• Title, Summary, Keyword: rice

Search Result 14,619, Processing Time 0.095 seconds

Studies on Control of the Mixture of Annual and Perennial Weeds Emerged from Paddy Field - On the Pre-Emergence Treatment of Herbicides in the Paddy Field Dominated by Sagittaria pygmaea MIQ - (다년생잡초(多年生雜草) 혼생답(混生畓)에 있어서 제초제(除草劑)에 의한 잡초방제(雜草防除) - 특(特)히 올미 우점답(優點畓)에서 초기처리제(初期處理劑)를 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Ryang, H.S.;Han, S.S.;Kim, J.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-40
    • /
    • 1982
  • For the effective control of weeds in mechanically transplanted paddy field weeding effects of naproanide ${\alpha}$-(${\beta}$-naphthoxy) propion anilide], pyrazolate [4-2, 4-dichlorobenzoyl)-1, 3-dimethyl pyrazol-5-yl-p-tolune sulphanate], chlormethoxynil (2, 4-dichloro-phenyl-4-nitro-3-methoxy phenyl ether), SL-49 [1-3dimethyl-4(2, 4dichlorobenzoyl)-5-phenacyloxy pyrazole], ACN (3-chloro-2-amino-l, 4-naphthoquinone) either alone or in combination with butachlor (2-chlor-2, 6-diethyl-N-buthoxymethyl acetanilide) were compared. Pyrazolate and SL-49 were most effective for the control of Sagittaria pygmaea MIQ. and Potomogeton distinctus A. BENN. including most annual weeds. Weeding effect of butachlor alone was very high for annuals, good for Cyperus serotinus ROTTB. and poor for S. pygmaea and P. distinctus. But the weeding effect of the combination of butachlor and pyrazolate was stronger than that of butachlor alone and therefore this mixture was effective for S. pygmaea, P. distinctus and C. serotinus including all the annual weeds. The combination of butachlor and SL-49 showed the same tendency as the combination of butachlor and pyrazolate. Naproanilide was not effective for the control of Echinochlor crusgalli P. BEAUV and less effective for Monochoria vaginalis PRESL, but excellent for S. pygmaea. By mixing butachlor with naproanilide weeding, spectrum for annuals and S. pygmaea was much increased by that for P. distinctus and C. serotinus was not satisfactory. ACN was not satisfactory for the control of all the tested weeds but the weeding effect was increased in general by mixing with butachlor. Chlormethoxynil was excellent for the control of annual weeds but it has no effect on C. serotinus, S. pygmaea and P. distinctus showing some initial controling effect but these weeds regrew afterwards. The weeding activity of ACN increased in combination with butachlor and the residual activity was stronger than that of ACN alone. A light crop injury was found at the initial period after treatments in all treated plots. The yield from all treated plots except those from plots treated with ACN, butachlor and naproanilide were not significantly different from the band weeded plot.

  • PDF

Analysis of Korean Dietary Patterns using Food Intake Data - Focusing on Kimchi and Alcoholic Beverages (식품섭취량을 활용한 우리나라 식이 패턴 분석 - 김치류 및 주류 중심으로)

  • Kim, Soo-Hwaun;Choi, Jang-Duck;Kim, Sheen-Hee;Lee, Joon-Goo;Kwon, Yu-Jihn;Shin, Choonshik;Shin, Min-Su;Chun, So-Young;Kang, Gil-Jin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.251-262
    • /
    • 2019
  • In this study, we analyzed Korean dietary habits with food intake data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and we proposed a set of management guidelines for future Korean dietary habits. A total of 839 food items (1,419 foods) were analyzed according to the food catagories in "Food Code", which is the representative food classification system in Korea. The average total daily food intake was 1,585.77 g/day, with raw and processed foods accounting for 858.96 g/day and 726.81 g/day, respectively. Cereal grains contributed to the highest proportion of the food intake. Over 90% of subjects consumed cereal grains (99.09%) and root and tuber vegetables (95.80%) among the top 15 consumed food groups. According to the analysis by item, rice, Korean cabbage kimchi, apple, radish, egg, chili pepper, onion, wheat, soybean curds, potato, cucumber and pork were major (at least 1% of the average daily intake, 158.6 g/day) and frequently (eaten by more than 25% of subjects, 5,168 persons) consumed food items, and Korean spices were at the top of this list. In the case of kimchi, the proportion of intake of Korean cabbage kimchi (64.89 g/day) was the highest. In the case of alcoholic beverages, intake was highest by order of beer (63.53 g/day), soju (39.11 g/day) and makgeolli (19.70 g/day), and intake frequency was high in order of soju (11.3%), beer (7.2%), and sake (6.6%). Analysis results by seasonal intake trends showed that cereal grains have steadily decreased and beverages have slightly risen. In the case of alcoholic beverage consumption frequency, some kinds of makgeolli, wine, sake, and black raspberry wine have decreased gradually year by year. The consumption trend for kimchi has been gradually decreasing as well.

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues Concerned in Stream Water (전국 하천수 중 잔류우려 농약 실태조사)

  • Hwang, In-Seong;Oh, Yee-Jin;Kwon, Hye-Young;Ro, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dan-Bi;Moon, Byeong-Chul;Oh, Min-Seok;Noh, Hyun-Ho;Park, Sang-Won;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Ryu, Song-Hee;Kim, Byung-Seok;Oh, Kyeong-Seok;Lim, Chi-Hwan;Lee, Hyo-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.38 no.3
    • /
    • pp.173-184
    • /
    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to investigate pesticide residues from fifty streams in Korea. Water samples were collected at two times. Thee first sampling was performed from april to may, which was the season for start of pesticide application and the second sampling event was from august to september, which was a period for spraying pesticides multiple times. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 136 pesticide residues were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC/ECD. As a result, eleven of the pesticide residues were detected at the first sampling. Twenty eight of the pesticide residues were detected at the second sampling. Seven pesticides were frequently detected from more than 10 water samples. Ecological risk assessment (ERA) was carried out by using residual and toxicological data. Four scenarios were applied for the ERA. Scenario 1 and 2 were performed using LC50 values and mean and maximum concentrations. Scenarios 3 and 4 were conducted by NOEC values and mean and maximum concentrations. CONCLUSION: Frequently detected pesticide residues tended to coincide with the period of preventing pathogen and pest at paddy rice. As a result of ERA, five pesticides (butachlor, carbendazim, carbofuran, chlorantranilprole, and oxadiazon) were assessed to be risks at scenario 4. However, only oxadiazon was assessed to be a risk at scenario 3 for the first sampling. Oxadiazon was not assessed to be a risk at the second sampling. It seems to be temporary phenomenon at the first sampling, because usage of herbicides such as oxadiazon increased from April to march for preventing weeds at paddy fields. However, this study suggested that five pesticides which were assessed to be risks need to be monitored continuously for the residues.

Application of Animal Excreta for Forage Production on Uncultivated Rice Paddy (유휴 논토양에서 가축분뇨를 이용한 조사료의 생산)

  • 이주삼;조익환;안종호;김성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.175-185
    • /
    • 1995
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the optimum rates of animal excreta(cattle slurry-N) for the highest dry matter production and improve the nutritive values of reed canarygrass with different cutting frequency. The results are summarized as follows; The highest relative dry matter yields for annual dry matter yield were 42.2% and 45.2% at 3rd cut in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 34.7% at 4th cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. The annual dry matter yields of non slurry-N application plot showed were from 6.8 tons to 8.0 tons/ha in all cutting frequencies. The highest annual dry matter yield obtained was in 3 cuttings. The annual dry matter yield increased with an increase of applied rates of slurry-N in all cutting frequencies. Annual dry matter yield was produced by 3.3 tons/ha at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 cuttings, and more 1.7 tonsha and 2.4 tons/ha at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 4 and 5 cuttings than that of non slurry-N application plots. The contents of crude protein were 12.01% and 15.0% at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 16.59% at rates of 120 kg N/ha/cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. On the contrary, the content of acid detergent fibre(ADF) showed the lowest values at same rates of slurry-N application in each cutting. J. The average content of crude protein was significantly increased with cutting frequencies, and they were 11.43%, 13.53% and 15.53% in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. The average contents of acid detergent fibre(ADF) were 40.27%, 40.53% and 37.06% in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings. The values of 5 cuttings were significantly lower than other cutting frequencies, but the values of acid detergent fibre(ADF) was not significantly different between 3 and 4 cuttings. 6. The efficiency of dry matter production to slurry-N application rates showed the highest values of 18.9 kg and 15.7 kg DM/kg N at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 3 and 5 cuttings, and 16.3 kg DM/kg/ N at rates of 90 kg N/ ha/cut in 4 cuttings. The efficiency of total nitrogen yield to slurry-N application rates were the highest values of 0.51 kg and 0.43 kg W k g N at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 4 and 5 cuttings, and 0.52 kg TN/kg N at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 cuttings, respectively. 7. The ranges of economic slurry-N rates were estimated as the 107.2-151.0 kglha, 359.1-375.7 kgha and 160.3-236.9 kg/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, and marginal dry matter yields were 9.6-10.0 tons/ha, 12.4-12.6 tons/ha and 9.0-9.7 tons/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. 8. The limiting sluny-N application rates to maintain the highest dry matter yields were estimated to be 420.0 kg/ ha, 440.6 kg/ha and 666.3 kg/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings.

  • PDF

A Study on Nutritive Values and Salt Contents of Commercially Prepared Take-Out Boxed-Lunch In Korea (한국형 시판 도시락의 영양가 및 식염함량)

  • Kim, Bok-Hee;Lee, Eun-Wha;Kim, Won-Kyung;Lee, Yoon-Na;Kwak, Chung-Shil;Mo, Sumi
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.230-242
    • /
    • 1991
  • This research was conducted on the 10 take-out boxed-lunches commercially prepared in the department stores. chain stores. and the public railroad trains in Korea. Sampling was conducted from February 1990 to March 1990. Nutritive values and sodium contents of the 10 boxed-lunch samples are summarized as follows : 1) The average weight(percentage) of the cooked rice and the side dishes were 304.6g(49.4) and 312.4(506%), respectively. The weight of these samples were significantly heavier than that of Japanese style boxed-lunches. 2) The average number of the side dishes was 12. The average numbers of food items classified by the five food groups were 6.1 in protein food group, 0.3 in calcium food group. 6.0 in vitamin and mineral food group. 1.5 in carbohydrate food group, and 1.5 in oil and fat food group. 3) They contained on the average 840.7kcal of energy, 38.9g of protein, 22.7g of fat, 120.4g of carbohydrate. 300.8mg of calcium. 410.8mg of phosphours, 6.61 mg of iron. 219.8 R.E. of vitamin A, 0.46mg of thiamin, 0.67mg of riboflavin, 10.5mg of niacin, 27.5mg of ascorbic acid. Thus. except vitamin t the content of all the nutrients were higher than the value of 1/3 of the RDA for adults. 4) The high priced group(group 2) had more protein, calcuim. iron and niacin contents than the cheaper group(group 1). Probably, it's because the group 2 had more animal foods than the group 1. 5) The average energy content per unit price(100 won) was 37.3kcal and the average protein content per unit price(100 won) was 1.64g. Korena style boxed-lunches had higher energy and protein contents per unit price than Japanese style, and the group 1 higher than the group 2. 6) The average energy Proportions of Protein, carbohydrate. and fat were 18.3%, 57.4%, and 24.3%, respectively. These proportions are good enough. 7) Frequency of cooking methods for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : pan-frying, frying, braising, seasoning, kimchi, grilling, pickling, stir-frying, steaming and fermenting. Generally simple cooking methods were used, thus the menus were lack or varieties. 8) Frequency of colors for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : red, brown. yellow, green, black, white. Too much red pepper was used. 9) The average capacity of the containers for the staples and the side dishes were 468.1ml and 590.6ml, respectively. And the containers could not keep the food items well seperated. 10) The average contensts of sodium and salt were 2.287mg and 5.76g, in the range of 1, 398mg to 3, 489mg and 3.53g to 8.80g, respectively. These are much higher values than the recommended amount of salt.

  • PDF

Strain Improvement of the Genus Pleurotus by Protoplast Fusion (원형질체(原形質體) 융합(融合)에 의한 느타리버섯속(屬)의 품종개발(品種開發))

  • Yoo, Young-Bok;You, Chang-Hyun;Cha, Dong-Yeul
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.200-211
    • /
    • 1993
  • Somatic hybrids of Pleurotus florida ASI 2016 and Pleurotus ostreatus ASI 2018 were obtained by protoplast fusion. The 40 fusants($P1{\sim}P40$) was examined for the yield on fermented and pasteurized rice straw in a tray. The carpophore yield of them were showed as the range of $27.0{\sim}155.2$, based on parental values of 100(ASI 2018), The pilei of fusants between orange white colored P. florida and dark grey colored P. ostreatus had mixed colors in the young stage. Other breeding programmes were performed to improve new varieties with high yield and good quality. A new oyster mushroom variety, Wonhyeongneutaribeosus(P72), was developed at the Agricultural Sciences Institute, Rural Development Administration in 1990. This P.florida-ostreatus-ostreatus hybrid P72 was selected from 38 protoplast fusion products($P41{\sim}P78$) between P.florida-ostreatus recombinant P5-M 43-arg rib and P. ostreatus ASI 2-13-0 2001-19-pro orn. The yield indexes of 38 hybrids ranged $40.5{\sim}152.7$ compared with the parental values of 100(ASI 2001). Hybrid P72 was characterized by the large fruiting bundle of semispherical shape with long stipe and by the small and circular pileus, resulting in lower harvesting cost. A significant increase in carpophore production was observed in somatic hybrids of protoplasts due to heterosis. A comparision of hybrid with parents P72 was made using isozyme analysis. The esterase banding patterns could be characterized by new bands in the hybrids. Seven fusion products of four crosses between P.florida ASI 2016 and P. ostreatus ASI 2018 were analysed with respect to the distribution of progenies and segregation of gene markers by random basidiospore analysis. Segregation of alleles should yield progeny of four genotypes in a Mendelian ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 for prototrophs, auxotrophs of one parental type, auxotrophs of the other parental type, and auxotrophic recombinants, respectively. However, five fusants of them did not detect one parental, P.ostreatus, type. Basidiospores could yield progeny of 16 genotypes in the cross of one of the recombinant P5-M43-arg $rib{\times}P. ostreatus$ ASI 2-13-pro orn but the segregants of three fusants were not detected clearly. The allele ratio of loci could be expected 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 for arg, rib, pro and orn. The ratio, however, would be changed to 4 : 1 : 1 : 1 with increasing proportion of argo In almost all the fusants, prototrophic recombinants were recovered in large numbers against auxotrophic markers. Parental genotypes were recovered with the recombinant progeny amounting to $38.68{\sim}99.56%$. The analysis provides proof of heterokaryosis and strong evidence for haploidy of vegetative nuclei, a sexual cycle consisting of nuclear fusion and meiosis.

  • PDF

Rapid Rural-Urban Migration and the Rural Economy in Korea (한국(韓國)의 급격(急激)한 이촌향도형(離村向都型) 인구이동(人口移動)과 농촌경제(農村經濟))

  • Lee, Bun-song
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.27-45
    • /
    • 1990
  • Two opposing views prevail regarding the economic impact of rural out-migration on the rural areas of origin. The optimistic neoclassical view argues that rapid rural out-migration is not detrimental to the income and welfare of the rural areas of origin, whereas Lipton (1980) argues the opposite. We developed our own alternative model for rural to urban migration, appropriate for rapidly developing economies such as Korea's. This model, which adopts international trade theories of nontraded goods and Dutch Disease to rural to urban migration issues, argues that rural to urban migration is caused mainly by two factors: first, the unprofitability of farming, and second, the decrease in demand for rural nontraded goods and the increase in demand for urban nontraded goods. The unprofitability of farming is caused by the increase in rural wages, which is induced by increasing urban wages in booming urban manufacturing sectors, and by the fact that the cost increases in farming cannot be shifted to consumers, because farm prices are fixed worldwide and because the income demand elasticity for farm products is very low. The demand for nontraded goods decreases in rural and increases in urban areas because population density and income in urban areas increase sharply, while those in rural areas decrease sharply, due to rapid rural to urban migration. Given that the market structure for nontraded goods-namely, service sectors including educational and health facilities-is mostly in monopolistically competitive, and that the demand for nontraded goods comes only from local sources, the urban service sector enjoys economies of scale, and can thus offer services at cheaper prices and in greater variety, whereas the rural service sector cannot enjoy the advantages offered by scale economies. Our view concerning the economic impact of rural to urban migration on rural areas of origin agrees with Lipton's pessimistic view that rural out-migration is detrimental to the income and welfare of rural areas. However, our reasons for the reduction of rural income are different from those in Lipton's model. Lipton argued that rural income and welfare deteriorate mainly because of a shortage of human capital, younger workers and talent resulting from selective rural out-migration. Instead, we believe that rural income declines, first, because a rapid rural-urban migration creates a further shortage of farm labor supplies and increases rural wages, and thus reduces further the profitability of farming and, second, because a rapid rural-urban migration causes a further decline of the rural service sectors. Empirical tests of our major hypotheses using Korean census data from 1966, 1970, 1975, 1980 and 1985 support our own model much more than the neoclassical or Lipton's models. A kun (county) with a large out-migration had a smaller proportion of younger working aged people in the population, and a smaller proportion of highly educated workers. But the productivity of farm workers, measured in terms of fall crops (rice) purchased by the government per farmer or per hectare of irrigated land, did not decline despite the loss of these youths and of human capital. The kun having had a large out-migration had a larger proportion of the population in the farm sector and a smaller proportion in the service sector. The kun having had a large out-migration also had a lower income measured in terms of the proportion of households receiving welfare payments or the amount of provincial taxes paid per household. The lower incomes of these kuns might explain why the kuns that experienced a large out-migration had difficulty in mechanizing farming. Our policy suggestions based on the tests of the currently prevailing hypotheses are as follows: 1) The main cause of farming difficulties is not a lack of human capital, but the in­crease in production costs due to rural wage increases combined with depressed farm output prices. Therefore, a more effective way of helping farm economies is by increasing farm output prices. However, we are not sure whether an increase in farm output prices is desirable in terms of efficiency. 2) It might be worthwhile to attempt to increase the size of farmland holdings per farm household so that the mechanization of farming can be achieved more easily. 3) A kun with large out-migration suffers a deterioration in income and welfare. Therefore, the government should provide a form of subsidization similar to the adjustment assistance provided for international trade. This assistance should not be related to the level of farm output. Otherwise, there is a possibility that we might encourage farm production which would not be profitable in the absence of subsidies. 4) Government intervention in agricultural research and its dissemination, and large-scale social overhead projects in rural areas, carried out by the Korean government, might be desirable from both efficiency and equity points of view. Government interventions in research are justified because of the problems associated with the appropriation of knowledge, and government actions on large-scale projects are justified because they required collective action.

  • PDF

The Abolition Type and The Regional Characteristics of The Elementary Schools in Chungbuk Province (忠淸北道의 國民學校 廢校類型과 그 地域的 特性)

  • ;Chae, Son-Ha
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.84-104
    • /
    • 1994
  • The migration of population into the city has been on the increase according as Korea has been industrialized repidly since the 1960's. And there is a steady decrease in rural population. Thus lack of the number of the students forced many elementary Schools to be abolished. The aim of this study is to grasp the abolition types and the regional characteristics with the subject region of Chungbuk province. From the viewpoint of the increasing abolition of the elementary schools, I think it is very important to understand how the elementary schools have been abolished so far and predict how the subject region will have been changed in geography. Data for this study are based on Annual Establishment-Abolition Situation of the Schools published by Chungbuk office of Education in 1992, and many Kinds of the statistical reports, and the interview with the related. The results are as follows: 1. By examining the change of the number of the elementary schools and students in Chnugbuk, the numder of the students had also decreased since 1969 and was less than the half in 1990. As the number of the schools began to decrease ten years later than the students began to, the abolition of the elementary schools has started in reality from 1980's. 2. The 72 elementary schools were aboilshed between 1980 and 1992: the principal school is 9.7%, the branch school is 90.3%. The most fifteen schools are abolished in Yongdong-county and Chechon-county, and the least one school is abolished in Chechon-city and Okchon-county, and there is no abolition in Chongju-city and Chungju-city: According to the type of the abolition process, the least seven principal schools are abolished, and the principal school is reorganized as a branch school and twenty eight branch schools are abolished, and the most thirty seven branch schools are abolished. 3. When special change of the abolition is classified into the first perio (1980-1986) and the second period (1987-1992), in the first period the principal and branch schools were abolished and they are 13.9% of total abolition. The abolition out of them by building a dam is 60%. The principal schools in the submerged area though they have many students, were abolished. In the second period sixty two branch schools are abolished and they are 86.1% of total abolition. The most fifteen schools are abolished in Yongdong-county, thirteen in Chechon-county, seven in Tanyang-county, six in Chongwon-county, five in Chungwon-county and Koesan-county. Unlike the first period, the schools were abolished in this period because the number of students was so small. In this period sixty branch schools were abolished. All the students in the abolished schools except six schools transfered to the principal schools. The 58 school authorities help the students attend school by bus or support the expenses for attending school after that. 4. The abolition types of city, county and myon are classified into five types by the number of the abolished schools. The most forty nine abolished schools in type II are 68.1 of the total abolition. The least three abolished ones in type I are 12.5%. Considering the relation between the abolition type ane the number of schools and students, the number of the schools, increased in type I, II, III, V except IV from 1980 and then have decreased by abolition since 1980, while the more students decreased than they did in 1970 and the more the abolished school increases, the less the students decreases. The average students per school decreased in every abolition type and the most students decreased in type IV. 5. Considering the relation between the abolition type and the regional characteristics, most abolished schools were located between 100m and 300m above the sea level and it is 71% of the total abolition. The region without the abolition is high in the ratio of the cultivate land, ratio of rice field, and the part-time farmer, but the region with many abolition is low in the ratio of cultivated land. As for the manufacturing there are the most city, county and myon in the abolition type in Youngdong-county and Chechon-county where the manufacturing ratio of employing is low but Chongju-city without the abolition is a region where the manufacturing ratio is high. Consequently the development of the manufacturing causes the population to emigation out and the decrease of the population leads the transport is difficult of access, the facilities sold after being abolished are not being used in many ways. 7. Take an example of Youndong-county where the most schools were abolished, I have examined the school district and the population characteristics of the abolition. Though there were more villages, households, populations in the region that is higher than low above the sea level, the schools were abolished. Therefore we know that above the sea level had a great effect on the abolition. As a result of the regional analysis of the abolition, many schools were abolished by the artificial buildings such as a dam in the early 1980's but the schools in the late 1980's were abolished ten years later after the students decreased. More schools were abolished in the region where the manufacturing industry didn't develop. And the higher the school position was above the sea level, the sooner the school was abolished. It is also proved that both the beautiful natural scenery and accessibility are the important factor in using the abolished facilities practically.

  • PDF

Comparison of Growth Charateristics, Forage Yield and Growth Analysis in Corn Hybrids for Silage Production (Silage용 옥수수의 생육특성, 수량 및 생육해석의 품종간 비교)

  • 김창호;박상철;이효원;강희경
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-88
    • /
    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted from May to August in 1997 to selected the wrn hybrids being suitable for silage at farm in the Kongju National University through the comparison of growth characteristics, forage yield and growth analysis about native and imported corn hybrids for silage production. In this experiment, trial design was a randomized block design with three replication, testing varieties were 4 hybrids (Suwon 19, Kwanganok, Whengsungok, Suwonok ) of native corn hybrids and 13 hybrids (P 3156, P 3352, P 3144w, DK 501, DK 689, DK 713, DK 729, H 643.99, H 545.64, H 645.12, HC 7466, H 644.18, H ALISEO) of imported corn hybrids. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The emergence rate of H643.99 was the highest with 97.0%. In rice black streaked dwarf virus(RBSOV), the hybrid of HC 7466 was lower infected with 1.6% than other hybrids. The plant hight of P 3144w was the highest with 339 cm and the stem length of P 3156 was the highest with 261 cm. In native com hybrids, the plant height and stem length of Kwanganok were recorded with 306 cm and 235 cm, respectively. 2. Leaf number and leaf area of Kwanganok were the greatest with 16 sheet per plant and $5,180\;{\textrm{m}^2}/l0a$, respectively. H 645.12 and H 545.64 had the greatest in ear to total dry matter ratio with 49.5% and 49.4%, respectively. 3. The fresh matter yield was significantly difference between growth stage, So Suwon 19 had the most level at 15 days before silking, P 3352 had the most level at silking date, Kwananok had the most level at 35 days a after silking. The fresh matter yield of native com hybrids such as Suwon 19 and Kwanganok was not apparent diffreences as compared with imported corn hybrids. 4. As the results of survey with dry weight, the quantity of dry matter accumulation were increase after silking. The varieties of P 3352, P 3156, Kwanganok, OK 713 were more quantity of dry matter production than DK 501, HC 7466. The Kwanganok of native com hybrid and Pioneer strain with high percentage of dry matter were higher dry weight than Limagrain strain. 5. HC 7466 had the largest LAR with $6.53\;{\textrm{cm}^2}/g$, H545.12 had the lowest LAR with $3.30\;{\textrm{cm}^2/g}$. P 3144 had the largest LAI, DeKalb strain including DK 713 were larger apparently than Limagrain strain including HC 7466 with 3.15. 6. The RGR of testing varieties was little difference of statistical significantly, but DK 501, and HC 7466 were lower than other corn hybrids. The CGR of native and American varieties was no apparent differences, but that of Limagrain strains were a large variation. According to the results obtained by this experiment, the eary growth such as emergence rate and RBSDV infection rate of Limagrain strains was more excellent than other strains. P 3156, P 3352, P 3144w, DK 713 and HC 7466 were suitable for silage condition such as dry matter yield, percentage of dry matter and % ear to total dry matter. The fresh and dry matter yield of native corn hybrids such as Suwon 19 and Kwanganok were not apparent differences as compared with imported corn hybrids, but percentage of dry matter was lower than other imported corn hybrids.

  • PDF

A Study on the existence aspect of the elderly in the Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 노인(老人)의 존재양상 - 연령과 신분을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hyo-Gyong
    • Journal of Korean Historical Folklife
    • /
    • no.52
    • /
    • pp.7-46
    • /
    • 2017
  • The elderly in the Joseon Dynasty consistently attracted attention from the national herb as objects of social respect. Based on the Confucian ideology, the old man was considered to be a receiving body, since he was a person with complete character as a man. The elderly, who have the character of being a slave, transcended their status, and both the souls and the people were transcended beyond their identities and attributes and became objects of respect. The perception of the elderly is divided by age. The persons who are 50 years old and start to be in physical decline were regarded as senior citizens. However, this was just mentioned as an inflection point between the prime of manhood and senior citizens and was not defined as the elderly. As a public duty called a national work ends when they are 60 years old, the age is truly the lowest limit of senior citizens who are applicable to all the social beings. However, because their public duties end when they are 60 years old and they were regarded as general members of society, special benefits were not granted to them. In the caste system and bureaucratic society, senior citizens' treatment were differently done by age. For the senior citizens who are 70 years old, various benefits were just granted to high government officials. Bokho(復戶) and Seojeong were first given to them. And the retirement age of government officials was not specially set. It was done in the way to treat Jonno with exceptional respect by Chisa(致仕: regular retirement). It is the most respectful treatment given to high government officials and ministers. For the senior citizens who are 80 years old, Yangnoyeon(養老宴) was held for both of Yangmin and Cheonmin as an measure to treat them considerately. In addition, official ranks(官品) with social value were allowed by giving them Noinjik (老人職). Official ranks given to Seoin and Cheonin were the best Jonno(尊老) policy. However, the Jonno policy related to senior citizens was different according to position and official ranks as follows: Kings were subjected to social treatment when they were 60 years old. High government officials and royal relatives of the senior grade of the second court rank were subjected to social treatment when they were 70 years old. And general Seoin and slaves were subjected to social treatment when they were respectively 80 and 90 years old. Senior citizens were individually supported. However, social value was granted because the nation supervised it. As Bokho and Sijeong were assigned according to position and official ranks and kinds of things were different, the social limit was clearly shown. Social order was put above the ideology called Jonno thought. However, Jonno acts by age and position did not stay at the individual level and the nation took care of the senior citizens who are the members of society in various ways based on Jonno thought. Society tried to take care of the senior citizens who had difficulties in their activities because of being in physical decline. The nation increased the existence value of the senior citizens by giving things(賜物) including chairs, rice, meat, and ice economically, exoneration(免罪), the reduction system, and wergild legally, and Noinjik called Gaja(加資) socially to them and changing them to the members of society. Yangnoyeon and Gaja held targeting people of every class by transcending position and official ranks make the point that the senior citizens who are more than 80 years old are subject to social jonno clear. That is, the senior citizens were subject to respect for the elderly as the persons who were socially respected transcending their position when they got to be 80 years old.