• Title, Summary, Keyword: renal impairments

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The Leaf of Diospyros kaki Thumb Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage in Mice with Type 2 Diabetes

  • Choi, Myung-Sook;Jeong, Mi Ji;Park, Yong Bok;Kim, Sang Ryong;Jung, Un Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.378-383
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    • 2016
  • Diabetic kidney disease is the most common and severe chronic complication of diabetes. The leaf of Diospyros kaki Thumb (persimmon) has been commonly used for herbal tea and medicinal purposes to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, the effect of persimmon leaf on kidney failure has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the role of persimmon leaf in protecting the diabetes-associated kidney damage in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet with or without powered persimmon leaf (5%, w/w) for 5 weeks. In addition to kidney morphology and blood markers of kidney function, we assessed levels of oxidative stress markers as well as antioxidant enzymes activities and mRNA expression in the kidney. Supplementation of the diet with powered persimmon leaf not only decreased the concentration of blood urea nitrogen in the plasma but also improved glomerular hypertrophy. Furthermore, the persimmon leaf significantly decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide in the kidney. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and the mRNA expression of their respective genes were also increased in the kidney of persimmon leaf-supplemented db/db mice. Taken together, these results suggest that supplementation with the persimmon leaf may have protective effects against type 2 diabetes-induced kidney dysfunction and oxidative stress.

Clinical Features of Acute Pancreatitis in Children (소아 급성 췌장염의 임상적 고찰)

  • Seo, Jung-Ho;Kim, Seong-Heon;Jeong, Sang-Geon;Park, Jae-Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.58-65
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Since there are few studies involving acute pancreatitis in children, we reviewed our experience with this medical condition to describe the clinical features. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted by reviewing the medical records of 41 patients with AP who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Pusan National University Hospital between January 1996 and June 2007. Results: Twenty males and 21 females (mean age, 8.7${\pm}$4.5 years) were included. In 22 patients (53.7%), no definitive causes were found. The most common etiologies were choledochal cysts (22.0%). Necrotizing pancreatitis was diagnosed in 5 patients (12.2%), and recurrent acute pancreatitis in 4 patients (9.8%). CT findings included pancreatic swelling (43.9%), peripancreatic fluid collection (29.3%), ascites (24.4%), and peripancreatic fat necrosis (12.2%). Serum amylase and lipase levels at diagnosis were 535.3${\pm}$553.2 and 766.2${\pm}$723.6 U/L, respectively, and were normalized within 1 week in 22 and 14 patients, respectively. On the basis of the Balthazar scale, 2 patients were diagnosed with severe AP. In 4 patients (9.8%), a surgical procedure was indicated. Major complications included ascites (32.3%), sepsis (16.1%), and pseudocyst and renal impairments (12.9%). Two patients died from multi-organ failure. Conclusion: The etiologies of AP in children are varied. Most children have a single episode and a self-limited course. However, AP of childhood still carries significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment according to disease severity, and management of complications are important.

Hypoxemia In Liver Cirrhosis And Intrapulmonary Shunt Determination Using Tc-99m-MAA Whole Body Scan (간경화 환자에서의 저산소혈증과 Tc-99m-MAA 주사를 이용한 폐내단락 측정)

  • Lee, Kye-Young;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Kim, Keun-Youl;Han, Yong-Chol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.504-512
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    • 1994
  • Background: It is well known that severe hypoxemia is often associated with liver cirrhosis without preexisting cardiac or pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary vascular impairments, more specifically, intrapulmonary shunting have been considered as a major mechanism. Intrapulmonary shunting arises from pulmonary vascular dilatation at the precapillary level or direct arteriovenous communication and has relationship with the characteristic skin findings of spider angioma. However, these results are mainly from Western countries where alcoholic and primary biliary cirrhosis are dominant cuases of cirrhosis. It is uncertain that the same is true in viral hepatitiss associated liver cirrhosis, which is dominant causes of liver cirrhosis in Korea. We investigated the incidences of hypoxemia and orthodeoxia in Korean cirrhotic patients dominantly composed of postnecrotic cirrhosis and the significance of intrapulmonary shunting as the suggested mechanism of hypoxemia, Method: We performed the arterial blood gas analysis separately both at the supine and errect position in 48 stable cirrhotic patients without the evidences of severe complications such as ascites, variceal bleeding, and hepatic coma. According to the results of arterial blood gas analysis, all patients were divided into hypoxemic and normoxemic group. In each group, pulmonary function test and Tc-99m-MAA whole body scan were performed. The shunting fraction was calculated based on the fact that the sum of cerebral and bilateral renal blood flow is 32% of the systemic blood flow. Results: The hypoxemia of $PaO_2$ less than 80 mmHg was observed in 9 patients(18.8%) and Orthodeoxia more than 10 mmHg was observed in 8 patients(16.7%). But there was no patient with significant hypoxemia of $PaO_2$ less than 60 mmHg. $PaO_2$ was significantly decreased in the patients with spider angioma than the pathients without spider angioma and showed no correlation with the serologic type and severities of liver function test findings. Any parameters of pulmonary function test did not demonstrate the difference between normoxemic and hypoxemic group. But hypoxemic group showed significantly increased shunt fraction of $11.4{\pm}4.1%$ than normoxemic group of $4.1{\pm}2.0%$ (p<0.05). Conclusions: Hypoxemia is not infrequently observed complication in liver cirrhosis and intrapulmonary shunting is suggested to p1ay a major ro1e in the development of hypxemia. But there was no great likelihood of clinically significant hypoxemia in our domestic cirrhotic patients predominantly composed of postnecrotic type.

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