• Title, Summary, Keyword: reversal probability

Search Result 6, Processing Time 0.043 seconds

Comparison of Detection Probability for Conventional and Time-Reversal (TR) Radar Systems

  • Yoo, Hyung-Ha;Koh, Il-Suek
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.70-76
    • /
    • 2012
  • We compare the detection probabilities of the time-reversal(TR) detection system and the conventional radar system. The target is assumed to be hidden inside a random medium such as a forest. We propose a TR detection system based on the SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) algorithm. Unlike the conventional SAR images, the proposed TR-SAR system has an interesting property. Specifically, the target-related signal components due to the time-reversal refocusing characteristics, as well as some of clutter-related signal components are concentrated at the time-reversal reference point. The remaining clutter-related signal components are scattered around that reference point. In this paper, we model the random media as a collection of point scatterers to avoid unnecessary complexities. We calculate the detection probability of the TR radar system based on the proposed simple random media model.

Low Writing Field on Perpendicular Nano-ferromagnetic

  • Wibowo, Nur Aji;Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.;Purnama, Budi
    • Journal of Magnetics
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.237-240
    • /
    • 2014
  • For heat-assisted magnetic recording, magnetization reversal probabilities of nano-Pt/MnSb multilayer film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy under thermal pulse activation were investigated numerically by solving the Landau-Lifshift Gilbert Equation. Magnetic parameters of nano-Pt/MnSb multilayer were used with anisotropy energy of $3{\times}10^5$ erg/cc and saturation magnetization of 2100 G, which offer more than 10 y data stability at room temperature. Scheme of driven magnetic field and thermal pulse on writing mechanism was designed closely to real experiment. This study found that the chosen material is potential to be used as a high density magnetic storage that requires low writing field less than two-hundreds Oersted through definite heating and cooling interval. The possibility of writing data with a zero driven magnetic field also became an important result. Further study is recommended on the thickness of media and thermal pulse design as the essential parameters of the reversal magnetization.

Simulation Based Investigation of Focusing Phased Array Ultrasound in Dissimilar Metal Welds

  • Kim, Hun-Hee;Kim, Hak-Joon;Song, Sung-Jin;Kim, Kyung-Cho;Kim, Yong-Buem
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.48 no.1
    • /
    • pp.228-235
    • /
    • 2016
  • Flaws at dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), such as reactor coolant systems components, Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM), Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI) etc., in nuclear power plants have been found. Notably, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in the DMWs could cause significant reliability problems at nuclear power plants. Therefore, phased array ultrasound is widely used for inspecting surface break cracks and stress corrosion cracks in DMWs. However, inspection of DMWs using phased array ultrasound has a relatively low probability of detection of cracks, because the crystalline structure of welds causes distortion and splitting of the ultrasonic beams which propagates anisotropic medium. Therefore, advanced evaluation techniques of phased array ultrasound are needed for improvement in the probability of detection of flaws in DMWs. Thus, in this study, an investigation of focusing and steering phased array ultrasound in DMWs was carried out using a time reversal technique, and an adaptive focusing technique based on finite element method (FEM) simulation. Also, evaluation of focusing performance of three different focusing techniques was performed by comparing amplitude of phased array ultrasonic signals scattered from the targeted flaw with three different time delays.

Effect of Phorbol ester on $K^+$channel in an G292 osteoblast-like cell (G292 세포에서 $K^+$통로에 대한 phorbol ester의 효과)

  • Kim, Mi-Kyung;Park, Su-Byung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
    • /
    • v.32 no.3
    • /
    • pp.227-234
    • /
    • 2002
  • In order to investigate the action mechanism of protein kinase C on $K^+$ channel in osteoblastic cell, effects of phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate on human osteoblast-like cells (G292) were studied by patch clamp technique with cell-attacked configuration. 111 this experiment, 45pS ion channel was dominant in G292 cell line according to their approximate conductances in symmetrical 140mM KCl saline at holding potential of 60mV. In torrent-voltage relationship, reversal potential was 5.5mV at the condition of potassium enriched saline in the pipette and -27 mV at the condition of standard extracellular saline In the pipette. Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate 10nM increased the open probability of 45pS channel and staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, suppressed this effect. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate moved the reversal potential of 45pS channel to more negative potential and increased the single channel current at the same membrame potential. In order to check the activation of protein kinase C in G292 cell by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, western blot of protein kinase C was performed. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate $0.1{\mu}M$ translocated protein kinase C from cellular compartment to membrane compartment of the cell. These findings suggest that phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, one of phorbol esters, activate 45pS channel In G292 cell and affect cell membrane potential, that regulate cellular function.

Characterization of an Ion Channel Prepared from Tomato Roots and Inhibitory Effects by Heavy Metal Ions (토마토 뿌리조직에서 분리한 이온채널의 중금속에 의한 저해)

  • Shin, Dae-Seop;Han, Min-Woo;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.47 no.4
    • /
    • pp.390-395
    • /
    • 2004
  • In order to characterize ion channels present in tomato roots, microsomes were incorporated into an artificial lipid bilayer arranged for electrophysiological analysis. Of the five different ion channels that could be found, a channel of 450 pS conductance was found most frequently. This channel displayed subconductance states of 450, 257 and 105 pS. All subconductance states showed linear current-voltage relationships. At positive holding potentials, high frequency of transient channel openings was observed; however, at negative potentials, the open times were long and open probability high. Po was 0.83 at -40 mV. When an additional 50 mM $K^+\;or\;Na^+$ was added to the cis side of bilayer, the reversal potentials shifted in the negative direction to near -10 mV. Thus, the 450 pS cation channel selects poorly between $K^+\;and\;Na^+$. In the presence of $100\;{\mu}M$ metal ions, the channel activity was severely inhibited by $La^{3+},\;Ba^{2+},\;and\;Zn^{2+}$, and Po was decreased to 0.2 or even less. However, $Al^{3+}\;and\;Cd^{2+}$ decreased the activity by only 20%. Interestingly, each metal ion showed different kinetics of channel inhibition. While $500\;{\mu}M\;La^{3+}$ inhibited the activities of all subconductance state, 1 mM $Zn^{2+}$ inhibited all except the 105 pS state. $Cd^{2+}$ changed the gating of the channel from a long-opening state to brief transient openings even at negative holding potentials. These data represent that the metal ions may have different binding sites on the channel protein and could be useful modulators and probes to investigate structural characteristics as well as the functional roles of the 450 pS channel on the root physiology.

Identification of Chloride Channels in Hamster Eggs (햄스터 난자에서 존재하는 Chloride 통로)

  • Kim, Y.-M.;Kim, J.-S.;Hong, S.-G.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.101-112
    • /
    • 2004
  • Chloride($Cl^-$) channels play critical roles in cell homeostasis and its specific functions such as volume regulation, differentiation, secretion, and membrane stabilization. The presence of these channels have been reported in all kinds of cells and even in frog oocytes. These essential role of $Cl^-$­ channels in cell homeostasis possibly play any role in egg homeostasis and in the early stage of development, however, there has been no report about the presence of $Cl^-$­ channel in the mammalian oocyte. This study was performed to elucidate the presence of $Cl^-$­ channels in hamster eggs. When allowing only $Cl^-$­ to pass through the channel of the egg membrane by using impermeant cation such as N-methyl-D-glucamine(NMDG), single channel currents were recorded. These channel currents showed typical long-lasted openings interrupted by rapid flickering. Mean open $time({\tau}o)$ was 43${\pm}$10.14 ms(n=9, at 50 mV). The open probability(Po) was decrease with depolarization. The current-voltage relation showed outward rectification. Outward slop conductance(32${\pm}$5.4 pS, n=22) was steeper than the inward slop conductance(10${\pm}$1.3 pS). Under the condition of symmetrical 140 mM NaCl, single channel currents were reversed at 0 mV(n=4). This reversal potential(Erev) was shifted from 0 mV at 140 mM concentration of internal NaCl(140 mM [Na+]i) to ­9.8${\pm}$0.5 mV(n=4) at 70 mM [Na+]i and 11.5${\pm}$1.9 mV at 280 mM [Na+]i(n=4) respectively, strongly suggesting that these are single $Cl^-$­ channel currents. To examine further whether this channel has pharmacological property of the $Cl^-$­ channel, specific Cl­ channel blockers, IAA-94(Indanyloxyacetic acid-94) and DIDS(4, 4'-diisothiocyan ostillben- 2-2'disulfonic acid) were applied. IAA-94 inhibited the channel current in a dose-dependent manner and revealed a rapid and flickering block. From these electrophysiological and pharmacological resluts, we found the novel $Cl^-$­ channel present in the hamster oocyte membrane. The first identification of $Cl^-$­ channel in the hamster oocyte may give a clue for the further study on the function of $Cl^-$­ channel in the fertilization and cell differentiation.