• Title, Summary, Keyword: reproductive and developmental toxicity

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STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF THIMEROSAL

  • Kwack, Seung-Jun;Rhee, Gyu-Seek;Kim, Soon-Sun;Kim, So-Hee;Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Chae, Soo-Young;Park, Yo-Woo;Park, Kui-Lea
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.71-72
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    • 2002
  • Thimerosal is a mercury-containing compound used in trace amounts to prevent bacteria and other organisms from contaminating vaccines, especially in opened multi-dose vials. The toxicity of mercury is well known and those most at risk are occurred in unborn and newborn babies.(omitted)

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Subchronic and Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Studies of Tetrahydrocurcumin in Rats

  • Majeed, Muhammed;Natarajan, Sankaran;Pandey, Anjali;Bani, Sarang;Mundkur, Lakshmi
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2019
  • Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is a major metabolite of curcumin, which is obtained from Curcuma longa. THC has various benefits and overcomes the bioavailability issue of curcumin. To establish it as a pharmacologically active molecule, its safety profile has to be determined. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the preclinical safety profile of THC in a 90-day subchronic and reproductive/developmental toxicity study in Wistar rats. THC at oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered daily for 90 days. Rats in the recovery group were kept for 14 days after treatment termination. The animals were observed for treatment-related morbidity, mortality, and changes in clinical signs, clinical pathology, and histopathology. In the reproductive/developmental toxicity study, THC at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally to rats and the reproductive/developmental parameters in adult male and female rats and pups were observed. THC at up to 400 mg/kg/day of did not have any significant effect on all parameters in male and female rats in both toxicity studies. Thus, 400 mg/kg/day can be considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level of THC in rats.

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Amitraz in Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Lim, Jeong-Hyeon;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Kang-Hyeon;Park, Na-Hyeong;Shin, In-Sik;Moon, Chang-Jong;Park, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Jong-Choon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2010
  • The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of amitraz on reproductive and developmental parameters in rats. The test chemical was administered via the drinking water containing 0, 40, 120, and 360 ppm to male rats from 2 weeks before mating to the end of 14-day mating period and to females from 2 weeks before mating, throughout mating, gestation and up to lactational day 4. During the study period, clinical signs, body weights, food intake, organ weights, reproductive and littering findings, necropsy findings, sperm parameters, and histopathology were examined. At 360 ppm, decreases in the body weight gain, food consumption, and the number of live pups and an increase in the post-implantation loss were observed. In addition, decreases in the seminal vesicle weight and sperm motility were found in males. At 120 ppm, a decrease in the food consumption was found transiently in both males and females, but no reproductive and developmental toxicity was observed in both sexes. There were no signs of either general or reproductive and developmental toxicity in the 40 ppm group. Based on these results, it was concluded that the repeated oral administration of amitraz to rats resulted in a decrease in the food consumption at 120 ppm and decreases in the seminal vesicle weight, sperm motility, and the number of live pups and an increase in the post-implantation loss at 360 ppm in rats. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of amitraz for general and reproduction/developmental toxicity was believed to be 120 ppm, and the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of amitraz was believed to be 40 ppm in rats.

Prenatal Treatment Effects of Oriental Herbal Medicine Kamijadowhan on Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity in Rats

  • Park, Young-Jin;Kim, Jung-Ran;Ryu, Jae-Chun;Shim, Bum-Sang;Park, Seung-Hoon;Kwon, Oh-Seung
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 2001
  • Kamijadowhan (KMD), an oriental herbal medicine used for anti-angiogenic effect, was extracted with 80% ethanol from mixture of source materials and lyophilized. KMD was orally administered to plugpositive pregnant rats from gestational days 12 to 20, dividing into three groups including vehicle-treated control, 0.5 g/kg or 3 g/kg KMD-treated groups. Dam weight during gestation and post-gestation, weight of pre- and post-weaning offsprings in male and female, and reproductive and developmental endpoints including incisor eruption, eye opening and testes descent were measured. No significant alterations in development of physical landmarks in offspring, maternal weight gain during gestation and post-gestation, and offspring weight were observed in KMD-treated group. The measurement of organ weight at post-gestational days 21 was not changed in dams. In 0.5 g/kg KMD-treated rats, kidney weights in male and female offsprings were significantly increased, and the body weight in male offspring was also increased. Liver and brain weights were not changed. Taken together, these data suggest that KMD may not significantly cross the placenta and produce no reproductive and developmental toxicity at maternally non-toxic dosages.

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Developmental and reproductive toxicity assessment in rats with KGC-HJ3, Korean Red Ginseng with Angelica gigas and Deer antlers

  • Lee, Jinsoo;Jeong, Ji-Seong;Cho, Kyung-Jin;Moon, Kyeong-Nang;Kim, Sang Yun;Han, Byungcheol;Kim, Yong-Soon;Jeong, Eun Ju;Chung, Moon-Koo;Yu, Wook-Joon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.242-251
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    • 2019
  • Background: Korean Red Ginseng has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine for a prolonged period, and its pharmacological effects have been extensively investigated. In addition, Angelica gigas and deer antlers were also used as a tonic medicine with Korean Red Ginseng as the oriental herbal therapy. Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential toxicological effect of KGC-HJ3, Korean Red Ginseng with angelica gigas and deer antlers, on reproductive and developmental functions including fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function, and embryo-fetal development. KGC-HJ3 was administered by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats (22 animals per sex per group) at dose levels of 0 mg/kg (control), 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on fertility and early embryonic development. In addition, KGC-HJ3 was also administered by oral gavage to mating-proven Sprague-Dawley rats (22 females per group) during the major organogenesis period at dose levels of 0 mg/kg (control), 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on maternal function and embryo-fetal development. Results and conclusion: No test item-related changes in parameters for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function, and embryo-fetal development were observed during the study period. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that KGC-HJ3 did not have toxicological potential on developmental and reproductive functions. Therefore, no observed adverse effect levels of KGC-HJ3 for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function, and embryo-fetal development is considered to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day.

Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

  • Kim, Yoon-Jae;Kim, Jong-Min
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.167-180
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    • 2015
  • Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children's health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

The Recommended Approaches and Recent Trends in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology (생식 · 발생독성시험의 방법적 고찰과 최신 연구 동향)

  • Kwack, Seung-Jun;Cho, Dae-Hyun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2005
  • Reproductive and developmental toxicology is concerned with various physical or chemical agents interfering with fertility in both gender or normal growth of offsprings. Reproductive and developmental toxicology is rather a complex science, with many fields, i.e., various endpoints are involved and many different mechanisms of action. For that reason, diverse aspects must be considered when attempting to assess possible adverse health effects in the area of reproductive and developmental toxicology. The thalidomide tragedy made it clear to regulatory authorities around the world that systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the reproductive cycle was needed to adequately evaluate the potential of medicinal drugs to impair the process of reproduction or the development of embryos, fetuses, and children. International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a guideline to assess the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Also these guidelines have since been applied to the detection and regulation of environmental toxicants, food additives, and so on. Although it was hoped that testing procedures of guideline would be updated constantly to reflect the current state of the science in reproductive and developmental toxicology, it was not until this decade that regulatory guidelines and testing methods have been altered in a significant way. In this paper, we would like to present the recommended approaches and recent trends for improvement of testing guidelines or experimental methods in reproductive and developmental toxicology.

Effects of Gamma-Irradiated Korean Ginseng on Fertility and General Reproductive Toxicity in Rats (방사선 조사 인삼이 랫드의 수태능 및 일반 생식독성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 박귀례;한순영;김판기;이유미;신재호;장성재
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 2001
  • Korean ginseng products have been fumigated with ethylene oxide (EO) for sterilization and prolongation of storage periods. However, there had been controversies indicating that the consumption of food treated with EO might cause harmful effects in human. Since, in Korea the use of EO gas for food treatment was banned in 1991. Since then, irradiation technique has been developed as an alternative. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of irradiated ginseng on fertility, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Either EO gas fumigated or gamma-irradiated ginseng was administered to male rats by oral gavage for 63 days during the premating period. Female rats were administered from 14 days before mating to day 20 of gestation or to day 21 of lactation. The exposure amount of irradiation used was 5, 10 and 30 kGy, respectively. There were no treatment related changes of darns in clinical signs, and parturition. No treatment related changes in food consumption, body/organ weights, male/female reproductive and fertility performances were observed. F1 fetuses showed no external abnormality. Reflex/sensory junctions, physical/behavioral development, and reproductive performance of F1 rats were not adversary affected. The results of this study show that gamma-irradiated ginseng, up to 30 kGy, has no adverse effects on the fertility, reproduction and development in Wistar rats.

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Fertility and Reproductive & Developmental Toxicity Study on Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF, DWP401) in Rats (재조합 인간상피세포 성장인자(rhEGF, DWP401)가 랫드의 수태능, 태자와 신생자 발달 및 모체기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 박귀례;한순영;신재호;이유미;김판기
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.190-204
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate for its effects on reproductive and developmental toxicity of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were administered rhEGF at doses of 1, 10, 100, and 1000$\mu$g/kg/day, respective1y, by subcutaneous injection from 63 days before and throughout to mating period until the day before sacrifice. Female rats were administered rhEGF at the same doses from 14 days before mating to day 20 of gestation or to day 21 of lactation. We examined the male and female fertility indices and maternal toxicity of F0 parental animals. Also, we examined the external, visceral, or skeletal malformation of fetuses, growth and development, behavior, and/or reproductive performance of F1 animals. At the highest dose (1,000 $\mu$g/kg), the mean body weights of F0 animals were significantly increased in males and females at 3 or 2 weeks after treatment, respective1y. No clinical signs and food intakes were observed at any time during the experimental period by rhEGF treatment. In autopsy examination, the relative and absolute liver weights significantly increased in both sexes of 1,000 $\mu$g/kg. At the highest dose (1,000 $\mu$g/kg), there was a statistically significant increase of pregnancy period and the number of dead fetuses. Moreover, significant increase of mean fetal body weight and decrease of number of live fetuses, which related to the difficult dilivery were observed in highest dose group. In Fl examination, no adverse effects on external, visceral, and skeletal malformation, physical and functional development, behavior or reproductive ability of Fl animals were observed in any group. Also, there was no significant difference between control and treated groups in copulation or fertility indices of Fl animals. These results indicate that rhEGF had no adverse effect on fertility and reproductive ability of Sprague-Dawley rats.

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