• Title, Summary, Keyword: reproductive disorders

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Survey on the Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Dairy Cattle

  • Lim, Hyun-Joo;Yoon, Ho-Beak;Im, Harim;Park, Jihoo;Cho, Yong-il;Jeong, Yeon-Seop;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Im, Seok-Ki
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2015
  • Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in reproductive disorders. The study was conducted to estimate the proportion of reproductive disorders among dairy cattle. The factors analyzed were; milk yield, cow parity, periparturient disorders, and reproductive status. The result of this study showed the incidence of reproductive disorders in high yielding dairy cows was prevalent. Repeat breeding was the major postpartum reproductive problem comprising (42.3%) of the samples. Higher reproductive disorders were also associated with lower parity. These disorders subsequently reduced reproductive performance by prolonged intervals from calving to first artificial insemination and from calving to pregnancy. Abnormalities in the reproductive system such as repeat breeder, silent heat, anestrous and ovarian cysts, as well as lower fertility have been recorded during the summer months (June to August). In conclusion, the study revealed that incidence of repeat breeder is mostly prevalent in dairy cows. Moreover, the incidence of reproductive disorders was higher in summer season and hence appropriate preventive and or therapeutic measures as per the type of abnormalities need to be undertaken.

Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Dairy Cows and their Conception Rate after Treatment (젖소 번식장애(繁殖障碍)의 발생현황(發生現況) 및 치료후(治療後) 수태율(受胎率)에 관한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Kim, Sang-cheol;Jo, Choong-ho;Lee, Kwang-won
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 1986
  • The 587 Holstein cows which calved from January 1983 to December 1984 at an integrated dairy farm in Chung-nom province were examined for the incidence of reproductive disorders and their conception rate after treatment. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The incidence of reproductive disorders was 47.9% (281 heads) among 587 heads which calved. 1) As number of calvings increased, the incidence of reproductive disorders decreased. 2) The cows which calved in spring and summer showed significantly higher incidence of reproductive disorders than those which calved in autumn and winter (p<0.05). 3) Among reproductive disorders, ovarian, uterine, cervical and vaginal diseases figured 54.3%, 43.7%, 0.9% and 0.6%, respectively. 4) Among individual genital diseases, endometritis (40.3%) occurred most frequently. 2. Among 281 heads with reproductive disorders, 216 heads(76.9%) conceived after treatment. 1) After treatment of reproductive disorders, the conception rate by number of calvings was in range from 69.6% to 87.5%. 2) The cows which calved in summer and winter showed significantly higher conception rate after treatment of reproductive disorders than those which calved in spring and autumn (P<0.05). 3) The conception rates after treatment of the cows with ovarian, uterine, cervical and vaginal diseases were 66.5%, 81.2%, 33.3% and 50.0% respectively. 4) The cows with endometritis showed the highest conception rate after treatment (85.9%).

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Reproductive Disorders that Limits the Reproductive Performances in Dairy Cows of Bangladesh

  • Al Maruf, Abdulla;Paul, Ashit Kumar;Bonaparte, Napolean;Bhuyian, Mosharrof Hossain;Shamsuddin, Mohammed
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2014
  • The reproductive disorders are the major causes of reproductive infertility in cows that affect the total annual calf crop, resulting in great economic loss in Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to find out the reproductive disorders (RD) in dairy cows that markedly influences the reproductive performances in aspect of Bangladesh. A total number of 1658 dairy cows were selected according to their body condition score (BCS) in different farms at the southern part of Bangladesh during the period of 2011 to 2012. The preliminary data (basic information) were collected directly from the dairy farmer's record books and asking questions according to a prescribed questionnaires as well as the diagnosis of RD was presumptively confirmed on the basis of history, clinical signs and examination of animals by ultrasonography and others necessary tools. There are thirteen major reproductive disorders were identified. Overall prevalence of reproductive disorders at that area were 23%, among of these anoestrus 5.1%, repeat breeder 3.7%, metritis 4.4%, poor heat detection 1.6%, ovarian cyst 0.36%, retain placenta 4.6%, dystocia 0.97% and pyometra 0.24%. It is indicated that anoestrus and retention of placenta after calving was most hazardous cause of infertility whereas the metritis and repeat breeder were the second line of consequence. RD had shown significantly higher incidence in low BCS (${\leq}2$) than that of fair (2.5) and very good (${\geq}3{\sim}3.5$). In conclusion, the highest RD especially anoestrus and retention of placenta is very alarming for reproductive loss which might be needed further research to identify the specific cause of these disorders for establishment a profitable dairying and dairy population.

Diagnosis of Mares Associated with Infertility by Ultrasonography (말에서 초음파 영상을 이용한 번식장애마 진단)

  • 김용준;서세현;유일정;김명철;최종복;길명순
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 1998
  • These studies were performed to investigate what genital diseases could be diagnosed by ultrasonography in the mares associated with infertility. Of 159 thoroughbred breeders(4 to 18 years old), 31 mares which had been considered as the mares with reproductive disorders were examined by ultrasonography during the breeding season. 1. Hematoma in ovarian disordersl endometritis and pyometra in uterine disorders could be diagnosed by ultrasonography. 2.The rate of infertility was 19.5% out of 159 breeders and the rate of uterine disordres was 71.0% among the whole reproductive disorders. 3.Of 31 mares considered as the mares with infertilityi 26 mares were diagnosed by ultrasonography denoting 83.9% of diagnosis rate. 4.The highest average age of mares among the mares with reproductive disorders was 11.7 years in the mares with uterine disorders. The average age of the mares diagnosed as concepted was 7.5 years, which was much lower than that of the mares with reproductive disorders.5.Crushing one of twin vesicles was confirmed by ultrasonography. In conclusions ultrasonography was feasible for diagnosis of the mares with reproductive problems.

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Studies on the Reproductive Performance and Treatment of Reproductive Disorder in Hanwoo (한우 번식우 농가의 번식실태 및 번식장애 치료에 관한 연구)

  • 김학영;송상현;조헌조
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to investigate the reproductive status and the effect of progesterone treatment on the recovery of reproductive disorders in Hanwoo. Hanwoo farms were surveyed the general management status, such as the type of barn, the feed intake, the incidence of reproductive disorders. The reproductive disorder cattle were treated 7 days insertion of control internal drug releasing for cattle (CIDR) and injection of PGF$_2$$\alpha$ at 1 day before removal. The recovery of reproductive disorders was assessed by determining the pregnancy following artificial insemination. The total number of surveyed Hanwoo farms was 127, and the total incidence rate of reproductive disorders was 19.7% (209/1,061). Compared to the herd size, the incidence rates of reproductive disorders in less than 10 heads (37.5%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in 10 to 20 heads (14.7%) and more than 20 heads (13.6%) of herd size per farm. The incidence rate of reproductive disorders in tie stall barn was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in free stall barn (30.4% vs. 14.7%), and even in free stall barn, that tended to decrease as the floor area was larger. The incidence rate of reproductive disorder by the parity was highest in heifer (50.7%), and that tended to decrease as the parity was increased. The distribution rate of the case of reproductive disorder in anestrus, recovery rate of reproductive disorders fellowing CIDR treatment was 75.1% (157/209). In the recovery rate of reproductive disorders by body condition score (BCS), BCS 1, 2 and 3 was significantly (P<0.05) higher pregnancy rate (85.7, 84.9 and 86.8%), and gross recovery rate in emaciated cattle was better than in obese cattle (BCS 4, 5). In conclusion, the incidence rate of reproductive disorders in Hanwoo raised in Youngju province area was 19.7%, and that tended to decrease as the herd size was increase because of increased farmer's attentions, and the floor area was larger. The majority of the case of reproductive disorders was anestrus. The recovery rate of reproductive disorders following CIDR treatment was 75.1%, and to optimize the recovery rate of reproductive disorders, cows and heifers were maintained BCS 1, 2 and 3 by moderate management.

Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

  • Patra, Manas Kumar;Kumar, Harendra;Nandi, Sukdeb
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1406-1415
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    • 2013
  • The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as 'd 0'. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-${\gamma}$ in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-${\gamma}$ and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring reproductive disorders in farm animals.

Survey on the Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Hanwoo (한우 번식우 사육 농가의 번식 장애 실태 조사)

  • Choe, C.Y.;Son, D.S.;Choi, G.C.;Song, S.H.;Choe, C.Y.;Choi, S.H.;Kim, H.J.;Cho, S.R.;Hur, C.G.;Kang, D.W.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 2006
  • This survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of reproductive disorders in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). The general management status such as barn type, feed intake, parity and type of reproductive disorders were examined in the Hanwoo farms. In this survey, the total incidence of reproductive disorders that was assessed from 54 Hanwoo farms was 11.6% (73/ 631). We first examined the incidence of reproductive disorders following herd size per farm. The rates of reproductive disorders in under 10 heads, 10 to 20 heads and over 20 heads were 25.2%, 9.4% and 8.3%, respectively (P<0.05). The rate of reproductive disorders in tie stall barn was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in free stall barn (14.9% vs. 8.1%). The major types of reproductive disorders were follicular cysts (21.8%), fat necrosis (21.8%), and repeat breeding (17.8%). The rate of reproductive disorders assessed by the parity tended to decrease as the parity increased. The relationship between incidence of reproductive disorders and body condition score (BCS) was investigated in 203 Hanwoo. The incidence of reproductive disorder was 80.0%, 8.8%, 9.4%, 10.0%, 33.3% and 57.1% at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 of BCS, respectively. These data show that the increase of herd size, barn type and BCS affect the incidence of reproductive disorders such as follicular cysts, fat necrosis and repeat breeding in Hanwoo.

A Survey on Reproductive Disorders of Dairy Cattes (유우(乳牛)의 번식장해(繁殖障害) 조사(調査))

  • Kim, Sun-Hwan;Kim, Ki-Gu;Ko, Suk-Gweon;Kim, Kyeong-Ju
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1_2
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 1980
  • The status of artificial insemination was surveyed by investigating 20796 heads of adult dairy cattle out of 30464 heads at 1649 dairy farms located Seoul and Gyung-Gi and Chung-Cheong province area, and the results are as follows: 1. There were 286 small farms feeding less than 5 heads occupying 17.3% of total farm number, and 1083 medium sized dairy farms feeding between $6{\sim}20$ heads occupying 65.64% and also 280 large dairy farms feeding more than 21 heads occupying 17.06% of total. 2. Population of cow aging from 2 to 6 years were 87.26% and among 20907 heads of dairy cattles which had calved previously 13196 heads had histories of one to four calving 90.40%. 3. The successful conception rate with first A. I. occupied only 53.43% and 92.4% after third A. I. service. The average A. I. frequency for successful conception per/head was 1.8 times. 4. The breeding status was pregnancy 61.72%, uncertain pregnancy 19.39%, and as physiological vacancy 12.48% and reproductive disorders 10.62%. 5. Among 1264 heads of reproductive disorders 856 heads were clue to ovarian diseases and occupied 68.98% of total disorders and uterus diseases 10.64% and repeat breeders occupied 17.64%.

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A Study on the Causes of Reproductive Disorders of Dairy Cattle introduced in Cheju-do II. The Investigation of Reproductive Disorders (제주도입 유우의 번식장애 원인에 관한 연구 II. 제주도입 유우의 번식장애 조사)

  • 김중규;양기천;강민수;김철균;장덕지;백윤기
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.66-70
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    • 1986
  • The findings of a study on reproductive disorders and their causes with 685 dairty cows raised on dairy farms located in Cheju city, Jochun, Hallim and Sung-up are summarized as follows; 1. Among a total 685 dairy cows, 149 heads were identified as having reproductive disorders. They were subdivided into 26 genital organ diseases (3.8%), 53 delivery abnormalities (7.7%), 17 stagnation of after-birth (2.5%), 23 long period nonestrus (3.4%) and 30 repeat breeders (4.4%). Also, the regional incidence of those disorders was recorded as high as 30.8-31.5% in Jochun and Cheju city, and as low as 12.6-16.6% in Sung-up and Hallim districts. 2. The regional incidence of delivery abnormalities was estimated as high as 10.7% in the Cheju city area, and gradually reduced to 8.8% in Jochun, 6.8% in Sung-up and 6.2% in the Hallim district. Abortion (3.1%), stillbirth (2.0%) and 욘새챰 (2.6%) were included in the delivery abnormalities.

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Reproductive Monitoring and Estrus Induction using Ultrasonography and Hormone Assay in Dairy Cows I. Periodical Examination of Reproductive Status and Treatment of Reproductive Dysfunctions (초음파검사 및 호르몬검사에 의한 젖소 번식검진과 발정유도 I. 정기적인 번식검진 및 번식장애 치료)

  • 오기석;박상국;김방실;고진성;신종봉;백종환;홍기강;문광식;임원호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2003
  • The ultrasonography was performed in 77,924 subestrous dairy cows from 680 dairy farms at 57 districts. The cows were examined for confirmation of resumption of ovaries and uterus after 30 days postpartum, for early pregnancy diagnosis after 30 days post-insemination, confirmation of pregnancy at 8 month post-insemination, and for diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions, respectively. The results of reproductive examination by ultrasonography in 77,924 dairy cows were ovarian disorders 35,452 (46.8%), uterine disorders 10,721 (13.8%), pregnancy and pregnant failure 24,044 (30.8%), adhesion of reproductive tracts 167 (0.2%), freematins 13 (0.01%) and others 6,527 (8.4%) cows, respectively. The 13,732 (49.6%) cows out of 27,694 cows were treated for silent heat or error of estrus detection, 3,473 (12.5%) cows for follicular cysts, 815 (3.0%) cows for luteal cysts, 606 (2.2%) cows for inactive ovaries, 4 (0.01%) cows for granulosa cell tumors, and 6,455 (23.3%) cows for endometritis, respectively. The indices of reproductive efficiencies before (2001-08-10) and after (2003-07-20) periodical examination of reproductive status were as follows; the mean intercalving interval were shortened from 471 days to 383 days, the mean interval calving to conception were shortened from 187 days to 99 days, the mean interval calving to first service were shortened from 105 days to 67 days, the mean cows showing heat by 60 days postpartum were increased from 33% to 89%, the mean conception rate to first service were increased from 43% to 68%, and the mean service per conception were shortened from 2.6 times to 1.8 times, respectively. These results suggest that periodical examination of reproductive status would be useful for the improvement of the reproductive performance in dairy cows.