• Title, Summary, Keyword: ruminant

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Electrophoretic analysis of the major proteins of ruminant erythrocyte membrane: Their relation to slow erythrocyte sedimentation rate (반추동물 적혈구막 단백의 전기영동법에 의한 분석 -낮은 적혈구침강속도와의 관계-)

  • Lee, Bang-whan;Bahk, Young-woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.445-455
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    • 1989
  • The proteins of the ruminant erythrocyte membranes were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate, and their relations to the slow erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) of the ruminants were investigated by treating the erythrocytes with proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin and pronase, and glycosidases such as neuraminidase and galactosidase. Protein content in the erythrocyte membrane was $2.85{\pm}0.28$ in human, $3.60{\pm}0.41$ in Korean cattle, $3.71{\pm}0.36$ in Holstein, $4.13{\pm}0.83$ in Korean native goat and $3.94{\pm}0.56mg/ml$ in sheep, showing higher in ruminant animals than in human(p<0.01). Although the general protein profiles of the ruminant erythrocyte membranes were almost similar to that of human, all the ruminant erythrocyte membranes showed one additional protein band, called band-Q in the previous report on proteins of bovine erythrocyte membrane, which migrated electrophoretically to the mid position between band-2 and band-3 in human erythrocyte membranes. The glycoprotein profiles of ruminant erythrocyte membranes revealed by periodic acid Schiff(PAS) stain showed a marked difference from that of human. The PAS-1(glycophorin) and PAS-2(sialoglycogrotein) present in human erythrocyte membranes were almost absent from the ruminant animals. Instead, a strong PAS-positive band near the origin of the electrophorograms, which was named as PAS-B in the previous report on proteins of bovine erythrocyte membranes, was shown in the ruminant animals except sheep. In addition, the erythrocyte membranes of Korean native goat and sheep showed a moderate PAS-negative band near the tracking dye of the electrophorograms, which was named as PAS-G in this study. In the erythrocyte treated with the enzymes, the migration of each protein fracture of erythrocyte membranes in response to each enzyme was diverse according to different species or breed of ruminant animals. Among others, band-Q present in ruminants was slightly or moderately decreased by trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and pronase- treatments of the erythrocytes, but not only in sheep. It was particularly noticeable that PAS-B, a fraction of glycoprotein, present in ruminants except sheep, was better digested by proteinases than by glycosidases, showing remarkable increase(p<0.01) of the ESR in accord with complete digestion(disappearance) of the PAS-B band by pronase, trypsin or chymotrypsin treatment of erythrocytes. In sheep, there was almost no any response to the various enzymes in general protein and glycoprotein profiles of the erythrocyte membranes except PAS-G, which was markedly decreased by pronase treatment of the erythrocytes. Nevertheless, the ESRs were accelerated in erythrocytes treated with pronase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and neuraminidase. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility was increased in erythrocytes treated with only pronase among five enzymes in all the human and ruminant animals used in this study.

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Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Producing Bacteria on In vitro Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

  • Ku, Bum Seung;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Kim, Seon-Ho;Jeong, Chang Dae;Soriano, Alvin P.;Lee, Ho-Il;Nam, Ki-Chang;Ha, Jong K.;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.804-811
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    • 2013
  • The effects and significance of ${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid (GABA) producing bacteria (GPB) on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine) using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM). Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05). Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05). Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation.

Use of Lysozyme as a Feed Additive on In vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Emission

  • Biswas, Ashraf A.;Lee, Sung Sill;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Kim, Seon-Ho;Choi, Yeon-Jae;Bae, Gui-Seck;Lee, Kichoon;Sung, Ha-Guyn;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1601-1607
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of lysozyme addition on in vitro rumen fermentation and to identify the lysozyme inclusion rate for abating methane ($CH_4$) production. An in vitro ruminal fermentation technique was done using a commercial concentrate to rice straw ratio of 8:2 as substrate. The following treatments were applied wherein lysozyme was added into 1 mg dry matter substrate at different levels of inclusion: Without lysozyme, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 U lysozyme. Results revealed that, lysozyme addition had a significant effect on pH after 24 h of incubation, with the highest pH (p<0.01) observed in 8,000 U lysozyme, followed by the 4,000 U, 2,000 U, and without lysozyme. The highest amounts of acetic acid, propionic acid (p<0.01) and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) (p<0.05) were found in 8,000 U after 24 h of incubation. The $CH_4$ concentration was the lowest in the 8,000 U and the highest in the without lysozyme addition after 24 h of incubation. There was no significant differences in general bacteria, methanogen, or protozoan DNA copy number. So far, addition of lysozyme increased the acetate, propionate, TVFA, and decreased $CH_4$ concentration. These results suggest that lysozyme supplementation may improve in vitro rumen fermentation and reduce $CH_4$ emission.

Blood chemical research for the diagnosis of cardiac disease in ruminant (반추수 심장질병의 진단을 위한 혈액화학적 연구)

  • Kim, Duck-hwan;Lee, Kyo-young;Chang, Seuk-jin;Song, Kun-ho;Lee, Yoon-kyung;Yoon, Sang-bo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.399-404
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    • 1995
  • In order to clarify the significance of serum CPK for the diagnosis of the cardiac disease in ruminant, the fluctuation of serum total CPK activities and CPK isoenzyme fractions was examined before and after operation in Korean native goats with artificially induced cardiac injury. In the change of serum total CPK activities, those of experimental group were changed with higher values than those of control group and significant increase was found on 2-week after operation(P<0.05). In the fluctuation of serum CPK isoenzyme fractions, significant increase of both CK1 and CK3 fractions was observed on 2-week after operation in experimental group(P<0.05), but significant difference was not found in CK2 fraction between experimental and control groups. From these findings, it is considered that taking note of increase of not only serum total CPK activities but also CK1 and CK3 fractions is important for the diagnosis of traumatic cardiac disease in ruminant.

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GRAZING MANAGEMENT STUDIES WITH THAI GOATS I. PRODUCTIVITY OF FEMALE GOATS GRAZING NEWLY ESTABLISHED PASTURE WITH VARYING LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

  • Kochapakdee, S.;Pralomkarn, W.;Saithanoo, S.;Lawpetchara, A.;Norton, B.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 1994
  • This report deals with the effect of levels of concentrate supplementary feeding (Nil, 0.25% BW and 0.75% BW) on the productivity of different genotypes (Thai native (TN), 25% Anglo-Nubian (AN), 50% AN and 75% AN) of female goats grazing newly established pasture in a tropical area. The major species of grass was Brachiaria mutica (33%) and of legumes was Centrosema pubescens (34%). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between nil and 0.25% BW supplementary feeding for growth rate ($g/kg^{0.75}/d$). However, goats fed 0.75% BW supplementary feeding had significantly (p<0.01) higher growth rates than did other treatments. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference among genotypes and between age for growth rate. There was no interaction between feeding and genotype for growth rate.

Nutritional Evaluation of Imported Organic Feeds and Locally Produced Agricultural By-products for Organic Ruminant Farming (유기 반추동물 전용 수입산 유기사료 및 국내산 유기 부산물의 사료적 가치 평가)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.513-528
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of locally produced organic agricultural by-products to substitute imported organic feeds for organic ruminant farming. Imported organic feeds (corn grain, soybean meal, soybean seed, oat grain, barley grain, wheat grain, buckwheat, sunflower seed meal) and byproducts (rice bran, grape seed meal, rice straw, soybean hull, soybean curd, rice hull, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain) were analyzed for chemical composition and NDF, ADF, mineral, and amino acid contents and anti-nutritional factors. Dry matter, NDF and ADF contents in organic feeds were higher than those in conventional feeds. Especially, the 9.65% fat content of organic soybean meal was 6 times higher than the 1.95% fat content of conventional soybean meal. Fat contents of rice bran, grape seed meal, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain were 25.66, 6.09, 3.57 and 1.59%, respectively. Protein contents of soybean hull and soybean curd were 14.68 and 19.87%, respectively, which are highest among organic by-products. Levels of aflatoxin in all feeds were below the safety level. Therefore, organic rice bran, green kernel rice and crushed rice as energy source, and soybean hull and soybean curd as protein source could partial replace imported feeds for organic ruminant farming.

Hemato-biochemical and Cortisol Profile of Holstein Growing-calves Supplemented with Vitamin C during Summer Season

  • Kim, Jong-Hyeong;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Yang, Chul-Ju;Kim, Seon-Ho;Ha, Jong-K.;Lee, Wang-Shik;Cho, Kwang-Keun;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 2012
  • Effect of vitamin C (VC) on biochemical, hematological and cortisol profile of growing Holstein calves during summer was investigated. Eighteen calves between 14 and 16 weeks of age were divided equally into two groups. One group received a diet supplemented with VC (20 g/d) for 60 days, while other non-supplemented diet fed group served as a control (CON). The temperature humidity index (THI) was recorded and computed during the experiment. From days 0 to 60, the THI exceeded 70. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each calf at days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60. Serum albumin and total protein decreased (p<0.05) in CON and VC calves with age. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase concentrations were not affected by treatments. Serum creatinine, albumin and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase concentrations were higher in calves in the VC group than the CON group. While red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (p<0.05) in VC calves, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume were higher (p<0.05) in these VC supplemented calves. Leukocyte parameters including white blood cells and full term for lymphocytes were not affected by the treatments. Also, serum cortisol was not affected by treatments. At day 15, 30 and 45, the total VC in plasma was higher (p<0.05) in calves fed with VC. In conclusion, serum cortisols were not affected by plasma VC concentration, while some blood parameters were positively influenced in calves fed with VC.

In vitro Evaluation of Different Feeds for Their Potential to Generate Methane and Change Methanogen Diversity

  • Kim, Seon-Ho;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Jeong, Chang-Dae;Choi, Yeon-Jae;Lee, Sung Sill;Ko, Jong-Youl;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1698-1707
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    • 2013
  • Optimization of the dietary formulation is the most effective way to reduce methane. Nineteen feed ingredients (brans, vegetable proteins, and grains) were evaluated for their potential to generate methane and change methanogen diversity using an in vitro ruminal fermentation technique. Feed formulations categorized into high, medium and low production based on methane production of each ingredient were then subjected to in vitro fermentation to determine the real methane production and their effects on digestibility. Methanogen diversity among low, medium and high-methane producing groups was analyzed by PCR-DGGE. The highest methane production was observed in Korean wheat bran, soybean and perilla meals, and wheat and maize of brans, vegetable protein and cereal groups, respectively. On the other hand, corn bran, cotton seed meal and barley led to the lowest production in the same groups. Nine bacteria and 18 methanogen 16s rDNA PCR-DGGE dominant bands were identified with 83% to 99% and 92% to 100% similarity, respectively. Overall, the results of this study showed that methane emissions from ruminants can be mitigated through proper selection of feed ingredients to be used in the formulation of diets.

PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF Leucaena leucocephala FOR RUMINANT NUTRITION - REVIEW -

  • Islam, M.;Nahar, T.N.;Islam, M.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 1995
  • Leucaena leucocephala (lam. de Wit) is a multipurpose leguminous tree/shrub, promoted extensively for reforestation and rural development programmes, as well as in ruminant production. After a year of establishment in the plots, the overall leaves and twigs yield was on average 0.92 kg/plant, containing an average 23.34, 10.61, 5.32 and 10.13 percent CP, CF, and ash, respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions are affected by factors such as stage of maturity, type of cultivar, seasons, cutting intervals, different plant parts. Though leucaena contains toxic mimosine and tannins, these are not always deleterious for ruminants and rumen microbes can often degrade toxic factors into a nontoxic utilizable product Mimosine content is generally higher in the seed than other plant parts. Leucaena supplementation in ruminant ration showed higher digestibility co-efficient of proximate component, which may results in higher productivity. Considering its productivity, composition and nutritive value. L. Leucocephala could be more widely used as a protein source for ruminants in tropical and sub-tropical countries.