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai was primarily done on 53 residence before medication using formalin-ether concentration method of stool examination. After praziquantel medication of all the clonorchiasis patients, 64 humans consisting 82.1% of total inhibitants and including 84.9% of primarily surveyed residents were secondly surveyed after 2-year post-treatment to evaluate the prevalence and reinfection. The prevalence of clonorchiasis was decreased from 35.8% before medication to 10.9% after medication(P<0.01), indicating this disease was not satisfactorily controlled although the rate was significantly lowered. The prevalence of metagonimiasis was dropped from 17.0% to 6.3% on post-treatment. In clonorchiasis cases, sex ratio showed no difference in both pre- and post-treatment, and mean age was the sixties after medication from the forties and fifties before medication, suggesting more aged people of both sexes were infected with this fluke. The reinfection of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis following 2-year post-treatment was 15.8% and 25.0%, respectively. The proportion of reinfection among the egg positive cases was 50.0% in clonorchiasis and 100% in metagonimiasis. These findings mean that a high fraction of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis was reinfected with these trematodes. In conclusion, to eradicate the C. sinensis and M. yokogawai in an endemic area, it should be preceded to control the reinfection of these parasites.

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Immune Correlates of Resistance to Trichinella spiralis Reinfection in Mice

  • Chu, Ki-Back;Kim, Sang-Soo;Lee, Su-Hwa;Lee, Dong-Hun;Kim, Ah-Ra;Quan, Fu-Shi
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.637-643
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    • 2016
  • The immune correlate of host resistance induced by reinfection of Trichinella spiralis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated immune correlates between the resistance and serum IgG antibody level, $CD23^+$ $IgM^+$ B cells, and eosinophil responses induced by T. spiralis reinfection. Mice were primarily infected with 10 or 100 T. spiralis larvae (10 TS, 100 TS), respectively, and after 4 weeks, they were challenge infected with 100 T. spiralis larvae (10-100 TS, 100-100 TS). Upon challenge infections, 10-100 TS mice induced significantly higher levels of T. spiralis-specific total IgG antibody responses in sera and antibody secreting cell responses in spleens compared to 100-100 TS mice, resulting in significantly reduced worm burdens in 10-100 TS mice (60% and 70% reductions for adult and larvae, respectively). Higher levels of eosinophils were found in mice primarily infected with 10 TS compared to those of 100 TS at week 8 upon challenge. $CD23^+$ $IgM^+$ B cells were found to be increased significantly in mice primarily infected with 10 TS. These results indicate that primary infection of 10 larvae of T. spiralis, rather than 100 larvae, induces significant resistance against reinfection which closely correlated with T. spiralis-specific IgG, eosinophil, and $CD23^+$ $IgM^+$ B cell responses.

Egg Positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and intestinal helminths among residents in Kagye-ri, Saengbiryang-myon, Sanchong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do (경남 산청군 생비량면 가계리 주민의 간흡충과 장내 윤충류 충란 양성율)

  • 홍성종;이연효
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.271-274
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    • 1994
  • Stools of the residents in a village in Saengbiryang-myon, Sanchong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do were examined for the eggs of intestinal helminths. In 1987, infEction rate of 76 residents by Clonorchis sinenis was 80.3% with mean eggs per gram of feces (EPG) 27.781 C. sinensis-infected persons were treated once with praziquantel 60 mg/kg, q. i.d. Seventeen persons (22.4%) infected by Metosonimw yokogcwoi was coinfected with C. sinensis. In 1993. C. sirensis egg positive rate was 48.4% with mean EPG 5,929. Reinfection rate of follow-up cases by C. sinensis was 55.2% during 5 years and 5 months. Infection rate by MW. yokogauwai was 3.2%. This village was an endemic focus of clonorchiasis occurring reinfection high.

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Recurrence of equine coital exanthema in thoroughbred stallions

  • Yang, Jaehyuk;Lim, Yoon-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.175-176
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    • 2013
  • The object of this study was to evaluate recurrence of equine coital exanthema (ECE) whether re-infection or re-activation of causative virus. ECE is a venereal disease of horses caused by equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3). Like other herpesviruses, it may persist in infected horses for a long time. There is a controversy on the cause of ECE as the recurrence or the reinfection. This disease had occurred firstly on stallions and broodmares in Korea. The horses had rebreeded after healing routinely. Next year, the disease recurrented on the just same affected horses among stallions. The result of this study, re-outbreak of ECE in stallions is recurrence of ECE, but not reinfection of the virus.

Corelation between the Treatment Result and Causative Bacteria in Amputation of Diabetic Foot (당뇨발 절단에 있어 원인 감염균과 치료 결과와의 관계)

  • Lee, Myoung Jin;Lee, Kyu Yeol;Kim, Sung Soo;Kim, Chul Hong;Wang, Lih;Kim, Hyeon Jun;Kim, Ki Woong
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To evaluate correlation between the clinical results and causative bacteria in diabetic foot patients with lower extremity amputation. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty nine patients(131 feet) of diabetic foot amputations were followed for more than one year. Wound cultures were done by deep tissue or bone debris at first visit to our clinics. Retrospective analysis was performed using chart review and interview with the patients. Depending on the culture result, level of amputation, reinfection, duration of treatment, death rate, patient satisfaction and admission dates were evaluated. Results: Microorganisms were confirmed in 114 cases. In the other 17 cases, there were no cultured microorganisms. In bacterial growth group, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen and accounted for 34 cases. As other common pathogens, there were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(24 cases) and mixed infection(14 cases). Mortality is no difference in each infected group. Mixed bacterial infected patients have higher reinfection, longer hospital day and duration of treatment, but there is no difference in patients satisfaction and pain at last follow up. Conclusion: The most common pathogen in diabetic foot patients with lower extremity amputation was Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and mixed bacterial infected patients have higher reinfection rate, longer admission date and duration of treatment than other bacterial infected patients.

The Effects of Case Management for Clients with Clonorchiasis in Riverside Areas (강유역의 간흡충 감염양성자를 위한 사례관리 적용효과)

  • Kim, Chunmi;Kim, Hee-Gerl;June, Kyung-Ja;Kim, Souk-Young
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.427-437
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: In order to lower the infection rate and the reinfection rate of Clonorchiasis in high-risk areas, we performed and analyzed a case management on people with chlonorchisis. Methods: The data was collected from April 2010 to March 2011. A community health practitioner was selected as a case manager based on our training program. The intervention group had 58 participants with three months of case management and the control group had 144 participants handled with traditional methods. Results: the pre and post-test in the intervention group and the control group showed us improved knowledge of Clonorchiasis, attitudes and behavior toward eating freshwater fish. The results of post-test between the intervention group and the control group showed statistically significant differences in all categories, except a hand-washing category. However, one year after a case management, there was no significant difference in the failure rate of treatment. Conclusion: The case management was effective for people infected with Clornorchiasis near riverside areas; however, in order to lower the rates of reinfection and treatment failure, it is necessary to perform continuous monitoring and regular evaluations.

The Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Short-term Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Pulmonary Tuberculosis (한 대학병원에서 반복성 폐결핵 환자의 임상적 특성과 6개월 단기요법의 치료 성적)

  • Yoo, Seung Soo;Kwon, Jee Suk;Kang, Yeh Rim;Lee, Jeong Woo;Cha, Seung Ick;Park, Jae Yong;Jung, Tae Hoon;Kim, Chang Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.5
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    • pp.341-346
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    • 2008
  • Background: Recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can be due to relapse of the original infecting strain or due to reinfection with a new strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We investigated the clinical characteristics and efficacy of short-term treatment (6 months) in patients with recurrent pulmonary TB. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with recurrent pulmonary TB were compared with control patients who received primary treatment for pulmonary TB with respect to drug sensitivity and outcomes of treatment. Results: Most patients with recurrent pulmonary TB (25 cases, 86.2%) recurred more than 2 years after the completion of previous treatment. Twenty-three patients (82.1%) with recurrent pulmonary TB were sensitive to all anti-tuberculous drugs and a ratio was similar to the drug sensitivities observed in control patients. The outcomes of short-term treatment in patients with drug-sensitive TB were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Recurrent pulmonary TB in the study area was likely due to reinfection with new strains. Thus the short-term treatment of patients with drug-sensitive recurrent pulmonary TB may be successful.

Pharmacological Evaluation of Proprietary Preparation from Bacterial Metabolites with Special Reference to its Immunomodulatory Actions

  • Auddy, Biswajit;Mitra, Susil K.;Mukherjee, Biswapati
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1999
  • A mixture of several bacterial metabolites $(Sterodin{\circledR})$ was used to study its effect on major immunocytes, in vivo and in vitro. This mixture of bacterial metabolites increased number of macrophages and neutrophils and their phagocytic activity in experimental animals for a transient period. BSA induced antibody production was found to be higher in the drug treated group. These results indicated that the bacterial metabolites probably acted through non-specific defence mechanism against invading organisms and the chance of reinfection was reduced.

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Outcomes of Reoperative Valve Replacement in Patients with Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: A 20-Year Experience

  • Kim, Young Woong;Jung, Sung-Ho;Choo, Suk Jung;Chung, Cheol Hyun;Lee, Jae Won;Kim, Joon Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2018
  • Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a serious complication of cardiac valve replacement, and many patients with PVE require reoperation. The aim of this study was to review our institutional 20-year experience of surgical reoperative valve replacement in patients with PVE. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 84 patients (mean age, $54.8{\pm}12.7years$; 51 males) who were diagnosed with PVE and underwent reoperative valve replacement from January 1995 to December 2016. Results: PVE was found in 1 valve in 61 cases (72.6%), and in 2 or more valves in 23 cases (27.4%). The median follow-up duration was 47.3 months (range, 0 to 250 months). Postoperative complications occurred in 39 patients (46.4%). Reinfection occurred in 6 cases, all within 1 year. The freedom from reinfection rate at 5 years was $91.0%{\pm}3.5%$. The overall survival rates at 5 and 10 years were $64.4%{\pm}5.8%$ and $54.3%{\pm}7.3%$, respectively. In stepwise multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.10; p=0.027) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.01; p=0.033) emerged as independent risk factors for death. Conclusion: Older age and a longer CPB time were associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in PVE patients.

Seasonal Incidence of Potato virus f Infection on Potato Cultivars for the Double Crops in Korea (2기작 감자 품종의 재배 시기별 PVY 감염 정도 조사)

  • Hahm Young-Il;Lee Young-Gyu
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.28-31
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    • 2006
  • One of major potato viruses is Potato virus Y (PVY) in Korea. In the southern part of Korea, potatoes have been grown as double crops in a year by using cv. 'Dejima' and 'Chubak' due to very short dormancy. However, they have caused a serious problem such as a rapid degeneration. It has been thought that the degeneration is affected by the high incidence of PVY in neighboring potato fields. Therefore, the investigation of factors causing the degeneration is very important in the production of healthy seed potato. In this study, the PVY reinfection rates of several potato varieties and the different seed sources of cv. 'Chubak' have been investigated. Results show that the lowest infection rate of PVY among four potato cultivars derived from minitubers is cv. 'Superior'. The others are in order of 'Dejima', 'Atlantic' and 'Chubak'. Also, the incidences of PVY differ significantly when several seed sources are examined. When the seed potatoes (G2, the progeny of microtuber) as spring potato crops are planted in area without potato field nearby, the infection rate of PVY is as low as that of microtubers. However, PVY incidence in the progenies of minitubers as fall potato crops largely increases. Therefore, the best way of potato production under double cropping system is to use the healthy seed potato produced in area without potato field and plant relatively resistant cultivar such as Dejima.