• Title, Summary, Keyword: saltiness

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Effects of Red Pepper, Salt-Fermented Anchovy Extracts and Salt Concentration on the Tastes of Kimchi (고추, 젓갈 및 소금농도가 김치의 맛에 미치는 영향)

  • 박소희;임호수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.346-349
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes in organoleptic characteristics by adding different amounts of red pepper powder, salt-fermented anchovy extracts to kimchi. The salt enhanced sourness and pungency up to 2% but suppressed sourness, pungency, sweetness and umami taste by salt of more than 2%. Red pepper powder proportionally enhanced sourness up to 3% but suppressed saltiness, sweetness and umami taste. Salt-fermented anchovy extracts enhanced saltiness and sweetness together with enhancement of umami taste, but suppressed pungency and sourness. As the result of one-way analysis of correlation with the above tastes of spices and kimchi, saltiness of NaCl had a significantly negative correlation with pungency, sourness, sweetness and umami taste, as -0.9857, -0.9878, -0.9847, -0.9076, respectively, and pungency of red pepper with sourness, sweetness, saltiness and umami taste, as -0.8353, -0.9316, -0.9020, -0.9901, respectively. This indicated that increase of pungency and saltiness of kimchi suppressed a overall taste of kimchi. In addition, umami taste had a significantly negative correlation with only pungency as -0.9823 and a significantly positive correlation with sweetness and saltiness, showing a different tendency with pungency and saltiness.

Physical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Kongjaban Prepared under Different Cooking Conditions (조리조건을 달리한 콩자반의 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Jung, Soo-Jung;Yoon, Jae-Young;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.490-497
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    • 1991
  • Kongjaban (a Korean-style seasoned black soybean) prepared under various conditions such as different soaking temperatures and time, cooking rate, and amounts of sugar and soy sauce was investigated with respect to its physical and sensory qualities. Soaking soybeans in water at $20^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$ prior to heating decreased the hardness, degree of browning and saltiness of kongjaban, regardless of soaking temperature. As the cooking time after addition of sugar and soy sauce increased, the degree of browning, saltiness and hardness of kongjaban increased markedly. The amount of sugar and soy sauce did not make a distinct difference in its physical properties whereas its hardness increased slightly with increasing sugar amount. According to the sensory evaluation, the color, hardness and saltiness of kongjaban significantly increased with increasing cooking time. Color, hardness and sweetness increased as the amount of sugar increased whereas the amount of soy sauce did not affect the sensory characteristics except for saltiness.

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Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese

  • Choi, HeeJeong;Kim, Soo-Jin;Lee, Sang-Yoon;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 2017
  • The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether $W_1/O/W_2$ double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content ($W_1$ is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and $W_2$ is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion ($W_1$ = distilled water, $W_2$ = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion ($W_1$ is water and $W_2$ is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

Salinity of Kimchi and Soups/Stews, and the Acceptability and Attitudes of Restaurant Owners toward Salt in the Jeonju Area (전주지역 음식점의 김치, 국.찌개의 염도와 운영자의 염분 기호도 및 인식 조사)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ja;Song, Mi-Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2009
  • Kimchi and soup/stew samples were collected from Korean restaurants in the Jeonju area and their salinity levels were analysed. Restaurant owners were also surveyed to assess their salt acceptability and attitudes. The average salinity of the Kimchi samples was 2.0${\pm}$0.4% and that of the soup/stew samples was 1.0${\pm}$0.3%. The average salinity of the soup samples was 0.9${\pm}$0.2% and that of the stew samples was 1.1${\pm}$0.3%, and the average salinity of the stews was significantly higher than that of the soups (p<0.001). The average salinity of bean-paste soups was 0.9${\pm}$0.2% and that of clear soups was 0.8${\pm}$0.2%, in which the average salinity of the bean-paste soups was significantly higher than that of the clear soups (p<0.05). When asked about the saltiness of their side dishes, soups/stews, and Kimchi, the largest number of owners answered 'ordinary'. About 50.4% of the owners also answered 'ordinary' for their salt acceptability, and 59.8% answered that their customers have 'ordinary' salt acceptability. However, a significantly higher ratio of owners in the group whose Kimchi samples had low salinity answered that their customers' salt acceptability was for 'flat' foods as compared to the group whose Kimchi was of high salinity (p<0.05). About 45.7% of the owners answered that 'they participated in controlling the saltiness of all their dishes', and 40.2% answered that 'they considered the traditional saltiness of their menu items as more important than the saltiness acceptability of their customers.' Also, 82.7% of the owners answered 'they made the Kimchi themselves.' The types of frequently served soup were clear soup, such as bean-sprout soup and seaweed soup, followed by bean-paste soup and thick beef soup, in order. The types of frequently served stews were Gochujang stew with frozen pollack or croaker, bean-paste stew, and clear stew.

Sensory Evaluation of Kimchi using Two Ethnic Groups (두 인종간의 김치의 관능특성 차이)

  • Yoon, Hee-Nam;Um, Ki-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.755-758
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    • 1991
  • Kimchi was investigated with regard to the sensory properties depending on ethnic group and processing conditions, and to the relationship between its sensory attributes. Sensory panel scores of American in sourness, pungency and crunchiness were significantly higher than those of Korean. The opposite result was performed in sweetness. There were no significant differences between American and Korean in sensory properties of saltiness, hardness and toughness. Salt content in brine was significantly related to saltiness of kimchi at p<0.001. Sensory panel scores of saltiness in kimchi made with 10, 15 and 20% salt solution appeared to be 4.5, 5.8 and 7.1, respectively. Mean values of toughness were 5.7 at 3 days of aging and 4.5 at 10 days. There were no relationship among sensory properties between taste attributes and textural terms of kimchi.

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Sensory Characteristics of Low Sodium Kakdugi (저염 깍뚜기의 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, In-Hye;Kim, Kwang-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.380-385
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    • 1990
  • This study was conducted to determine the relative saltiness of $MgCl_2,\;K_{2}SO_4$ and KCl and evaluate the sensory characteristics of solutions and Kakdugi (Korean seasoned pickles of cubed radish roots) prepared with reduced amount of sodium chloride by replacement with varying levels of KCI. The relative saltiness of $MgCl_2$ and $K_{2}SO_4$, were $0.11{\sim}0.12(0.115)$ and $0.08{\sim}0.09(0.085)$ respectively, at the reference level of 0.5% NaCl. The relative saltiness of KCI varied from 0.52 to 0.76 as the reference level increased from 0.5 to 2.0% NaCl. The result of sensory evaluation on the mixed solutions of NaCl and KCI indicated that bitterness, metallic flavor and astringency increased with the increased levels of KCI. The addition of KCI slightly increased the firmness of kakdugi but there was no significant difference in firmness by the amount of substitution. Bitterness and off-flavor was enhanced with the increased levels of replacement especially when the level was higher than 50%. Saltiness, sourness and overall desirability decreased as the extent of the replacement increased. There were no significant difference in pH, acidity and firmness measured with Universal Testing Machine. The result of this study indicate that the replacement of NaCl with KCI at not more than 50% does not affect greatly the characteristics of kakdugi.

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The effect of a low-sodium label on acceptability and perceived saltiness intensity of a dipping sauce for fried pork cutlets (저염 표시가 포크커틀릿 소스의 짠맛 인식과 기호도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Kang, Baeg-Won;Kim, Jong-Wook;Lee, Mi-Young;Chung, Seo-Jin;Hong, Jae-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a low-sodium label on acceptability and sensory attributes of a dipping sauce for fried pork cutlets. Two sauce samples, CON (normal sodium level) and LOW-Na (50% sodium level), were evaluated. Consumers (n=77) rated expectations and actual perception of overall liking, purchase intent, and intensities of saltiness, sweetness, sourness, fruit flavor, and degree of flavor balance without and with a carrier (fried pork cutlet) in blind and informed settings. In the informed test, CON labeled as Low-Na (PLACEBO) was additionally tested to examine the placebo effect of information. The low-sodium labeling significantly increased the expected liking and purchase intent, but decreased the expected saltiness. However, the label did not influence actual liking or purchase intent. A significant decrease in actual saltiness was observed only in Low-Na, not in PLACEBO, indicating the label is influential only when actual perception matched the expectation.

Effects of Color on Taste of Foods -II. Effect of Color on 4 Basic Tastes Perception (Sweetness, Saltiness, Sourness and Bitterness)- (식미에 미치는 색의 영향 -제 2보. 4원미 인지에 미치는 색의 작용-)

  • Shin, Ji-Won;Baek, Sang-Bong;Rhee, Kyu-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 1991
  • The effect of color, as measured on the spectrometer, on the 4 basic tastes(sweet, salty, sour & bitter) perception of a series of colored and no-flavored solutions was quantified by 16 taste panel using magnitude estimation without modulus. The regression lines for each colored series were found to differ indicating that color had a significant effect on sweetness, sourness and bitterness. A sucrose level of 4.0%, a citric acid level of 0.05%, and a nicotinamide level of 0.08% maximized the effect of color on taste's perception and its acceptability. Although color tended to confuse the perception of saltiness, this effect was not significant except for yellow solutions.

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An Effect of Red-ripe Persimmon on Fermentation and Sensory Characteristics of Kimchi (연시첨가가 김치의 발효와 기호성에 미치는 영향)

  • 하귀현;박상욱
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.570-575
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    • 1998
  • This paper presents an investigation of chemical and sensory properties of Kimchi with red-ripe persimmon. Kimchi with different levels(0, 5, 10, 15%) of real-ripe persimmon was fermented at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 20days. During the fermentation, pH decreased in all Kimchi samples and pH of Kimchi with red-ripe persimmon was a little lower than that of Kimchi without red-ripe persimmon. Acidity increaased continuously and saltiness was maintained at 1.2∼2.2% levels during fermentation. The reducing sugar of Kimchi with red-ripe persimmon was relatively higher than that of the other sample without red-ripe persimmon. Total vitamin C(Vit. C) in Kimchi added red-ripe persimmon increased in the early stage of fermentation and reduced gradually after 4days of fermentation. In the sensory evolution, Kimchi with 10% red-ripe persimmon recorded high scores in taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptability during all fermentation period.

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Status of Recognition, Effort, and Satisfaction of Customers on Low-Sodium Diet in Industry Foodservice (산업체 급식 피급식자들의 저나트륨식 인식 및 실천현황과 만족도)

  • Yoon, Sang Jin;Kang, Kun Og
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.168-175
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    • 2017
  • This study surveyed the status of recognition, effort, and satisfaction of customers on a low-sodium diet in industry foodservice. For recognition related to sodium intake, 34.6% answered 'sure' for awareness of WHO's recommended daily sodium intake. Recognition of healthiness of low-sodium diet scored an average of $3.77{\pm}0.8$. The most frequent dietary effort related to low-sodium diet was 'I leave the broth of soup/stew (23.7%)', and the most common reason for not making an effort related to low-sodium diet was 'I often eat out (25.2%)'. Recognition of saltiness of foodservice meals was $2.84{\pm}0.69$, and the saltiest food was 'kimchi (30.4%)', followed by 'side dish (17.9%)', 'soup/stew (16.8%)', and 'sauce (8.3%)'. Satisfaction of low-sodium foodservice meal was $3.04{\pm}0.71$. Reasons for recognition of saltiness of foodservice meal were mostly 'appropriate' or 'prefer less salty (86%)'. In the analysis of satisfaction of low-sodium foodservice meal according to occupation, satisfaction of 'level of saltiness ($F=5.046^{**}$)' scored an average of $3.18{\pm}0.72$, with the highest satisfaction from 'professionals'. Satisfaction of 'dietary behaviors related to sodium ($F=3.534^{**}$)' scored an average of $3.95{\pm}0.59$, with the highest satisfaction from 'government employees (p<0.01)'. These study results show that despite recognition of the healthiness of a low-sodium diet, efforts toward practicing the diet were less than adequate. Further, 25% felt that foodservice meal was a blend, whereas satisfaction of low-sodium diet was only 19%. Therefore, continuous education and advertisements are necessary in order to raise awareness as well as developing more concrete methods during preparation of meals, such as using a salt meter.