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A Study of Salt's Effects on Cooked Food (각종 식염의 조리효과에 관한 연구)

  • 문수재
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 1979
  • The phyio-chemical properties of Ion exchange salt, crude salt, particaly refined salt, and Isoized salt were determined. The basic amount of salt used in cooking were standardized . Acceptabilities as to the taste and saltiness of food prepared with the standard amounts of various kinds of salt were compared. Whereupon, the following conclusion was obtained. 1) Crude salt showed 12.23 per cent water content, the highest among the kinds of salt examined, while particaly refined salt had 2.53% water content. Refined salt, Ion exchange salt, and Iodized salt showed 0.36%, and 0.28%, respectively. 2) Where the same amount of salt was dissolved in the same amount of water, crude salt and partialy refined salt were dissolved twice as Ion exchange salt of fine-grain form, refined salt, and Iodized salt. In actual cooking, Ion exchanges salt and refined salt are used only half as much as raw salt, and it can be said that the time required for dissolving salt is the same. 3) The comparison between content and weight of various kinds of salt showed that the weights of Ion exchange salt, Iodized salt, and refined salt were two times as heavy as crude salt and partialy refined condition of same content. 40 The threshold concentration of salt is the sensed degree of saltiness. Different concentrations were recorded for various for various kinds of salt, the threshold concentration of Ion exchanges salt showed the lowest degree of 0.05, while that of partialy refined salt was 0.09 equivalent to 1.8 times that of the former. 5) Experimental cooking involving various kinds of salt indicated that where salt was used accurately, soup, vegetables, kimchi, and soybean sauce which were prepared with Ion exchanges salt showed the best acceptability , but no statistical differences could be noted among sarious kinds of salt used in preparing those foods.

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Heavy Metal Contents of Marketing Salts and Bay Salts by Heating (시판 소금의 중금속 함량과 천일염의 온도변화에 따른 중금속 함량)

  • 홍광택;이종영;장봉기
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 1996
  • In order to determine the content of heavy metal in common salts, 35 bay salt samples, 7 refined salt samples, 7 fine salt samples, 5 bake salt samples and 5 bamboo bake salt samples were collected from old market in major cities. Heating bay salt 35 samples, it made heating bay salt of $500^{\circ}C$, /TEX>(34 samples), heating bay salt of $1000^{\circ}C$(35 samples). These were analysed for contents of lead(Pb), cadmium(Cd), iron(Fe) and zinc(Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were as follows : Mean content of lead in bay salts was $0.124{\pm}0.035ppm$ refined salt was $0.130{\pm}0.019ppm$, fine salt was $0.073{\pm}0.036ppm$ bake salt was $0.097{\pm}0.023ppm$, bamboo bake salt was $0.117{\pm}0.020ppm$, heating bay salt was $0.063{\pm} 0.021ppm$ in $500^{\circ}C$, heating bay salt was $0.063{\pm}0.039ppm$ in $1000^{\circ}C$. And bay salt refined salt bamboo bake salt were not significant one another. Mean content of cadmium in bay salts was $0.031{\pm}0.008ppm$ refined salt was $0.032{\pm}0.003ppm$, fine salt was $0.037{\pm}0.005ppm$, bake salt was $0.169{\pm}0.117ppm$ bamboo bake salt was $0.079{\pm}0.052ppm$, heating bay salt of $500^{\circ}C$ was $0.030{\pm}0.029ppm$ heating bay salt of $1000^{\circ}C$ was $0.017{\pm}0.013ppm$. And bay salt refined salt, fine salt were not significant one another. Mean content of iron in bay salts was $1.025{\pm}0, 634ppm$, refined salt was $0.359{\pm}0.163ppm$ fine salt was $0.267{\pm}0.068ppm$, bake salt was $2.929{\pm}1.963ppm$, bamboo bake salt was $5.378{\pm}3.676ppm$, heating bay salt of $500^{\circ}C$ was $0.847{\pm}0.315ppm$ heating bay salt of $1000^{\circ}C$ was $0.991{\pm}0.868ppm$. And bay salt refined salt, fine salt, bake salt, bamboo bake salt were significant one another(p<0, 01). Mean content of zinc in bay salts was $0.253{\pm}0.154ppm$, refined salt was $0.263{\pm}0.091ppm$ fine salt was $0.187{\pm}0.015ppm$, bake salt was $0.166{\pm}0.034ppm$, bamboo bake salt was $0.282{\pm}0.064ppm$, heating bay salt of $500^{\circ}C$ was $0.253{\pm}0.085ppm$, heating bay salt of $1000^{\circ} C$ was $0.242{\pm}0.179ppm$. And bay salt refined salt fine salt, bake salt, bamboo bake salt were not significant one another.

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Salt Intake Behavior and Blood Pressure: the effect of taste sensitivity and preference (소금 섭취 행태와 혈압: 맛에 대한 민감도와 선호도의 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Choi, Man-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.837-848
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    • 2007
  • The literature suggested that a small reduction in overall blood pressure can have a large effect on overall prevalence of hypertension, and therefore, the affect of taste preferences of the population on salt intake should be considered for long-term blood pressure intervention programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity on salt intake behavior as risk factors for high blood pressure. We collected information on blood pressure, diet and lifestyle behaviors, salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity from 540 respondents from Suseo-dong, Seoul. Salt taste sensitivity was assessed by administering a 1% NaCl solution to the subject's tongue and measuring the perceived intensity on 10 level scale. Salt intake behavior was classified into 3 categories: frequency of high-sodium foods, practice of salt-reducing behavior and frequency of vegetable and fruit intake. Salt taste preference showed a significant relation to the subjects' blood pressure, i.e. subjects with a higher salt preference had higher blood pressure. Salt taste sensitivity did not show a significant relation to blood pressure. However, there was a positive correlation between salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity. Among the 3 indicators used to measure salt intake behavior, the practice of salt-reducing behavior remained significantly correlated to blood pressure. Moreover, salt-reducing behavior and salt taste preference showed a significant correlation, i.e. people who do not like salty foods tend to practice more salt-reducing behavior, leading to reduced levels in blood pressure. In a population, a small reduction in overall blood pressure can have large effects in overall prevalence of hypertension, in contrast to clinical studies where achievement of an individual's normal blood pressure is emphasized. Therefore, taste preference of the population should be considered for long-term blood pressure intervention programs.

The Experimental Study of Various Salts on the Characteristics of Heat Transfer in Indirect Moxibustion with Salt (염(鹽)의 종류(種類)에 따른 격염구(隔鹽灸)의 열전달(熱傳達) 특성(特性)에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Geon-mok;Lee, Gun-hyee;Seo, Eun-mi
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.119-135
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    • 2004
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism and effect of moxibustion with salt objectively, to be used as the quantitative data through the measurement of temperature, and to grasp the thermodynamic characteristics of moxibustion with salt. Methods: We have selected of the moxibustion with salt of indirect moxibustion. We make a comparative study of the thermodynamic characteristics of moxibustion with salt as a kind of the 4 salt. We examined combustion times, temperatures, temperature gradients in each period during a combustion of moxa. Results: 1. We make out that it is not significantly change the time of thermal conduction of moxibustion with salt as a kind of 4 salt. 2. The heating period of Refined Salt was long and that of Sun-dried Salt was a short time respectively. The heating period of maximum tamperature is high Sun-dried Salt, Mechanical Salt and Refined Salt orderly. Maximun heating speed in the heating period was $0.151{\sim}0.184^{\circ}C/sec$ and at the same tendency of the maximum temperature in the heating period. 3. The retaining period was shorter than the heating period respectively, that is 15~24% of the combustion time of in the heating period. We make out that it is not significantly different the time of the retaining period as a kind of 4 salt. The mean temperature of retaining period was $43.2{\sim}48.1^{\circ}C$, that was extraordinarily high temperature. 4. We make out that it is not significantly different the time of the cooling period as a kind of 4 salt. The cooling period was measured 223~233sec. Beacuse the same density and size of moxa combustion was made an experiment. 5. The effective combustion time of Refined Salt is longer(259sec) than that of Sun-dried Salt(173sec). It is significantly different the time of the combustion time as a kind of 4 salt. 6. It is significantly different the Sample deviation of the combustion time as a kind of 4 salt because of the water content of the 4 salt individually. Conclusions: As the base on this study, we obtained the conclusion as the follows. The salt of moxibustion with salt was fitted for Sun-dried Salt due to making to Mechanical Salt recently. The Refined Salt is composition rate to another and small size comparatively. So It was fitted for the salt of moxibustion with salt. It is necessary to study continuously about the more suitable moxibustion with salt and quantitative analysis about the moxibustion with salt.

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Studies on Functional Salt Fortified with Seaweed Components (해조성분 강화 기능성소금에 대한 연구)

  • Byun, Jee-Young;Namgung, Bae;Jo, Jin-Ho;Do, Jung-Ryong;In, Jae-Pyung;Kim, Young-Myoung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2007
  • In an attempt to develop functional salts having beneficial health effects, we experimentally prepared three functional salts by fortification with soluble seaweed minerals (Hizikia mineral salt, HMS), fucoidan (fucoidan salt, FS) and laver extracts (laver salt, LS). To characterize the functional salts, their physicochemical properties and in vitro functionalities, such as pH, color, mineral composition, solubility, oxidation-reduction potential, sensory properties, angiotesin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and bile acid binding capacity were investigated. The functional salts revealed slightly lower NaCl concentrations, but showed a variety of pH values compared with conventional table salt. The pH values of HMS, FS, and LS were 11.3, 6.8, and 6.5, respectively. The oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) of the functional salts varied from -229 mV to 38 mV, significantly lower than refined salt. The functional salts were significantly darker in color than refined salt, and the mineral composition of HMS was considerably enriched compared to refined salt, particularly in potassium ion. As a result of the sensory evaluation, FS and LS were comparatively palatable in saltiness, pungency, bitterness, and overall acceptance compared with refined salt. It was also found that one functional salt had ACE inhibitory activity (54.8% in LS) and another had bile acid binding capacity (80.7% in FS).

Comparison of Quality Characteristics of Salted Muskmelon with Deep Seawater Salt, Sun-dried and Purified Salts (해양심층수염, 천일염 및 정제염을 이용한 참외절임시 품질특성 비교)

  • 이기동;김숙경;김정옥;김미림
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.840-846
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    • 2003
  • Physiochemical and sensory properties of muskmelon pickles were investigated under salting condition using deep seawater salt, sun-dried salt and purified salt. The changes of weight, shrinkage rate salinity and pH of muskmelon during salting time were almost nothing shown. Turbidity of pickle juice was the highest in salt solution using sun-dried salt and was almost nothing shown in deep seawater salt and purified salt. Solid content of pickle juice was higher in pickle juice using sun-dried salt than deep seawater salt and purified salt. The calcium content of muskmelon salted by deep seawater salt and sun-dried salt were increased to 4.3 times and 3.7 times, respectively. Hardness became a little higher on muskmelon using deed seawater salt ann sun dried salt than purified salt. In organoleptic result, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall palatability of muskmelon salted by deep seawater salt became higher in other salt solution (sun-friend salt and purified salt).

A Study on the Fabrication Process and Melt Infiltration of Salt Core in Squeeze Casting Method (스퀴즈캐스팅용 Salt Core의 제조 및 용탕침투성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Bae;Noh, Sang-Woo;Lee, Ho-In;Nam, Tae-Woon
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.402-410
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    • 1997
  • Developing a salt core for squeeze casting process, two different salt cores(pure salt core and mixed salt core) were fabricated and investigated. Pure salt core was composed of 100% NaCl and mixed salt core was made by mixtures of NaCl with MgO(1%), $Na_2B_4O_7$(2%), and talc(1%) as a binder or a strengthening agent. Salt cores were compacted to various theoretical density, heat treated, and then squeeze-cast with molten Al alloy(AC8A). The compression strength of salt cores were measured and the squeeze-cast products were examined for shape retention, infiltration of molten metal into the cores, and microstructures. The shape of salt core compacted at above 75% of the theoretical density was maintained stably. The higher theoretical density of salt cores gave higher compression strength, and the compression strength of mixed salt core was higher than that of pure salt core. Namely at 90% theoretical density, the compression strength of mixed salt core was $6.3 kg/mm^2$, compared to $4.6 kgmm^2$ for pure salt core. At a squeeze casting pressure of $1000 kg/cm^2$, molten Al alloy was infiltrated into pure salt core of under 85% of the theoretical density. At squeeze casting pressure of $1000 kg/cm^2$, only mixed salt core above 90% of the theoretical density were valid, but the shape of the core was altered in the case of pure salt core at 90% of theoretical density. A key factor for developing a salt core for squeeze casting process was estimated as the ultimate compressive strength of salt core.

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Advanced Weed Control and Soil Environmental Survey in Lawn (잔디밭의 효과적인 잡초 방제와 토양 환경 조사)

  • 문영희;김용휘;김영석;양희석
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 1996
  • The effects of salt are studied on control of weeds and growth of Korean turfgrass(Zoysia japon-ica Steud.). And the mobility of salt were determined in a lawn field. At post-emergence stage, the growth of the 13 weeds such as Trifolium repens, Erigeron canadensis, Artemisia prieceps, Equi-setum arvense, etc were controlled by treatment of salt and salt water, Pea-annua and Equisetum arvense were tolerant to salt compared with the other 11 weeds. At pre-emergence stage, the salt controlled the germination of the weeds in soil. 300~500 kg /10a salt and 20~30 % salt waterwere enough for the control of weeds, However, salt water injuried the lawngrass except the dormancy stage. The mobility of salt in soil was increased by rainfall. After 160mm of rainfall, the salinity in the soil treated with salt 500kg /l0a was below 0.3 ms/cm in surface soil and about 0.1 ms /cm in soil 30 cm depth. Key words: Soil environmental survey, Korean turfgrass, Salt, Salt water.

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Effect of Salts on the Hardness of Cubed White Radish (시판 소금이 깍두기 무의 경도에 미치는 영향)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Jang, Jae-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.238-245
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to investigate the association of variable salts with the hardness of cubed white radish. We analyzed the contents of domestic sun-dried salt, Chinese sun-dried salt, domestic refined salt, Australian rock salt and Australian industrial sun-dried salt in the radish samples. Our assessment of the water content of variable salts showed that domestic refined salt was highest(7.27%) and Australian rock salt was lowest(0.16%). The NaCl contents of variable salts were as follows : 93.23% in refined salt, 93.76% in Australian rock salt, 87.85% in domestic Shinan sun-dried salt and 87.98% in Chinese sun-dried salt. The content of insoluble matter in water were $0.03{\sim}0.05%$ in all salts except 0.85% in Australian industrial sun-dried salt. The pH values of salts were as follows : 8.93 in domestic sun-dried salt, 8.62 in Chinese sun-dried salt, 6.69 in refined salt, 5.83 in Australian rock salt and 6.41 in Australian industrial sun-dried salt. Regarding the mineral component content assays, domestic salt was found to harbor lower Na content but far higher Mg, K, Ca contents than other salts. In our evaluation of the hardness of cubed white radish, we detected a continuous increase in the hardness of cubed white radish soaking in a 4% salt solution of domestic Shinan natural salt, but an initial increase followed by a decrease in the hardness of cubed white radish soaking in a 4% solution of the other salts.

The Effect of Salt in Medicine for Salt Pharmacopuncture (염약침(鹽藥鍼)을 위한 소금의 의학적 효용)

  • Kim, Kee Hyun;Kim, Jee Hwa;Song, Ho Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.131-145
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness and availability of salt pharmacopuncture of Korean sun-dried salt and processing salt on the basis of bibliographical review. Methods : This study was done through a narrative review of related bibliography including medical books, journals, general bibliography, and web sites. Results : 1. Korean sun-dried salt is produced in the ground with soil, tiles, and pottery. Sun-dried, traditional, granulated, bamboo, and grilled salts are all appropriate for medical use. They are composed of a lower level of NaCl and unnecessary substances, and have a higher water and mineral content. 2. The 9~30 g of NaCl included in the physiological saline matches the ratio of a normal human body. However, if the saline is used for water supply, it should be improved because the recommended amount is much lower. 3. Medicine that includes NaCl is applied for lessening the congestion of the nasal cavity, alleviating cornea swelling, or for a lack of water. NaCl can also be used for washing contact lenses as well as cleaning the mucous membrane of the eyes and nose. 4. Salt relieves anger, detoxifies, induces vomiting, builds strong muscles and bones, gives energy, slows aging, and ultimately improves health. 5. Salt treats many diseases including: cardiovascular, hematosis, respirometer, obstetric, musculoskeletal, mineral supplement, eye, teeth and skin issues, etc.. However, salt is not used for treating asthma, cough, or other ailments mainly affecting the vascular system. 6. While NaCl in salt absorbs water and the vascular constriction results in higher blood pressure, the pressure induced from salt is actually a physiologically temporary rise. Rather, salt helps remove oil from the body and its potassium lowers blood pressure. Conclusions : It was suggested that salt pharmacopuncture of Korean sun-dried salt and processing salt should be made available for adjusting the physiological salt concentration and control of the Na side effects, therefore it would be useful in the treatment of diseases.