• Title, Summary, Keyword: salt water

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Effect of Salt Level in Water on Feed Intake and Growth Rate of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 2005
  • Under a typical Mediterranean environment in southern Australia, the evaporation rate increases significantly in hot summers, resulting in highly saline drinking water for grazing animals. Also in the cropping areas, dryland salinity is a problem. Grazing animals under these environments can ingest excessive amount of salt from feed, drinking water and soil, which can lead to a reduction in growth rate. To understand the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of salt levels in drinking water on feed intake and growth rate of red and fallow weaner deer. The results revealed that fallow deer did not show any abnormal behaviour or sickness when salt level in drinking water was increased from 0% to 2.5%. Feed intake was not affected until the salt content in water exceeded 1.5%. Body weight gain was not affected by 1.2% salt in drinking water, but was reduced as salt content in water increased. Compared with deer on fresh water, the feed intake of red deer on saline water was 11-13% lower when salt level in drinking water was 0.4-0.8%. An increase in salt level in water up to 1% resulted in about a 30% reduction in feed intake (p<0.01). Body weight gain was significantly (p=0.004) reduced when salt level reached 1.2%. The deer on 1% salt tended to have a higher (p=0.052) osmotic pressure in serum. The concentration of P, K, Mg and S in serum was affected when salt level in water was over 1.0%. The results suggested that the salt level in drinking water should be lower than 1.2% for fallow weaner deer and 0.8% for red weaner deer to avoid any reduction in feed intake. Deer farmers need to regularly test the salt levels in drinking water on their farms to ensure that the salt intake of grazing deer is not over the levels that deer can tolerate.

A Study on the Swelling Property of Bentonite Mat under Salt Water Condition (담수환경하에 노출된 일반 벤토나이트 매트재의 팽윤성능 평가)

  • 양승도;김영삼;유재강;오상근
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.81-84
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    • 2002
  • Recently Bentonite mat is applied various structure : External waterproofing for underground structure, A reclaimed land, Artificial lake, Large-scaled civil structure, etc. With these various structure environment, water quality for application of Bentonite Mat affects watertightness. Specially spot with a large quantity of Chloride ion like salt water, degree of watertightness revelation is evaluated and applied. In this study, it is a main goal to investigate watertightness of Bentonite Mat with distilled water and salt water dissolved chloride ion Contents 0.88%. The result of this paper is as follows. 1) Water permeability coefficient of Bentonite Mat : distilled water(1.21$\times$10$^{-9}$cm/sec), salt water(3.12$\times$10$^{-7}$cm/sec). 2) Variation of thickness : distilled water(187%), salt water(108%). 3) Swelling ratio : distilled water(1500%), salt water(350%).

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Durability of Carbon/Epoxy Composites for Train Carbody under Salt Water Environment (염수환경에 노출된 철도차량용 탄소섬유/에폭시 복합재의 내구성 평가)

  • Hwang, Young-Eun;Yoon, Sung-Ho;Kim, Jung-Suk;Han, Seong-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.852-858
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    • 2007
  • The durability of carbon/epoxy composites under salt water environment was investigated through salt water spray tester. Salt water environment was obtained through salt spray and salt immersion. 5% NaCl solution was used for salt water as natural salt water. Mechanical test was performed to obtain tensile properties, flexural properties, and shear properties of carbon/epoxy composite over 12 months under salt water environment. Dynamic mechanical analyzer was used to investigate thermal analysis properties such storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan ${\delta}$. Also FT/IR test was conducted to investigate a change in chemical structure. According to the results, mechanical properties were found to be slowly degraded as a function of exposure times. Regarding to thermal analysis properties, storage modulus was insensitive to exposure times, but loss modulus was shown to be slightly decreased. Although the shape and location of peak in FT/IR were not much changed, the intensity of peak in FT/IR was affected on exposure times. We also found that salt water immersion was more severe to the durability of carbon/epoxy composite rather than salt water spray.

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Salt Production on the Young-Hea of Eastern Coast in Yi-dynasty (조선시대(朝鮮時代) 자고(煮?) 생산과정(生産過程) - 동해안(東海岸)(영해(寧海))을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Choi, Sung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.279-294
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    • 1986
  • In order to survey the traditional salt production at the eastern coast, Young-Hae, in Yi-dynasty, data of salt production were collected through interviewing with whom had received the skill from ancestors and analyzed the data. The results obtained were as follows. Salt-producer take the salt water containing much salt and then he transported the salt-water by having water buckets an back in with using the water-toting device (Mul ji ge). Finally he carried out the irrigation (Mul dae gi) to a ditch (Dorang). It is noteworthy that the East-sea salt production method was not selecting a method of salt-pond style with a bank for salt production but using the salt water transportation fashion without a bank for that. Judging from these facts, we could conclude that traditional salt production method was handed down into the Yi-dynasty from ancient times.

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Studies on the Application of Salt of "Donguibogam-Naegyeong(東醫寶鑑-內景篇)" ("동의보감(東醫寶鑑).내경편(內景篇)"에 나타난 소금에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ji, Myoung-Soon;Kim, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.97-108
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    • 2010
  • Salt is a vital inorganic substance to human body and is seasoning in food. It is an absolute alternating factor on fermented food. What's more, in the oriental medicine, it is widely used to raise the pharmacological effect as a component of a prescription when processing a medicine, and when taking the medicine. Though, Importance of salt is often unaware and it is not used in the right way. focusing on "東醫寶鑑 內景篇 Donguibogam-Naegyeong" I categorized the methods of salt's prescription, dose, processing, seasoning, etc. The contents were compared and studied as well. When salt is used as a medicine, It is used as a main medicine, complimentary(aid) medicine, Jjim-Jil(hot towel or bath etc), vomiting medicine and gargling water. when taking the salt water with other medicine, depending on the type of the medicine, boiled salt water, warm alcohol or salt water, mixing powder medicine with salt water etc The methods are diverse. The reason to process medicine with salt or salt water is to bring the pharmacological Qi(energy) down to increase remedial value. When processing a medicine, kneading dough with salt water and the case using food ingredient as medicine salt was used as seasoning. Kneaded mud with salt were used to cover medicine or on the outer surface. This proves that it prevents the dryness and helps the medicine cooked even. Like this, salt is vital and highly-valued medicine in the oriental medicine. learning the right method of using salt and if it were used properly It is considered that it would increase the Pharmacological effect.

Manufacturing Process and Component Analysis of Seawater Salt Using Seaweeds (해조류를 이용한 해수소금 제조기법 및 성분분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Won;Kim, Hyeon-Ju;Moon, Deok-Soo;Jung, Dong-Ho;Choi, Hark-Sun
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.61-65
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    • 2007
  • In this research, we have developed a manufacturing process for seawater salt by horizontal spray drying technique using the deep ocean water and seaweed(sea tangle). Deep ocean water, strong acidic electrolyzed water and strong alkaline electrolyzed water were used as extraction solvent of seaweed. Sodium content in seaweed extract solution by strong alkaline electrolyzed water was 1.63(mg/g), which was 3.5 times lower than of seaweed extract by strong acidic electrolyzed water. Major mineral content(Na, K, Ca) in seawater salt by deep ocean water were higher than strong acidic electrolyzed water and strong alkaline electrolyzed water. On the contrary, Mg contents in seawater salt by deep ocean water were lower than strong acidic electrolyzed water and strong alkaline electrolyzed water. Based on the results of seawater salt production using seaweed, it is possible to make law-salt efficiently.

Durability of Fiber Reinforced Composites under Salt Water Environments (염수환경을 고려한 섬유강화 복합재의 내구성 평가)

  • Yoon Sung-Ho;Hwang Young-Eun
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.391-396
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    • 2005
  • Salt water spray test and salt water immersion test were experimentally conducted in order to investigate the durability of fiber reinforced composites under salt water environment. The specimens were made of glass fabric reinforcement and phenolic resin. Mechanical test was performed to obtain mechanical properties such as tensile properties, flexural properties, and shear properties by varying with exposure times. Also dynamic mechanical test and FTIR were conducted to investigate a change in chemical structure as well as thermal analysis properties such as storage shear modulus, loss shear moduls, and tan ${\delta}$. According to the results, salt water environment has effected on mechanical properties and thermal analysis properties and especially the durability of glass fabric/phenolic composites were severely affected on salt water immersion environment rather than salt water spray environment.

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Effect of Salt Level in the Feed on Performance of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Fischer, M.;Glatz, P.C.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.638-642
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    • 2004
  • In Australia, many cropping areas are affected by salt. In these regions, Chenopodiaceous plants, such as Atriplex, Kochia and Bassia spp have been planted to improve soil conditions. These plants have become invaluable feed resources for grazing animals in dry summers, but have a high sodium content. To assess the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used 30 fallow weaner deer to examine the effect of salt level in the diet on feed intake, water intake and body weight of fallow deer. Salt was added to lucerne chaff at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6% and fresh water was offered all the time. Increasing the salt level in the diet from 0 to 6% didn't affect feed intake, osmotic pressure and mineral concentration in blood of fallow deer. However, water intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in deer fed diets containing more than 3% salt. Body weight was lower (p${\leq}$0.056) for fallow deer in July and August when salt content was over 3%, suggesting they can ingest over 15 g sodium/day without significant depression in both feed intake and growth rate if the fresh water is available. In the second experiment, 18 red weaner deer were fed lucerne chaff diets containing 1.5, 4.5 and 6.0% salt with 6 deer/diet. The results revealed that feed intake and blood osmotic pressure were similar (p>0.05) for red deer fed different levels of salt although the feed intake declined from 1.91 to 1.67 kg with the increase of salt level from 1.5% to 6.0% in the diet. Water intake was significantly higher for deer fed diets containing over 4.5% salt, but there was no difference in body weight during the experiment. However, no recommendation can be made on the salt tolerance of red deer due to limited increment of salt level in the diet.

Advanced Weed Control and Soil Environmental Survey in Lawn (잔디밭의 효과적인 잡초 방제와 토양 환경 조사)

  • 문영희;김용휘;김영석;양희석
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 1996
  • The effects of salt are studied on control of weeds and growth of Korean turfgrass(Zoysia japon-ica Steud.). And the mobility of salt were determined in a lawn field. At post-emergence stage, the growth of the 13 weeds such as Trifolium repens, Erigeron canadensis, Artemisia prieceps, Equi-setum arvense, etc were controlled by treatment of salt and salt water, Pea-annua and Equisetum arvense were tolerant to salt compared with the other 11 weeds. At pre-emergence stage, the salt controlled the germination of the weeds in soil. 300~500 kg /10a salt and 20~30 % salt waterwere enough for the control of weeds, However, salt water injuried the lawngrass except the dormancy stage. The mobility of salt in soil was increased by rainfall. After 160mm of rainfall, the salinity in the soil treated with salt 500kg /l0a was below 0.3 ms/cm in surface soil and about 0.1 ms /cm in soil 30 cm depth. Key words: Soil environmental survey, Korean turfgrass, Salt, Salt water.

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Fundamental study on the simulation of fire using salt-water (Salt-water를 이용한 화재 모사 기초 연구)

  • Kim, Ha-Young;Lee, Tea-Jea;Rie, Dong-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering Conference
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    • pp.84-89
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    • 2010
  • 본 연구에서는 공기를 Fresh-water, 화재를 Salt-water로 치환하여 밀도차에 의한 Salt-water 확산의 화재 모사 적용성을 기초적으로 검증한다. 실험은 Zone model과 Field model의 화재해석 결과 나타난 천장부 확산, 와류 발생, 연기층 하락, 연기층과 공기층의 구분 등의 특징을 분석 기준으로 하며 Salt-water에 Tracer를 첨가하여 PIV(Particle Image Velocity) 분석법을 통해 확산현상에 대해 분석하였다. 결과로 Salt-water의 용해도가 높을수록 천장부 확산, 와류 발생, 연기층 하락, 연기층과 공기층의 구분에 있어 실제 화재와 유사한 것으로 판단되며 최소 15.0%이상의 용해도에서 이와 같은 현상이 뚜렷해지는 것으로 분석되었다. 본 연구를 통해 축소모형 화재 모사시 발열 상태가 아닌 다른 방법으로의 모사가 가능한 것이 증명하였다.

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