• Title, Summary, Keyword: salt fermentation

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Variation in the functional compounds of molten salt Kimchi during fermentation

  • Park, Kyubeen;Kim, Yeonmi;Kim, Jae-Han;Park, Jong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2019
  • To produce a high-quality Kimchi product, molten salt was used for the Kimchi. Changes in the physiochemical properties and functional compounds were analyzed during fermentation. The salinity of bay salt Kimchi was higher than that of the molten salt Kimchi. The fermentation speed of the lactic acid bacteria in the molten salt Kimchi was significantly faster. To evaluate the effects of the salts on the changes in the functional compounds during fermentation, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonols, phenolic acids, and glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage were analyzed. In the first 9 days, antioxidants were decreased during this fermentation period and then, increased after that. TPC was slightly increased for all the conditions after 40 days fermentation. Kaempferol was a major flavonol but had a relatively larger decrease in the molten salt Kimchi than in the bay salt samples. Phenolic acid did not show any significant difference among the samples. The glucosinolate contents were significantly decreased in all the conditions of Kimchi during the fermentation period. Consequently, the molten salt greatly affected the fermentation speed of Kimchi and the total characteristics of the Kimchi lactic acid bacteria. Although the functional compounds of Chinese cabbage were decreased during the fermentation of Kimchi, this decrease did not profoundly deteriorate the food quality. Therefore, high-quality Kimchi with enhanced bioactivity will be available if appropriate Chinese cabbages that have enhanced functional compounds are used.

Effect of Fermentation Temperature and Salt Concentration on the Quality of Jack Mackerel(Trachurns japonicus) Fish Sauce (발효온도 및 식염농도가 전갱이 액젓 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyoung;Lee, Hong-Hee;Jeong, Min-Hong;Cho, Young-Je;Shim, Kil-Bo
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.755-762
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    • 2012
  • Qualities properties of fish sauce made jack mackerel (Trachurns japonicus) at different salt concentrations (25~35%) for 240 days at fermentation temperature ($25{\sim}55^{\circ}C$) were investigated. Total nitrogen content of the fish sauce made jack mackerel at 25% salt concentration after 240 day of fermentation was higher than those of 30%, 35% salt concentration. Total nitrogen content was increased under the same condition as fermentation temperature increased except at $55^{\circ}C$. Amino nitrogen contents at 25% salt concentration after 240 day of fermentation at 35, 45, $55^{\circ}C$ were 949.3, 812.8 and 834.4 mg/100 g, respectively. Those at 25, $55^{\circ}C$ fermentation temperature were 811.2 and 614.8 mg/100 g, respectively. The amino acid nitrogen content at 30 and 35% salt concentration ware lower than 20% salt concentration and that after 240 day of fermentation at $55^{\circ}C$ was lowest. The volatile basic nitrogen content increased during fermentation as fermentation temperature increased. However, increasing salt concentration controlled the formation of volatile basic nitrogen. Histamine content of samples fermented at $25{\sim}55^{\circ}C$ after 240 days were 9~20 mg/kg showing that it was not significantly different among salt concentration. The results indicated that the controlled salt concentration and fermentation temperature could be used as a successful process for fish sauce of jack mackerel as an unused resource.

Fish Fermentation Technology (수산발효기술)

  • Lee Cherl-Ho
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.645-654
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    • 1989
  • The historical background of fish fermentation in Asia and other regions of the world is reviewed. The classification of fermented fish products in different regions is attempted with respect to the technology involved. The fermented fish products are largely divided into three groups; (1) high-salt, (2) low-salt, and (3) non-salt fermented. High-salt fermented products contain over 20% of salt and are represented by fish sauce, cured fish and fish paste. Low-salt fermented products contain 6-18% salt and are subdivided into lactic fermented products with added carbohydrate and acid pickling associated with low temperature. Non-salt fermented products are represented by the solid state bonito fermentation and some alkaline fermentation of flat fishes. The local names of the products in different regions are compared and classified accordingly. The microbial and biochemical changes during fish fermentation are considered in relation to the quality of the products, and their wholesomeness is reviewed.

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Effect of Platycodon grandiflorum Fermentation with Salt on Fermentation Characteristics, Microbial Change and Anti-obesity Activity (소금 첨가에 따른 도라지 발효 특성과 미생물 변화 및 항비만 효능 평가)

  • Shin, Na Rae;Lim, Sokyoung;Kim, Hojun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study investigated the effect on microbial ecology, fermentation characteristics and anti-obesity of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) fermentation with salt. Methods: PG was fermented for four weeks with 2.5% salt and the characteristics of fermented PG were performed by measuring pH, total sugar content, viable bacteria number and microbial profiling. Also, we measured total polyphenol, flavonoid and the percent of inhibition of lipase activity and lipid accumulation. Results: Salt added to PG for fermentation had an effect on pH, total sugar, total and the number of lactic acid bacteria. Total sugar and pH were reduced and number of total and lactic acid bacteria were increased after fermentation. The majority of bacteria for fermentation were Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc psedomesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis regardless of salt addition. However, microbial compositions were altered by added salt and additional bacteria including Weissella koreensis, W. viridescens, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus cuvatus were found in fermented PG with salt. Total flavonoid was increased in fermented PG and lipid accumulation on HepG2 cells treated with fermented PG was reduced regardless of salt addition. Moreover, fermented PG without salt suppressed lipase activity. Conclusions: Addition of salt for PG fermentation had influence on fermentation characteristics including pH and sugar content as well as number of bacteria and microbial composition. In addition, fermented PG showed anti-obesity effect by increasing flavonoid content and inhibition of lipase activity and lipid accumulation.

Quality Characteristics of Low-Salt Gochujang Added with Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Brassica juncea

  • Lee, So-Young;Park, So-Lim;Yi, Sung-Hun;Nam, Young-Do;Lim, Seong-Il
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.348-356
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    • 2011
  • The effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Brassica juncea on the quality and palatability of low-salt gochujang were investigated in terms of the microbial characteristics, enzyme activities, pH, acidity, amino nitrogen and sensory evaluation during 40 days of fermentation. The proliferation of fungi in low-salt gochujang with added G. uralensis and B. juncea were inhibited, while the numbers of total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were not affected. In terms of ${\alpha}$-amylase and ${\beta}$-amylase activity, no significant difference was observed by the salt concentration or additives. However, lowering the salt concentration increased protease activity. The amount of amino-nitrogen in low-salt gochujang at 20 days was similar to that in the control gochujang at 40 days. In the sensory test, low-salt gochujang was preferred compared to control gochujang (8.5% salt). Particularly, the 4.3% salt gochujang with additives was the most preferred.

The effect of salt concentration on Kimchi fermentation (소금 농도가 김치 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Woo-Po;Kim, Ze-Uk
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.295-297
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    • 1991
  • Effect of salt concentration of brined Chinese cabbage on the Kimchi fermentation was investigated. The salt concentration range was 1-5% and chemical characteristics of pH, acidity and ascorbic acid were measured during fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. Fermentation rate was also calculated from the $CO_2$ production. It was found that the higher salt concentration caused a significant decrease in the maximum value of fermentation rate and pH reduction. Ascorbic acid content was rapidly decreased initially, followed by increase to maximum and slowely decreased thereafter. This change was more apparent at higher salt concentration.

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Microbial Changes in Salted and Fermented Shrimp at Different Salt Levels during Fermentation (염농도를 달리한 새우젓 발효 중 미생물 변화)

  • Mok, Chul-Kyoon;Lee, Ju-Yeon;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.444-447
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    • 2000
  • The microbial changes during the fermentation of salted and fermented shrimp at different salt levels $(3{\sim}30%)$ were investigated to elucidate the effect of salt on the microflora of the fermented shrimp. During 22 weeks of fermentation, the numbers of total bacteria and yeasts of the fermented shrimp with 3, 8, 30% salt generally decreased with fermentation time, while those in the fermented shrimp of 18% salt increased. Halophilic bacteria were found only in the late stage of the fermentation at 18% salt. The greatest number of the halophilic yeasts was observed also at 18% salt level. The results indicated that 18% salt provided the most favorable environment for the microorganisms related to the shrimp fermentation.

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Effect of Different Salt Concentrations and Temperatures on the Lactic Acid Fermentation of Radish Juice

  • Kim, Soon-Dong;Kim, Mee-Kyung;Ku, Yeun-Soo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.236-240
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    • 1999
  • The characteristics of natural lactic acid fermentation of radish juice were investigated at different salt concentrations (0~2%) and temperatures (10~3$0^{\circ}C$). Major lactic acid bacteria isolated from the radish juice fermented at 2% slat concentration were Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis. The percentage of lactic acid bacteria against total microbe in the fermented radish juice was over 80% at 0~1% salt concentrations, suggesting the possibility of fermentation even at low salt concentration, but was still active even at 1$0^{\circ}C$. The time to reach pH 4.0 during fermentation of juice of 1% salt concentration was 281~301 hrs at 1$0^{\circ}C$ and 50-73 hrs at 3$0^{\circ}C$. The concentrations of sucrose and glucose in the fermented juice were low at high temperatures and were the lowest at a 1.0% salt concentration. However, the content of mannitol showed the opposite trend. Although sour taste, ripened taste, and acidic odor of the fermented juice showed no significant differences among various temperatures and salt concentrations, sensory values of ripened taste and sour acidic were high at high temperatures. The overall quality was the best at 1.0% salt concentration, irrespective of the temperature.

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Effects of Salting Methods on the Physicochemical Properties of Kakdugi Fermentation (깍두기의 절임방법이 발효숙성 중 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 장명숙;김나영
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1999
  • The effects of salting methods on Kakdugi (cubed radish kimchi) fermentation were evaluated. Kakdugi was prepared with various salting methods, salt concentrations, and settling times, and fermented at 10$^{\circ}C$ for up to 52 days. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cubes (2 cm size) were salted by using the following methods salt concentration of about 1.5% which was known appropriate for the organoleptic quality of Kakdugi: 1) Treatment S-1: applying dry salt uniformly onto the radish cubes, with a salt concentration of about 1.5% (w/w) and cured for 1 hr, 2) Treatment S-5: applying dry salt uniformly onto the radish cubes, with a salt concentration of about 1.2% (w/w) and cured for 5 hr, 3) Treatment B-1: brining radish cubes in a 8.5% (w/v) salt solution for 1 hr, 4) Treatment B-5: brining radish cubes in a 4.0% (w/v) salt solution for 5 hr. As the fermentation continued, the initial high decrease in pH has been retarded in all the treatments, of which the delaying extent was more significantly noted from B-1 and B-5 than S-1 and S-5. The pH of the Kakdugi which showed a good eating quality dropped to 4.3∼4.8 with the accumulation of total acids. Total vitamin C increased sharply at the palatable period of Kakdugi during the initial fermentation and then decreased gradually following a sigmoidal changing pattern. The reducing sugar levels were also influenced by salting methods and fermentation as sugars are converted into acids. High initial contents of reducing sugars and their subsequent rapid decrease were observed in “S” group than “B” group during fermentation. For nonvolatile organic acids, lactic acid increased consistently throughout the fermentation while malic acid, which was high at the initiation of fermentation, decreased rapidly afterwards at the palatable period of Kakdugi.

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Effects of Traditional Salt on the Quality Characteristics and Growth of Microorganisms from Kimchi (자염(煮鹽)으로 담근 배추김치의 발효숙성 중 이화학적.관능적 특성 및 자염이 김치발효 미생물의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye-Ran;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various kinds of commercial salts, including sun-dried (Korea), purified, and traditional salts on the chemical and sensory properties and growth of microorganisms involved in kimchi fermentation. Kimchi was prepared by salting in 10% NaCl solution for 2 hours followed by addition of other spices and fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$. The decreases in pH suggested that kimchi fermentation can be classified into 3 steps: initial, intermediate, and final stages. In texture analysis, the hardness and fracturability of traditional salt kimchi were higher than those of regular kimchi. From the sensory evaluation test for kimchi, sensory scores were high for traditional salt addition, especially taste, overall preference and texture. Among various microorganisms related to kimchi fermentation, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pichia membranaefaciens and Escherichia coli were examined. Based on the conditions of kimchi fermentation, a 2% and 5% concentration of each salt were studied. Also, the conditions of the cultures at $37^{\circ}C$ were examined. There was no considerable difference in the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli in the different kinds of salts. However, the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens was strongly inhibited by a 5% concentration of traditional salt during incubation at $37^{\circ}C$.