• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface analysis

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Histomorphometry and Stability Analysis of Loaded Implants with two Different Surface Conditions in Beagle Dogs (하중을 가한 두 가지 표면의 임플란트에 관한 조직형태학적 분석 및 안정성 분석 (비글견을 이용한 연구))

  • Kim, Sang-Mi;Kim, Dae-Gon;Cho, Lee-Ra;Park, Chan-Jin
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.337-349
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    • 2008
  • Despite an improved bone reactions of Mg-incorporated implants in the animals, little yet has been carried out by the experimental investigations in functional loading conditions. This study investigated the clinical and histologic parameters of osseointegrated Mg-incorporated implants in delayed loading conditions. A total of 36 solid screw implants (diameter 3.75 mm, length 10mm) were placed in the mandibles of 6 beagle dogs. Test groups included 18 Mg-incorporated implants. Turned titanium Implants served as control. Gold crowns were inserted 3 months. Radiographic assessments and stabilitytests were performed at the time of fixture installation, $2^{nd}$ stage surgery, 1 and 3 months after loading. Histological observations and morphometrical measurements were also performed. Of 36 implants, 32 displayed no discernible mobility, corresponding to successful clinical function. There was no statistically significant difference between test implants and controls in marginal bone levels (p=0.413) and RFA values. The mean BIC % in the Mg-implants was $54.4{\pm}20.2%$. The mean BIC % in the turned implant was $48.9{\pm}8.0%$. These differences between the Mg-implant and control implant were not statistically significant (P=0.264). In the limitation of this study, bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area of Mg-incorporated oxidized implant were similar to machine-turned implant. The stability analysis showed no significantly different ISQ values and marginal bone loss between two groups. Considering time-dependent bone responses of Mg-implant, it seems that Mg-implants enhanced bone responses in early loading conditions and osseointegrated similarly to cp Ti implants in delayed loading conditions. However, further investigations are necessary to obtain long-term bone response of the Mg-implant in human.

Accuracy of HF radar-derived surface current data in the coastal waters off the Keum River estuary (금강하구 연안역에서 HF radar로 측정한 유속의 정확도)

  • Lee, S.H.;Moon, H.B.;Baek, H.Y.;Kim, C.S.;Son, Y.T.;Kwon, H.K.;Choi, B.J.
    • The Sea
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.42-55
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    • 2008
  • To evaluate the accuracy of currents measured by HF radar in the coastal sea off Keum River estuary, we compared the facing radial vectors of two HF radars, and HF radar-derived currents with in-situ measurement currents. Principal component analysis was used to extract regression line and RMS deviation in the comparison. When two facing radar's radial vectors at the mid-point of baseline are compared, RMS deviation is 4.4 cm/s in winter and 5.4 cm/s in summer. When GDOP(Geometric Dilution of Precision) effect is corrected from the RMS deviations that is analyzed from the comparison between HF radar-derived and current-metermeasured currents, the error of velocity combined by HF radar-derived current is less than 5.1 cm/s in the stations having moderate GDOP values. These two results obtained from different method suggest that the lower limit of HF radar-derived current's accuracy is 5.4 cm/s in our study area. As mentioned in previous researches, RMS deviations become large in the stations located near the islands and increase as a function of mean distance from the radar site due to decrease of signal-to-noise level and the intersect angle of radial vectors. We found that an uncertain error bound of HF radar-derived current can be produced from the separation process of RMS deviations using GDOP value if GDOP value for each component is very close and RMS deviations obtained from current component comparison are also close. When the current measured in the stations having moderate GDOP values is separated into tidal and subtidal current, characteristics of tidal current ellipses analyzed from HF radar-derived current show a good agreement with those from current-meter-measured current, and time variation of subtidal current showed a response reflecting physical process driven by wind and density field.

Protective Effects on A2Kb Transgenic Mice That Were Immunized with Hepatitis B Virus X Antigen Peptides by the Activation of CD8+ T Cells; XEP-3 Specific CTL Responses in the in vitro Culture (B형 간염 바이러스 X 항원을 면역한 A2Kb Transgenic Mice에서 CD8+ T Cell의 활성화에 의한 X 항원 표현 재조합 Vaccinia Virus에 대한 방어 효과; in vitro 배양을 통한 XEP-3 특이적인 CTL의 반응)

  • Hwang, Yu Kyeong;Kim, Hyung-Il;Kim, Nam Kyung;Park, Jung Min;Cheong, Hong Seok
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2002
  • Background: Viral antigens presented on the cell surface in association with MHC class I molecules are recognized by CD8+ T cells. MHC restricted peptides are important in eliciting cellular immune responses. As peptide antigens have a weak immunigenicity, pH-sensitive liposomes were used for peptide delivery to induce effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. In the previous study, as the HBx peptides could induce specific CTLs in vitro, we tested whether the HLA-A2/$K^b$ transgenic mice that were immunized by HBx-derived peptides could be protected from a viral challenge. Methods: HBx-peptides encapsulated by pH-sensitive liposomes were prepared. $A2K^b$ transgenic mice were immunized i.m. on days one and seven with the indicated concentrations of liposome-encapsulated peptides. Three weeks later, mice were infected with $1{\times}10^7pfu$/head of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-HBx via i.p. administration. The ovaries were extracted from the mice, and the presence of rVV-HBx in the ovaries was analyzed using human TK-143B cells. IFN-${\gamma}$ secretion by these cells was directly assessed using a peptide-pulsed target cell stimulation assay with either peptide-pulsed antigen presenting cells (APCs), concanavalin A ($2{\mu}g/ml$), or a vehicle. To generate peptide-specific CTLs, splenocytes obtained from the immunized mice were stimulated with $20{\mu}g/ml$ of each peptide and restimulated with peptide-pulsed APC four times. The cytotoxic activity of the CTLs was assessed by standard $^{51}Cr$-release assay and intracellular IFN-${\gamma}$ assay. Results: Immunization of these peptides as a mixture in pH-sensitive liposomes to transgenic mice induced a good protective effect from a viral challenge by inducing the peptide-specific CD8+ T cells. Mice immunized with $50{\mu}g/head$ were much better protected against viral challenge compared to those immunized with $5{\mu}g$/head, whereas the mice immunized with empty liposomes were not protected at all. After in vitro CTL culture by peptide stimulation, however, specific cytotoxicity was much higher in the CTLs from mice immunized with $5{\mu}g/head$ than $50{\mu}g/head$ group. Increase of the number of cells that intracellular IFN-${\gamma}$ secreting cell among CD8+ T cells showed similar result. Conclusion: Mice immunized with XEPs within pH-sensitive liposome were protected against viral challenge. The protective effect depended on the amount of antigen used during immunization. XEP-3-specific CTLs could be induced by peptide stimulation in vitro from splenocytes obtained from immunized mice. The cytotoxic effect of CTLs was measured by $^{51}Cr$-release assay and the percentage of accumulated intracellular IFN-${\gamma}$ secreting cells after in vitro restimulation was measured by flow cytometric analysis. The result of $^{51}Cr$-release cytotoxicity test was well correlated with that of the flow cytometric analysis. Viral protection was effective in immunized group of $50{\mu}g/head$, while in the in vitro restimulation, it showed more spectific response in $5{\mu}g$/head group.

A study on the Degradation and By-products Formation of NDMA by the Photolysis with UV: Setup of Reaction Models and Assessment of Decomposition Characteristics by the Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behnken Technique (UV 공정을 이용한 N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 광분해 및 부산물 생성에 관한 연구: 박스-벤켄법 실험계획법을 이용한 통계학적 분해특성평가 및 반응모델 수립)

  • Chang, Soon-Woong;Lee, Si-Jin;Cho, Il-Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2010
  • We investigated and estimated at the characteristics of decomposition and by-products of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a design of experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behken design in an UV process, and also the main factors (variables) with UV intensity($X_2$) (range: $1.5{\sim}4.5\;mW/cm^2$), NDMA concentration ($X_2$) (range: 100~300 uM) and pH ($X_2$) (rang: 3~9) which consisted of 3 levels in each factor and 4 responses ($Y_1$ (% of NDMA removal), $Y_2$ (dimethylamine (DMA) reformation (uM)), $Y_3$ (dimethylformamide (DMF) reformation (uM), $Y_4$ ($NO_2$-N reformation (uM)) were set up to estimate the prediction model and the optimization conditions. The results of prediction model and optimization point using the canonical analysis in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions were $Y_1$ [% of NDMA removal] = $117+21X_1-0.3X_2-17.2X_3+{2.43X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2+{3.2X_3}^2-0.08X_1X_2-1.6X_1X_3-0.05X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 96%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 88%) and 99.3% ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;190\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.2$), $Y_2$ [DMA conc] = $-101+18.5X_1+0.4X_2+21X_3-{3.3X_1}^2-{0.01X_2}^2-{1.5X_3}^2-0.01X_1X_2+0.07X_1X_3-0.01X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 99.4%, 수정 $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 35.2 uM ($X_1$: 3 $mW/cm^2$, $X_2$: 220 uM, $X_3$: 6.3), $Y_3$ [DMF conc] = $-6.2+0.2X_1+0.02X_2+2X_3-0.26X_1^2-0.01X_2^2-0.2X_3^2-0.004X_1X_2+0.1X_1X_3-0.02X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 94.4%) and 3.7 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;$mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;290\;uM$, $X_3:\;6.2$) and $Y_4$ [$NO_2$-N conc] = $-25+12.2X_1+0.15X_2+7.8X_3+{1.1X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2-{0.34X_3}^2+0.01X_1X_2+0.08X_1X_3-3.4X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98.5%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 74.5 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;220\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.1$). This study has demonstrated that the response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken statistical experiment design can provide statistically reliable results for decomposition and by-products of NDMA by the UV photolysis and also for determination of optimum conditions. Predictions obtained from the response functions were in good agreement with the experimental results indicating the reliability of the methodology used.

Calculation and Monthly Characteristics of Satellite-based Heat Flux Over the Ocean Around the Korea Peninsula (한반도 주변 해양에서 위성 기반 열플럭스 산출 및 월별 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Jaemin;Lee, Yun Gon;Park, Jun Dong;Sohn, Eun Ha;Jang, Jae-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.519-533
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    • 2018
  • The sensible heat flux (SHF)and latent heat flux (LHF) over Korean Peninsula ocean during recent 4 years were calculated using Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.5 bulk algorithm and satellite-based atmospheric-ocean variables. Among the four input variables (10-m wind speed; U, sea surface temperature; $T_s$, air temperature; $T_a$, and air humidity; $Q_a$) required for heat flux calculation, Ta and $Q_a$, which are not observed directly by satellites, were estimated from empirical relations developed using satellite-based columnar atmospheric water vapor (W) and $T_s$. The estimated satellite-based $T_a$ and $Q_a$ show high correlation coefficients above 0.96 with the buoy observations. The temporal and spatial variability of monthly ocean heat fluxes were analyzed for the Korean Peninsula ocean. The SHF showed low values of $20W/m^2$ over the entire areas from March to August. Particularly, in July, SHF from the atmosphere to the ocean, which is less than $0W/m^2$, has been shown in some areas. The SHF gradually increased from September and reached the maximum value in December. Similarly, The LHF showed low values of $40W/m^2$ from April to July, but it increased rapidly from autumn and was highest in December. The analysis of monthly characteristics of the meteorological variables affecting the heat fluxes revealed that the variation in differences of temperature and humidity between air and sea modulate the SHF and LHF, respectively. In addition, as the sensitivity of SHF and LHF to U increase in winter, it contributed to the highest values of ocean heat fluxes in this season.

Developmental Plan of Man-Overboard Alert Devices of Small Fishing Vessels: A Study (소형어선의 선외추락 경보장치 개발 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Won;Kim, Byung-Ok;Lim, Jung-Gyun;Lee, Ju-Han;Yim, Jea-Hong;Park, Dong-Kook
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2018
  • A method of transmitting an alert signal in case of man-overboard (MOB) systems in a small fishing vessel navigating within coastal area is being operated as VHF-DSC equipment via a distress alert button and V-P ass Equipment via alert button or beacon separation. However, a small fishing vessel with a couple of crews on board is an inappropriate way to alert a man-overboard condition. However, internationally, MOB equipment using VHF-DSC, AIS, and Bluetooth technologies is used to transmit alert signals directly to the mother ship and other radio stations. In order to analyze the performance and technology of the MOB equipment operating in foreign countries, it was confirmed that the alarm signal can be received within a maximum of one nautical mile when the MOB device is on the water surface. An MOB device that meets domestic conditions needs to send an alarm signal to a station within the VHF communication range. However, in order to reduce the false alert signal, it is most appropriate to operate the VHF-DSC radio equipment installed on the ship remotely. Analysis of various technologies connecting the MOB and the VHF-DSC revealed that the Bluetooth system has advantages such as device miniaturization. When an emergency signal is transmitted from the MOB device, it can be received by a dedicated receiver and recognized through an external input terminal of the VHF-DSC equipment generating its own alarm. If the emergency situation cannot be processed at the mother ship, a distress alert is sent to all radio stations via VHF-DSC for response under emergencies faced by small fishing vessels.

Effects of Soaking Conditions on the Manufacture of Calcium Enriched Rice (침지조건이 칼슘 강화미 제조에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seung-Joon;Min, Young-Kyoo;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Cho, Kyeong-Ju;Park, Kwang-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.604-609
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    • 2003
  • In order to investigate the transfer rate of calcium into rice and the effect of soaking conditions-temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and $60^{\circ}C$, $X_1$), calcium concentration of soaking solution (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/L, $X_2$) and soaking time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, $X_3$), moisture absorption rate, hardness and calcium content of rice after soaking were analyzed. When the soaking temperature and time were increased the moisture absorption rate also increased (p<0.01). Quadratic and interaction effects on the moisture absorption rate among variables were highly significant, within 5%. The predictive model for moisture absorption rate $(Y_1)$ was as follows: $Y=16.14+0.78X_1+1.24X_3-0.23X_1{^2}+0.14X_2{^2}-0.42X_3X_1-0.38X_3{^2}\;(R^2=0.9123)$. Hardness was decreased as soaking time and temperature increased. Calcium contents of soaked rice increased as temperature, the calcium concentration of soaking solution and soaking time were increased (p<0.01). Also the interactive effect between soaking time and calcium concentration of soaking solution was high. The predictive model for calcium content $(Y_3)$ was as follows: $Y_3=470.80+110.87X_1+123.47X_2+52.29X_3-7.42X_1{^2}-14.87X_2{^2}-9.49X_3X_2-20.57X_3{^2}\;(R^2=0.9840)$. From the results in this study, if adults and children take 400 g of calcium enriched rice with 600 mg/kg and $700{\sim}900\;mg/kg$, respectively, they can expect to take more calcium than the recommended intake without other calcium reinforcing agents.

Estimated Gas Concentrations of MA(Modified Atmosphere) and Changes of Quality Characteristics during the MA Storage on the Oyster Mushrooms (느타리버섯의 환경기체조성 농도 예측 및 MA 저장 중 품질특성 변화)

  • Lee, Hyun-Dong;Yoon, Hong-Sun;Lee, Won-Og;Jung, Hoon;Cho, Kwang-Hwan;Park, Won-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to find out effective MA (Modified Atmosphere) gas compositions on the oyster mushroom through statistical analysis of the respiration rate and MA storage for the various packaging materials. Under the various gas compositions, the oxygen consumption rate of oyster mushroom was from 28.9 to 161.4mgO$_2$/kg$.$hr and the carbon dioxide evolution rate was from 53.4 to 166.9 mgCO$_2$/kg$.$hr at 20$^{\circ}C$. The estimated MA condition of oyster mushroom were 2.5∼4.5%O$_2$and 11.5∼l3%CO$_2$by the RSREG(Response Surface Regression). The gas compositions of MA packaging are following that 0.03mm LDPE were 1.6∼3.0%O$_2$and 3.9∼5.3%CO$_2$,0.05mm LDPE were 1.2∼1.3%O$_2$and 9.0∼11.1%CO$_2$and Nylon+PE were 0.9∼1.2%O$_2$and 33.5∼39.6%CO$_2$. The weight loss increased at 0.03mm LDPE but has the lowest value at Nylon+PE. The hardness of pileus and stipe was decreased with storage periods. The $\Delta$E-value increased with storage period and seriously changed in early storage period at 12 and 20$^{\circ}C$. In the 0.05mm LDPE, the gas compositions of packaging were similar to estimated gas compositions from the RSREG and the storage quality was superior to the other packaging materials in weight loss, hardness, and color difference at 4, 12 and 20 $^{\circ}C$.

반응표면분석에 의한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성 변화

  • 이용욱;금준석;은종방
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.167.2-168
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    • 2003
  • 현대 사회는 서구적인 식생활의 변화로 인해 조리가 간편하고 조리 시간이 짧은 즉석식품과 영양 기호식품을 동시에 충족시켜주는 음식에 대한 소비가 늘고 있는 실정이다. 또한 최근 미곡의 공급량에 비해서 소비량이 해마다 감소하여 재고미의 증가를 볼 때, 쌀의 새로운 이용방법 모색이 절실히 요망된다. 따라서 쌀의 소비촉진과 현대사회의 소비형태를 접목시켜서 쇠고기와 야채를 이용한 즉석쌀죽을 개발하고자 하였다. 쇠고기, 야채 및 쌀가루를 이용한 soup mix의 최적 배합비를 설정하기 위하여 제조조건에 따라 다르게 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 변화를 조사하였다. 이때 야채의 배합비에 따른 이화학적 및 관능적 특성을 모니터링 하고자 반응표면분석법 (response surface methodology, RSM)을 이용하였다. 요인변수(Xn)를 쌀의 양에 대한 버섯의 비율 (X$_1$), 당근의 비율 (X$_2$), 대파의 비율 (X$_3$)로 하여 중심합성계획에 따라 17실험구로 구분하여 조리실험을 실시하였고, 반응변수(Yn)는 soup mix를 이용하여 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 특성인 색도의 L*값 (Y$_1$), a*값 (Y$_2$), b*값 (Y$_3$), 점도(Y$_4$), 퍼짐성 (Y$_{5}$), 고형분 함량(Y$_{6}$), PH (Y$_{7}$)으로 하였으며 관능적 특성인 색 (Y$_{8}$), 향 (Y$_{9}$), 점성 (Y$_{10}$), 맛 (Y$_{11}$), 전체적인 기호도 (Y$_{12}$)를 종속변수로 하여 회귀분석에 이용하였다. 회귀분석에 의한 모델식의 예측에는 SAS (statistical analysis system)program을 사용하였으며, 3차원 반응표면 분석법으로 해석하였다. 야채의 배합비에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 물리적 특성인 색도의 L*, a*, b* 값에 대한 반응표면 회귀식의 $R^2$은 각각 0.6098(p> 0.05), 0.8803 (p <0.05), 0.6781(p> 0.05)로서 b값에 있어서 그 유의성이 5%수준에서 인정되어 b값에 미치는 영향이 크다는 것을 알 수 있었다. L*값은 63-68사이로, a*값은 0.13에서 -0.89사이를 b*값은 2-5값 사이에서 변화하여 제조한 죽의 색이 옅은 황색임을 알 수 있었다. 고형분 함량, 퍼짐성과 pH에 대한 $R^2$은 각각 0.4280, 0.5433과 0.2406임을 볼 때 버섯, 당근, 대파의 비율에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 고형분 함량, 퍼짐성과 pH는 설정된 범위내에서 그 유의성이 인정되지 않아 큰 영향을 미치지 않음을 알 수 있었다. 관능검사 결과, 색과 향에 대한 반응표면 회귀식의 $R^2$은 각각0.6000과 0.7825이고 P-value는 각각 0.4290과 0.0942로서 5% 수준에서 유의한 상관성이 없음을 확인할 수 있었다. 맛과 점성에 대한 $R^2$은 0.8717과 0.8068이고 P-value는 각각 0.0195 (p <0.05)와 0.0612로서 야채의 배합비에 따라 맛에 있어서 유의확률 5%수준에서 그 유의성이 인정되었으며, 전체적인 기호도에 대한 유의성은 $R^2$이 0.8463이고 P-value는 0.0344 (p <0.05)임을 볼 때, 설정된 범위내에서 야채의 배합비에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 맛과 기호도에 큰 영향을 미치는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 최대 임계점이 버섯의 첨가량은 0.99%, 당근의 첨가량은 0.97%, 대파의 첨가량은 0.59%에서 최적 반응표면을 나타내었다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때, 야채의 배합비에 따른 맛과 전체적인 기호도에 있어서 그 유의성이 5%수준에서 모두 유의한 상관관계를 보였으며, soup mix 제조시 쌀가루 양에 대한 야채의 최적 배합비는 버섯, 당근, 대파에 있어서 각각 0.99, 0.97과 0.59%임을 알 수 있었다.

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A Study on Real-Time Defect Detection Using Ultrasound Excited Thermography (초음파 서모그라피를 이용한 실시간 결함 검출에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Jai-Wan;Seo, Yong-Chil;Jung, Seung-Ho;Jung, Hyun-Kyu;Kim, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.211-219
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    • 2006
  • The UET(ultrasound excited thermography) for the ,eat-time diagnostics of the object employs an infrared camera to image defects of the surface and subsurface which are locally heated using high-frequency putted ultrasonic excitation. The dissipation of high-power ultrasonic energy around the feces of the defects causes an increase In temperature. The defect's image appears as a hot spot (bright IR source) within a dark background field. The UET for nondestructive diagnostic and evaluation is based on the image analysis of the hot spot as a local response to ultrasonic excited heat deposition. In this paper the applicability of VET for fast imaging of defect is described. The ultrasonic energy is injected into the sample through a transducer in the vertical and horizontal directions respectively. The voltage applied to the transducer is measured by digital oscilloscope, and the waveform are compared. Measurements were performed on four kinds of materials: SUS fatigue crack specimen(thickness 14mm), PCB plate(1.8 mm), CFRP plate(3 mm) and Inconel 600 plate (1 mm). A high power ultrasonic energy with pulse durations of 250ms Is injected into the samples in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively The obtained experimental result reveals that the dissipation loss of the ultrasonic energy In the vertical injection is less than that in the horizontal direction. In the cafe or PCB, CFRP, the size of hot spot in the vortical injection if larger than that in horizontal direction. Duration time of the hot spot in the vertical direction is three times as long as that in the horizontal direction. In the case of Inconel 600 plate and SUS sample, the hot spot in the horizontal injection was detected faster than that in the vertical direction