• Title, Summary, Keyword: relaxing degree

Search Result 12, Processing Time 0.059 seconds

Relaxor Behaviors in xBaTiO3-(1-x)CoFe2O4 Materials

  • Dung, Cao Thi My;Thi, Nhu Hoa Tran;Ta, Kieu Hanh Thi;Tran, Vinh Cao;Nguyen, Bao Thu Le;Le, Van Hieu;Do, Phuong Anh;Dang, Anh Tuan;Ju, Heongkyu;Phan, Bach Thang
    • Journal of Magnetics
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.353-359
    • /
    • 2015
  • Dielectric properties of $xBaTiO_3-(1-x)CoFe_2O_4$ composite materials have been investigated. Dielectric properties of $BaTiO_3$, $CoFe_2O_4$ and $0.5BaTiO_3-0.5CoFe_2O_4$ samples show frequency dependence, which is classified as relaxor behavior with different relaxing degree. The relaxor behaviors were described using the modified Curier-Weiss and Vogel-Fulcher laws. Among three above samples, the $BaTiO_3$ sample has highest relaxing degree. Photoluminescence spectral indicated defects, which might in turn control relaxing degree.

Experimental Evaluation of the Lighting Environment for Main Activities of the Residents in Living Room (거실 거주자의 주요 행위에 적합한 조명환경 평가 실험)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ji;Woo, Seong Jun;Kim, Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
    • /
    • v.27 no.9
    • /
    • pp.6-14
    • /
    • 2013
  • The position of the light source, illuminance distribution, and color temperature were evaluated in each lighting environment for the three main activities in a living room - 'watching TV,' 'reading' and 'relaxing.' In 'watching TV', the experiment was done to estimate the degree of comfort felt by the subjects when they watch static video and moving video, respectably, with different ambient brightness, with or without partial lighting above the TV set, and with different color temperatures. In 'reading', the comfortableness was estimated by the illuminance ratio of the ambient lighting to the lighting for reading and by the difference in color temperature. And in 'relaxing', the comfortableness was estimated by means of the ambient brightness, use/no use of a relaxing lamp, and color temperature. This experiment determined the general satisfaction for each visual act and the optimum lighting environment to reduce glare.

A Study on the Mechanism upon Joy Impairs the Heart (희상심(喜傷心)의 병기(病機)에 대한 고찰)

  • Ahn, Jin-hee
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
    • /
    • v.32 no.3
    • /
    • pp.73-83
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objectives : The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism of 'Joy impairs the Heart'. Methods : "Huangdineijing" was searched in relation to 'Joy' and 'Heart', then Joy was divided into physiological and pathological joy. After examination of the similarities and differences between the two, the mechanism of 'Joy impairs the Heart' was drawn out. Results : 1. Excessive Joy not only relaxes Qi(氣), but also disperses Shen(神). 2. Impairment of Heart damages heart locally and Impairment of Yang not only damages Qi or Shen focally, but also damages Yang of the whole body and the degree of damage is thought to be more extensive than "Joy impairs the Heart". 3. "Too much joy and pleasure can cause the Shen(神) to scatter and not remain stored." not only relaxes Qi, but also disperses Shen(神), and the degree of damage is less than "Sudden joy damages Yang". Conclusions : Excessive or Sudden Joy impairs the Heart by disturbing Heart's property of maintaining Taiyang by scattering Shen(神) or not maintaining high Yang density. Forced expression of Joy impairs the Heart by relaxing and stagnating Qi.

Clinical observations on treatment of ankle-sprain (족관절 염좌의 치료에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • You, Tae-seop;Park, Dong-suk;Kang, Sung-keel
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.168-175
    • /
    • 2004
  • Objective: This report was designed to investigate characteristic of ankle sprain due to cause, degree of injury, treatment process, sex, age etc Methods: We selected 36 patients who visited our clinic at last over two times complaining of ankle-sprain since 8th, March, 2002. Results: The results were summarized as follows. 1. The major cause of ankle-sprain was injury of lateral collateral ligament. 2. Ankle-sprain was distinguished three degree, and generally presented pain, regional tenderness, swelling, limited movement, muscle spasm, redness, deformity. 3. In early stage of ankle-sprain, ice massage, compression, elevation, rest were very important. 4. In oriental medicine, the principle of treatment were promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, relaxing muscles and tendons and activating the flow of Gi and blood in the channels and collaterals, reducing edema or swelling, and alleviating pain. 5. There were more effective result to using three-edged needle with acupuncture. Conclusions: Ankle-sprain were treated successfully using acupuncture and three-edged needle.

  • PDF

Robustness Bounds of the Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft System with Structured Uncertainties

  • Jo, Jang-Hyen
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.459-459
    • /
    • 2000
  • The purpose of this paper is the application of the techniques for the new estimation of robustness for the aircraft systems having structured uncertainties. The basic ideas to analyze the system which is the originally nonlinear is Lyapunov direct theorems. The nonlinear systems have various forms of terms inside the system equations and this investigation is confined in the form of bounded uncertainties. The number of uncertainties will be the degree of freedoms in the calculation of the robust stability regions called the robustness bounds. This proposition adopts the theoretical analysis of the Lyapunov direct methods, that is, the sign properties of the Lyapunov function derivative integrated along finite intervals of time, in place of the original method of the sign properties of the time derivative of the Lyapunov function itself. This is the new sufficient criteria to relax the stability condition and is used to generate techniques for the robust design of control systems with structured perturbations. Using this relaxing stability conditions, in this paper, the quadratic form of Lyapunov function is utilized. In this paper, the practical system of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft is analyzed with the proposed stability criteria based upon the Lyapunov direct method. The application of numerical procedures can prove the improvements in estimations of robustness with structured uncertainties. The applicable aircraft system is assumed to be linear with time-varying with nonlinear bounded perturbations.

  • PDF

Comparison of EQ-5D and OHIP-14 sub-dimensions for measuring oral health-related quality of life (구강건강 관련 삶의 질 측정에서 EQ-5D 및 OHIP-14의 관련성)

  • Ahn, Eunsuk;Shin, Hosung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
    • /
    • v.42 no.3
    • /
    • pp.77-83
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objectives: Oral-specific measures are often preferred for examining oral disease outcomes; however, generic measures can add additional important information. This study measured oral health-related quality of life, reflecting the multidimensional characteristics of oral health, and we compared sub-dimensions of the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) with the EuroQual-5D (EQ-5D). Methods: Data from 305 patients were collected from patients who visited the dental university hospital in 2016-2017 and included EQ-5D, OHIP-14, and self-rated general/oral health questionnaires. A factor analysis was performed to identify sub-dimensions of the EQ-5D and OHIP-14, and a cluster analysis was conducted to examine the degree of overlap among the sub-dimensions of two measures. Results: In the factor analysis, a range of OHIP-14 items (physical pain, physical disability, and handicap) loaded on factor 3, along with EQ-5D items. In the analysis of groups with relatively low oral qualities of life, moving from the bottom towards the top of the dendrogram, the next major branch split was the dimension of EQ-5D pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression items, which clustered between the OHIP-14 interrupted meal and difficult relaxing subscales. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that using the EQ-5D for oral health status expends the complementary role of oral health-related quality of life measures.

Study of the Robustness Bounds with Lyapunoved-Based Stability Concept

  • Jo, Jang-Hyen
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.700-705
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purpose of this project is the derivation and development of techniques for the new estimation of robustness for the systems having uncertainties. The basic ideas to analyze the system which is the originally nonlinear is Lyapunov direct theorems. The nonlinear systems have various forms of terms inside the system equations and this investigation is confined in the form of bounded uncertainties. Bounded means the uncertainties are with same positive/negative range. The number of uncertainties will be the degree of freedoms in the calculation of the stability region. This is so called the robustness bounds. This proposition adopts the theoretical analysis of the Lyapunov direct methods, that is, the sign properties of the Lyapunov function derivative integrated along finite intervals of time, in place of the original method of the sign properties of the time derivative of the Lyapunov function itself. This is the new sufficient criteria to relax the stability condition and is used to generate techniques for the robust design of control systems with structured perturbations. Using this relaxing stability conditions, the selection of Lyapunov candidate function is of various forms. In this paper, the quadratic form is selected. this generated techniques has been demonstrated by recent research interest in the area of robust control design and confirms that estimation of robustness bounds will be improved upon those obtained by results of the original Lyapunov method. In this paper, the symbolic algebraic procedures are utilized and the calculating errors are reduced in the numerical procedures. The application of numerical procedures can prove the improvements in estimations of robustness for one-and more structured perturbations. The applicable systems is assumed to be linear with time-varying with nonlinear bounded perturbations. This new techniques will be extended to other nonlinear systems with various forms of uncertainties, especially in the nonlinear case of the unstructured perturbations and also with various control method.

  • PDF

The Effect of Thermotherapy on High School Girls' Dysmenorrhea (온요법이 여고생의 월경곤란증 경감에 미치는 효과)

  • Kang, In-Sun;Cha, Kyoul-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.773-784
    • /
    • 2001
  • The study was conducted to test the effectiveness of thermotherapy for high school girls who suffered from disruption in school activities through dysmenorrhea, and to study the extent of its availability in school infirmaries as one of the nursing methods. The test for the study was designed to make a contrast between half of the subjects (20) who did not receive the thermotherapy, and the rest (20) who did during the period from February 15th to April 14th, 2001. Measurements were taken of the subjects who complained of painful menstruation by a set of variables. The variables that were established and complemented by Hur, Mung-heang (1985) consist of 29 items that assess the dysmenorrhea and vitality through the symptoms of primary menstruation visually. Spsswin was used to analyze the data. The Cronbach-${\alpha}$ method was used for statistic confidence, and the test effect of both the subjects and the contrary ones was analyzed by way of T-test. The conclusions are as follow. (1) The hypothesis 1 states that the subjects with themotherapy have a lower degree of dysmenorrhea rather than the contrary ones without it. By the above assessment, there was a quantitative difference between the subjects at 39.40, and the contrary ones at 22.0. After the themotherapy, the degree of dysmenorrhea in the subjects was low indicating that there is a still 5% chance of statistic meaningful difference (t= 2.651. P= .012). As a result, the first hypothesis was accepted. (2) The hypothesis 2 states that the subjects with themotherapy have a different primary menstruation than those without. Data indicate that there was a difference of -5.95 and -4.80. The subjects showed low degrees. Since it was statistically insignificant (t=-1.398, P=.170), the second hypothesis was rejected. (3) The hypothesis 3 states that the subjects with themotherapy have a different vitality. The vitality was measured in three aspects. (1) pulse rate (/min) The hypothesis 3' states that the subjects with themotherapy have the different pulse rate from those without. Data indicate that there was no statistically meaningful difference between the two groups (t=.237, P=. 814). Therefore, the third 1st hypothesis was rejected. (2) Respiration rate The hypothesis 3' states that the subjects with themotherapy have a different respiration rate between pre-thermotherapy and post-thermotherapy. in contrast with the ones without it. The data show that there was no statistically meaningful difference (t=.133. P=.895). A little respiration rate difference was shown between pre-and post-. Likewise. the third 2nd hypothesis was rejected. (3) Blood pressure In the 3rd sub-hypothesis that there would be a difference between experimental and controlled groups was also rejected. because there was no statistically significant difference between the contracting blood pressure and the relaxing blood pressure. In terms of vitality. the pulse rate, respiration rate and blood pressure have no statistical meaning but the first two ones show the decreasing in the rate. In short, though exclusive studies focused on thermo therapy have not been conducted and the comparison can not be made, this study shows not only that the thermotherapy is very effective to dysmenorrhea, but also that it can be available in school infirmaries as one of the nursing methods.

  • PDF

The Effect of Music Therapy on Cognitive Function, Behavior and Emotion of Dementia Elderly (음악요법이 치매노인의 인지기능, 행동, 정서에 미치는 효과)

  • Sim, Hyang-Mi;Chung, Seung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.591-600
    • /
    • 2001
  • Purpose: This study was to observe the effects of music therapy on the cognitive function, behavior, and emotions of elderly dementia patients, and to seek musical mediation for them. This study was conducted with patients in the Dementia Sanitarium in C City from March 13 to April 17. Method: The design of research was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design and the subjects were 25 patients-15 of whom were in the experimental group with 10 in the control group. The music therapy consisted of favorite music listening in the morning, favorite music group singing activity after lunch, and relaxing music listening after dinner. The schedule was followed 6 days a week for 2 weeks for a total of thirty-six session. The effect of music therapy was measured by MMSE-K and the behavior and emotion measuring equipment which had been derived by the researcher. The verification of the effects is that the score of cognitive function, behavior, and emotions of the experimental and the control group which were measured after the therapy had been applied was analyzed by descriptive statistics and t - test using SPSS WIN program. Result: 1) The degree of cognitive function of the experimental group which was received the music therapy is $11.53{\pm}5.37$ which is a little higher than the control group which is $11.20{\pm}6.32$, but it is not significant statistically (t= .14, p= .887). The first hypothesis which had assumed the recepients would have had a higher cognitive function level than the other was rejected. 2) Behavior score of the experimental group that received the music therapy is $68.90{\pm}7.86$ which is higher than the control group which is $66.40{\pm}11.13$, but it is not significant statistically(t= .61, p= .548). The second hypothesis which had assumed the recepients would have had a higher behavior level than the other was rejected. 3) Emotions score of the experimental group that received the music therapy is $42.13{\pm}5.04$ which is higher than the control group which is $35.20{\pm}6.12$, and it is significant statistically(t=3..09, p= .009). The third hypothesis which assumed the recepients would have had a higher emotion level was supported. Conclusion: music therapy which is composed of listening to music and group singing activity is an effective strategy for improvement of the emotions of the dementia elderly. But, the effect of music therapy on the cognitive function and behavior of elderly dementia patients is not significant statistically.

  • PDF

Effect of Abdominal Respiration on the Electrical Axis of ECG in Young Adults (복식호흡이 젊은 성인의 심전도축에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn, Ryea-Min;Kim, Young-Sik;Yoon, Im-Sil;Jung, Han-Na;Nam, Jeong-Su;Yoon, Joong-Soo;Lee, Won-Joon;Choi, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.5
    • /
    • pp.723-728
    • /
    • 2010
  • The effect of abdominal respiration on electrocardiogram readings was examined using a 12-lead ECG in healthy young adults. Ten males and ten females without any cardiac and/or pulmonary problems participated in this study. ECG readings during periods of abdominal respiration and thoracic respiration were compared using a paired t-test. Results showed that the PR interval was longer in males compared to females during the period of abdominal respiration (p<0.05). There were no differences in amplitudes of the P, R, T waves, QTc, and degree of P axis between abdominal respiration and thoracic respiration in both male and female subjects. However, degrees of QRS axis in male subjects (p<0.05) and T axis (p<0.05) in female subjects were increased during the abdominal respiration. Therefore, abdominal respiration may cause positive electrical axis changes in the depolarization and relaxing re-polarization of the ventricles.