• Title, Summary, Keyword: salicylic acid

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Increasement of antioxidative activity in Codonopsis lanceolata adventitious root treated by Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid (Methyl Jasmonate 및 Salicylic Acid 처리에 의한 더덕(Codonopsis lanceolata) 부정근의 항산화 활성 증가)

  • Hwang, Hyun-Jung;Song, Gwanpill;Kim, Mi-Hyang;Do, Seon-Gil;Bae, Kee-Hwa
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.178-183
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    • 2013
  • Traditionally, Codonopsis lanceolata root have been used as a source of natural heath food. This study was initiated to investigate the impacts of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) on adventitious growth C. lanceolata, the production of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, total phenolic compound, antioxidative activity (DPPH). The highest phenolics content was observed in treatment of 20 uM MeJA (74.53 mg/g). The content of total flavonoids followed the similar pattern as that of total phenolics, showing 38.45 mg/g of C. lanceolata treated by 20 uM MeJA. The DPPH scavenging activity was 24.2 ($IC_{50}$) of C. lanceolata treated by 20 uM MeJA. These results provide useful information for enhancing biological properties of cultural roots of C. lanceolata.

Drug Delivery into the Blood-Brain Barrier by Endogenous Substances-A Role of Amine and Monocarboxylic Acid Carrier Systems for the Drug Transport- (내인성물질의 수송계를 이용한 혈액-뇌관문에의 약물송달V-약물의 혈액-뇌관문 투과성에 대한 염기성 아민 및 모노카르본산 수송계의 역할-)

  • Kang, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 1990
  • The contribution of endogenous transport systems to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of basic and acidic drugs was studied by using a carotid injection technique in rats and an isolated bovine cerebrovascular disease state were compared between the normotensive rats (WKY) and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) which have been well established as an animal model with pathogenic similarities to humans. Basic drugs such as eperisone, thiamine and scopolamine inhibited, in a concentration dependent manner the in vivo uptake of $[{^3}H]choline$ through BBB, whereas amino acids and acidic drugs such as salicylic acid and valproic acid did not inhibit the uptake. The uptake of $[^3H]choline$ by B-CAP increased with time and showed a remarkable temperature dependency. The uptake of $[^3H]choline$ by B-CAP showed the very similar inhibitory effects as observed in the in vivo brain uptake, and was competitively inhibited by a basic drug, eperisone. The in vivo BBB uptakes of $[^3H]acetic$ acid and $[^{14}C]salicylic$ acid were dependent on pH of the injectate and the concentration of drugs. Several acidic drugs such such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid and valproic acid inhibited the in vivo uptake of $[^3H]acetic$ acid, whereas amino acid, choline and a basic drug such as eperisone did not inhibit the uptake. The uptake of acetic acid by B-CAP was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid. The permeability surface area product (PS) through BBB for $[^3H]choline$ in SHRSP was significantly lower than that in WKY. The concentration of choline in the brain dialysate in SHRSP was about half of that in WKY, while no significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of choline between SHRSP and WKY. No significant difference was observed in the transport of monocarboxylic acids, glucose and neutral amino acid through BBB between SHRSP and WKY. From these results, it was concluded that BBB transport system of choline contributes to the transport of basic drugs through BBB, that acidic drugs can be transported via a moncarboxylic acid BBB transport system and that the specific dysfuntion of the BBB choline transport in SHRSP was ascribed to the reduction of the maximum velocity of choline concentration in the brain interstitial fluids.

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Identification of Biologically Active Substances from Ginkgo biloba L. (은행잎에 함유된 생리활성물질의 동정)

  • Nam, S.J.;Kim, K.U.;Shin, D.H.;Hwang, S.J.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.421-430
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted to detect the presence of allelopathic substances in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. Water extracts from G. biloba leaves which collected at different season markedly inhibited the germination and growth of O. sativa, E. crus-galli, D. sanguinalis, and L. sativa, indicating the presence of biological substances. Linolenic and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids of G. biloba leaves. The biochemical substances such as salicylic arid, p-coumaric acid, catechol, hydroquinone, orchinol, ferulic acid, phloroglucinol, and umbelliferone etc., belonging to the phenolic, compounds were, detected in a large amount, which may be responsible for exhibition inhibitory effects. The common phenolic compounds were detected in the early-harvested and late-harvested G. biloba leaves were salicylic and p-coumaric acid. All these compounds were related to the allelopathic activities in G. biloba leaves.

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Determination of Acethylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) and Salicylic acid in Eel (Anguilla japonica) Plasma by High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC에 의한 뱀장어 (Anguilla japonica) 혈장중의 acethylsalicylic acid (aspirin)과 salicylic acid의 측정)

  • Kim, Dong-Wan;Koo, Jae-Geun;Park, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2007
  • To decrease stress in eel (Anguilla japonica) during its culture or transportation, aspirin (ASA) known as analgesic, antiinflammatory and antithrombic agent was administrated by dipping or oral routes. Concentrations of aspirin (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) in eel plasma were simultaneously measured by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plasma was acidified with 0.2 M HCl and 0.2 M orthophosphoric acid, and mixed with acetonitrile. ASA and SA extracted with acetonitrile were analyzed by the HPLC equipped with reversed phase Novapak C18 column (4 ㎛ silica, 150×4 mm) and UV detector(237 nm). The mobile phase consisted of 740 ㎖ water, 900 ㎕ orthophosphoric acid (85%) and 180 ㎖ acetonitrile. The retention times of ASA, SA and 2-methylbenzoic acid(MBA) were 4.8 min, 8.4 min and 11.5 min, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.01 ㎍/㎖ for SA and 0.05 ㎍/㎖ for ASA. The mean recovery from eel plasma was 70.8~99.6% for ASA and 95.2~100.3% for SA. This HPLC method was applied to analyze ASA and SA of eel plasma after either dipping in a concentration of 20 ppm or feeding the feed supplemented with 50 ㎎/kg BW. Only SA was detected in eel plasma after the administration of ASA by dipping or oral routes because the drug was quickly decomposed into SA in eel plasma. The amount of SA in eel plasma reached the highest value at 3hr in dipping and 7 days in oral administration. When the ASA-administrated eel were kept in ASA free aquaria, 0.02-0.03 ㎍/㎖ of SA were detected 48 hr after the administration in both routes.

Effect of p-Coumaric Acid, Benzoic Acid, and Salicylic Acid on the Activity of Glutathione Reductase and Catalase in in vitro Grown Tobacco Plants (기내배양 담배 식물에서 p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid 및 salicylic acid에 의해 유도되는 생장 및 glutathione reductase와 catalase의 활성)

  • Kim, Sang A;Roh, Kwang Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2014
  • Effects of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), benzoic acid (BA), and salicylic acid (SA) on the activities of glutathione reductase and catalase were studied in in vitro grown tobacco plants. After culturing the tobacco plants in MS medium containing $10^{-5}$ mM of p-CA, BA, and SA, the increase in the activities of two enzymes, glutathione reductase and catalase, were compared from day 20 to day 50 day, with an interval of 10 days. The growth of the tobacco plants treated with p-CA, BA, and SA was the highest on day 50. Analysis of the effect of the three substances on the activity of glutathione reductase showed that BA and p-CA decreased the activity of the enzyme compared with a control, and SA increased the activity of the enzyme. All of them showed the highest activity on day 40. SA increased the activity of catalase, but BA and p-CA reduced the activity of this enzyme. In all the experimental groups, the activity was the highest on day 40. In conclusion, p-CA and BA appear to promote the growth of tobacco plants. The growth was the best on day 50, but the activity of the antioxidative enzyme was inhibited. On the contrary, SA seemed to inhibit the growth of the tobacco plants but to promote the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase. The growth of the plants treated with SA was best on day 40.

Salicylic Acid and Wounding Induce Defense-Related Proteins in Chinese Cabbage

  • Kim, Hong-Nam;Cha, Jae-Soon;Cho, Tae-Ju;Kim, Hak-Yong
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2003
  • The response of plants to pathogens and wounding is dependent upon very sensitive perception mechanisms. Although genetic approaches have revealed a variety of resistance genes that activate common defense responses, defense-related proteins are not well characterized in plants. Therefore, we used a proteomic approach to determine which defense-related proteins are induced by salicylic acid (SA) and wounding in Chinese cabbage. We found that SA and wounding induce pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) at both protein and mRNA levels using proteomics and Northern blot analysis, respectively. This indicates that our proteomic approach is useful for identifying defense-related proteins. We also identified several other proteins that are induced by SA or wounding. Among the seven SA-induced proteins identified, four may be defense-related, including defense-related protein, phospholipase D (PLD), resistance protein RPS2 homolog, and L-ascorbate peroxidase. Out of the six wounding-induced proteins identified, three may be defense-related: heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), polygalacturonase, and peroxidase P7. The precise functions of these proteins in plant defense responses await further study. However, identification of the defense-related proteins described in this study should allow us to better understand the mechanisms and signal transduction pathways involved in defense responses in Chinese cabbage.

Salicylic Acid and Water Stress Effects on Growth and Proline of Cucumber Seedlings

  • Lee, Gui-Soon;Kim, Tae-Yun;Hong, Jung-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.11
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    • pp.1165-1172
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    • 2002
  • The effects of salicylic acid(SA) and water deficit on growth and proline accumulation were investigated in cucumber(Cucurmis sativus L.) seedlings. Exogenous application of SA(100 $\mu$M-1 mM) led to a noticeable decrease in root and shoot growth, and dry weight of seedlings. Anatomical observation on leaf of cucumber revealed that the thickness of all leaf tissue components decreased in SA-treated plants. The effect was most pronounced on the width of the adaxial epidermis. In the separate effects of SA(0, 100, 500 and 1000 $\mu$M) and water deficit induced by PEG(0, 4.4, 7.0 and 9.6 %) on growth, the water deficit treatments had greater effects on growth traits than SA. Combinations of SA and PEG(SA+PEG) decreased shoot and root dry matter, and root length. Proline increased slightly in SA-treated seedlings, but exhibited a marked increase in water deficit application. Combinations of SA+PEG induced higher proline in both shoots and roots than SA stress alone. Shoots had higher proline than roots. Our data support a role of SA potentiating the osmotic stress response of germinating cucumber seedling.

Role of Riboflavin in Induced Resistance against Fusarium Wilt and Charcoal Rot Diseases of Chickpea

  • Saikia Ratul;Yadav Mukesh;Varghese Saju;Singh Bhim Pratap;Gogoi Dip K;Kumar Rakesh;Arora Dilip K
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.339-347
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    • 2006
  • Riboflavin caused induction of systemic resistance in chickpea against Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot diseases. The dose effect of 0.01 to 20 mM riboflavin showed that 1.0 mM concentration was sufficient for maximum induction of resistance; higher concentration did not increase the effect. At this concentration, riboflavin neither caused cell death of the host plant nor directly affected the pathogen's growth. In time course observation, it was observed that riboflavin treated chickpea plants were inducing resistance 2 days after treatment and reached its maximum level from 5 to 7 days and then decreased. Riboflavin had no effect on salicylic acid(SA) levels in chickpea, however, riboflavin induced plants found accumulation of phenols and a greater activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL) and pathogenesis related(PR) protein, peroxidase was observed in induced plant than the control. Riboflavin pre-treated plants challenged with the pathogens exhibited maximum activity of the peroxidases 4 days after treatment. Molecular weight of the purified peroxidase was 42 kDa. From these studies we demonstrated that riboflavin induced resistance is PR-protein mediated but is independent of salicylic acid.

Molecular Characterization of a thiJ-like Gene in Chinese Cabbage

  • Oh, Kyung-Jin;Park, Yong-Soon;Lee, Kyung-Ah;Chung, Yong-Je;Cho, Tae-Ju
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2004
  • A cDNA clone for a salicylic acid-induced gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) was isolated and characterized. The cabbage gene encoding a protein of 392 amino acids contained a tandem array of two thiJ-like sequences. ThiJ is a thiamin biosynthesis enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) to HMP monophosphate. Although the cabbage gene shows a similarity to bacterial thiJ genes, it also shares a similarity with the human DJ-1, a multifunctional protein that is involved in transcription regulation, male fertility, and parkinsonism. The cabbage thiJ-like gene is strongly induced by salicylic acid and a nonhost pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, which elicits a hypersensitive response in Chinese cabbage. Treatment of the cabbage leaves with BTH, methyl jasmonate, or ethephon showed that the cabbage thiJ-like gene expression is also strongly induced by BTH, but not by methyl jasmonate or ethylene. This indicates that the cabbage gene is activated via a salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway. Examination of the tissue-specific expression revealed that the induction of the cabbage gene expression by BTH occurs in the leaf, stem, and floral tissues but not in the root.

Transcriptional profiles of Rhizobium vitis-inoculated and salicylic acid-treated 'Tamnara' grapevines based on microarray analysis

  • Choi, Youn Jung;Yun, Hae Keun
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2016
  • The transcriptional profiles of 'Tamnara' grapevine (Vitis labruscana L.) to Rhizobium vitis were determined using 12,000 gene oligonucleotide microarray chips constructed with 6,776 unigenes based on the EST sequencing. Among them, 95 clones were up-regulated more than three times and 90 were down-regulated more than 5-times in the R. vitis-inoculated grapevines relative to the control vines. Treatment of salicylic acid showed that 337 clones were upregulated and 52 clones were down regulated in grapevines. Microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction, and slot blot hybridization analysis revealed that 5, 14, and 64 clones were up-regulated and 10, 12, and 61 clones were down-regulated in wounded, salicylic acid-treated, and R. vitis-inoculated 'Tamnara' grapevine leaves, respectively. The expression patterns of ${\beta}$-1,3-glucanase, proline-rich protein, and lipoxygenase genes of 'Tamnara' moderately resistant to R. vitis were similar to those of resistant 'Concord' and 'Delaware' grapevines. However, chalcone synthase genes in 'Tamnara' grapevines showed similar expression patterns to susceptible grapevines 'Neomuscat' and 'Rizamat'. Further expression studies with various clones for each gene should be conducted to elucidate their roles in resistant responses against pathogens or other stimuli in grapevines. These results could provide better resources for understanding the mechanism of defense responses against crown gall disease and clues for identifying new genes that may play a role in defense against R. vitis in grapevines.