• Title, Summary, Keyword: saltiness

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Quality Characteristics of Baechu Kimchi Prepared with Domestic and Imported Solar Salts during Storage (국내산 및 수입산 천일염 이용 배추김치의 저장 중 품질특성)

  • Lee, In-Seon;Kim, Hyang-Sook;Kim, Hae-Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.363-374
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    • 2012
  • Quality characteristics of baechu (Kimchi cabbage) kimchi prepared using various kinds of domestic solar salts (KS5Y, KS2Y, KS1Y, KFS, and KSS) and imported solar salts (AS1Y and CS1Y) were compared with Korean processed salt (KRS) and Mexican rock salt (MR1Y) during 60 days of storage. Sodium contents of MR1Y, AS1Y, and domestic KRS with values of 363,653.40, 358,952.40, and 356,799.90 mg/dL, respectively, were significantly higher than that of KFS with a value of 280,249.80 mg/dL (p < 0.001). Thus, the kimchi using KFS was expected to have 22-23% lower sodium content compared to that of the other kimchis. KFS magnesium content was significantly highest at 4,464.10 mg/dL and calcium was significantly the highest in samples of KS1Y with a value of 711.31 mg/dL. Most of the pHs and acidities in the kimchi samples were in the optimum range due to the relatively low storage temperature of $2^{\circ}C$. The salt concentrations of all kimchis using domestic solar salt during storage was greatly reduced compared to those using the imported salts or KRS. Sensory saltiness of the KS1Y sample group was significantly the lowest value (6.08) at 0 days of storage (p < 0.001) and maintained relatively low saltiness during the entire storage period. The crispness of the KS2Y, KS1Y, and KSS sample groups were significantly higher (10.02, 9.77, and 9.49, respectively), compared to that of KRS (7.64) at 60 days of storage (p < 0.001). The KFS sample group had the higher acceptance values for pickled seafood aroma, sour aroma, saltiness, and overall acceptability compared to those in the other samples.

Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

  • Chun, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Byeongsoo;Lee, Jung Gyu;Cho, Hyung-Yong;Min, Sang-Gi;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.552-557
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the effects of ${\gamma}$-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration.

Analysis of Factors Affect Sensory Acceptance of Dak-jjim in School Aged Children (학동기 아동용 닭찜의 관능적 기호도에 영향을 주는 요인 분석)

  • Lee, Solji;Ryu, Bokyung;Lee, Jisun;Lee, Min-A;Hong, Sang-Pil;Chung, Lana
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.674-681
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting acceptance of four kinds of dak-jjim samples in third year school-aged children (n=100). Soy sauce, red pepper paste, Vietnam fish sauce, and star anise were applied to samples for their familiar and exotic characteristics. Significant differences among samples were observed in odor, taste, and acceptance (p<0.001). Soy (Soy sauce sample), RPPaste (Red pepper paste sample), and Soy_FishS (Soy sauce and Vietnam fish sauce sample) samples scored higher than Soy_StarA (Soy sauce and star anise sample) sample. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in intensities of saltiness, sweetness, and hot spicy flavor (p>0.05). Liked attributes in samples were saltiness, sweetness, chicken flavor, potato flavor, moistness of chicken, hot spicy flavor, and color. Disliked attributes in samples were hot spicy flavor, saltiness, and ginger flavor. Significant differences among samples were observed in familiar intensity and willing to try again (p<0.001). Soy, RPPaste, and Soy_FishS samples scored higher than Soy_StarA sample. Panels considered taste (46%) and nutrition (45%). Higher familiar intensity of sample was associated with higher acceptance in samples. In other words, familiarity of food affects acceptance of food. Therefore, familiar ingredients such as soy sauce and chicken can be used for development of Korean menu items considering taste and nutrition with enhanced Korean food acceptance in school-aged children.

Salt-related Dietary Behaviors of University Students in Gyeongbuk Area (경북지역 대학생의 소금섭취 관련 식행동 조사)

  • Lee, Kyung-A
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.1122-1131
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate self-assessed preferences for saltiness as well as salt-related dietary behaviors of university students in Gyeongsangbuk-do. Data were collected from subjects, including 175 male and 225 female university students. This survey was conducted using self-boarding questionnaires. Exactly 29.5% of all students answered 'salty' for their self-assessed preference of saltiness, and 42.5% indicated 'salty' for their assessed saltiness of university foodservice operations. Salt-related dietary behavior scores were significantly different among monthly spending money (P<0.01), self-assessed preference of saltiness (P<0.001), frequency of using university foodservice operations (P<0.001), and assessed saltiness of university foodservice operations (P<0.001). Among the 15 items of salt-related dietary behaviors, 4 items scored over 3.00/5.00, including frequent eating-out or consumption of delivered foods, kimchi, soy paste soup or other broth soups, and ramyon (instant noodle). Males revealed higher preferences for ham or sausage (P<0.05), table salt (P<0.01), broths (P<0.01), and complete consumption of soups and stews (P<0.01), whereas females showed greater preferences for eating-out or delivered foods (P<0.01). Overweight students showed higher preferences for all broths and complete consumption of soups and stews (P<0.01).

A Study on Determining the Optimal Amounts of Fermented Soybean Foods in Various Korean Soups and the Effect of Condiments in Two Basic Stocks (국 종류에 따른 장류의 분양 결정과 조미료의 첨가효과)

  • 정경숙;우경자;홍성야
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1986
  • This sudy was conductted for the purpose of determining the optimal amounts of soy tauce, soy bean paste and hot pepper paste, in 3 different Korean soups and comparing the effect of condiments such as salt, soy sauce, black pepper, and Mono Sodium Glutamate, on the taste of two basic Korean Stocks, The results estimated by Palatability Test were as follows: 1. The average NaCl contents of two kinds of commercial soysauce were 15.9%, 25.6%, respectively. 2. The NaCl contents of 2% sardine stock, and 19% beef stock were 0.16~1.17%, 0.17~0.18% respectively. 3. @ According to Saltiness in sardine stock, there was no difference between the soy sauce-added group and the salt-added group. However, for the removing effect of Off-flavor, and Overall Taste, the soy sauce-group had higher score than salt-added group respectively. (p>.0.1) ⓑ In beef stock, there was no difference between the soysauce-added group and the salt-added group in Saltiness test. The soy sauce-added group had higher score in removing effect of Off-flavor (p>.0.1). On other hand, in Overall Taste, the salt- added group was more effective than the soy sauce-added (p>.0.1). 4 @ According to Saltiness test in beef stock, there was no difference between the black pepper-added and non-added group. However, for the removing effect of Off-flavor and, Overall Taste, the added group had higher score than the non-added group, respectively. (p>.10, p>.0.5) ⓑ Also, according to Saltiness test in beef stock, there was no diffetrence between the MSG-added group and non-added group. However for the removing effect of Off-flavor, and Overall taste, the MSG-added group was more effective than the non-added group. (p>.01) 5. The best recipes of soybean sprouts soup for S persons, in this experiment, were soybean sprouts 180 g, sardine 28 g, soysauce 1/2 T.S., salt 7 g, green onion 15 g, choppedgarlic It. s., against 7 C of water, and total cooking time was 20 minutes. 6. The best recipes of clear-beef soup were beef 200 g, radish 200 g, tangle weed 10 g, sesame oil 1/2 t.s., green onion 15 g, chopped garlic 1 t.s., black Pepper 1/8 1.s., and soy sauce 1 T.S., salt 7 g or soy sauce 2 T S., salt 3.5 g. The total cooking time was minutes. 7, The best recipes of soybean pasted Chinese cabbage soup were Chinese cabbage 300 g, sardine 28 g, green onion 15 g, chopped garlic 1 t.s., and bean paste 50 g, hot pepper paste 13 g, salt 3g or bean paste 65 g, hot pepper paste 16 g, salt 1.5 g. And the total cooking time was 25 minutes. 8. Soy sauce, black pepper, M.S.G., bean paste and hot pepper paste were effective on removing Off-flavor of experimental soups.

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Permeation Effect of NaCl into Shell Egg with Concentration of NaCl Solution, Salting Time and Salting Pressure (염지액농도, 염지시간 및 염지압력에 따른 계란의 염 침투효과)

  • 전기홍;유익종;장윤희;강통삼
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 1993
  • This study was performed to find the desirable conditions for processing salted hard-boiled egg without cracking egg shell in NaCl solution under pressure. Among the many factors affecting saltiness of the shell egg, concentration of NaCl solution(0~40%), different salting time(0~45h) and salting pressure (0~4.5kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$) were employed to identify the permeability of NaCl into shell egg at ambient temperature. The saltiness of the shell egg was proportionally risen as concentration of NaCl solution, salting time and pressure increased. The most desirable saltiness was observed at the 0.70~1.00% of NaCl in albumen and 0.40~0.45% in yolk, Besides the saltiness, sensory evaluation of the shell egg were carried out to evaluate the quality of the salted shell egg. The effect of various concentration of NaCl solution, salting time and pressure on sensory scores of hard-boiled salted eggs showed that 20~40% of NaCl solution, 12~20 h of salting time, 3~4.5 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ of salting pressure were proper conditions for processing the product. These results indicate that the desirable condition to get salted hard-boiled shell egg were ; 30% of NaCl solution, 16h of salting time and 4.0kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ of salting pressure.

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Combination Effect of ʟ-Arginine and ʟ-Aspartic acid on Saltiness Enhancement of NaCl Solution (ʟ-아르기닌과 ʟ-아스파라긴산 혼합이 NaCl 짠맛 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Duk;Park, Jung-Ha;Park, Bok-Jun;In, Man-Jin;Park, Dong-Chel;Oh, Nam-Soon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.251-254
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    • 2014
  • In order to investigate the combination effect of $\small{L}$-arginine and $\small{L}$-aspartic acid on salt enhancement, the saltiness and bitterness of various mixtures of $\small{L}$-arginine and $\small{L}$-aspartic acid were evaluated using the electronic tongue and sensory tests. Increasing the molar ration of $\small{L}$-arginine against $\small{L}$-aspartic acid enhanced the salty taste of NaCl, whereas increasing the molar ration of $\small{L}$-aspartic acid against $\small{L}$-arginine significantly suppressed the bitter taste of $\small{L}$-arginine. Therefore, combination of $\small{L}$-arginine and $\small{L}$-aspartic acid can be utilized as a saltiness enhancer and its suitable combination ratio was showed as $\small{L}$-arginine : $\small{L}$-aspartic acid = 1.00:0.98-1.00 on basis of molar concentration.

Effective Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake among Consumers: Pork Cutlet Sauce as a Model Food System

  • Lee, Hyun;Lee, Mi Young;Kim, Eui-Su;Chung, Seo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.426-436
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    • 2018
  • This study assessed effective strategies to reduce the sodium intake among consumers using pork cutlet sauce as a model food system. Original pork cutlet sauce and sodium-reduced sauce (29% reduced by a salt substitute) were analyzed to characterize the sensory properties using descriptive analysis. The effects of sodium-reduction of the sauce, consumer type (nutrition teachers vs. general consumers), information related to the sodium content, serving method, and consumer's health, taste and sodium-related attitudes on the consumer's preference, perception, and intake of the sauce were analyzed using a consumer test. In descriptive analysis, the original and sodium-reduced sauce showed similar sensory characteristics but did not differ in saltiness. In the consumer test, there were no significant differences in the overall preference levels between the two sauces. On the other hand, there were significant differences in preference and perception between nutrition teachers and general consumer groups, which were due largely to their age as well as the health and sodium-related attitudes and nutritional knowledge differences. Sodium-reduced information decreased the perceived saltiness intensity. In addition, reducing sodium intake by serving pork cutlet sauce in a bottle can be an effective strategy because this serving method increased the acceptance and induced the smaller intake of sauce.

Quality Characteristics of Kimchi with Added Houttuynia cordata (어성초를 첨가한 김치의 품질 특성)

  • Kwak, Hee-Jung;Jang, Jae-Seon;Kim, Soon-Mi
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.332-337
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate the physiochemical and sensory characteristics of Kimchi with added Houttuynia cordata Thunb(HC). According to measurements for physicochemical characteristics, the three groups of tested Kimchi(HC juice, HC powder, control) did not show any significant differences in pH and hardness. However, the acidity of the Kimchi with added HC juice was found to be significantly higher. Regarding lightness, L values were not different among the three groups, while a and b values showed significant decreases. In descriptive analysis, Kimchi redness was lowest in the HC juice group, and difference in redness was identified between the HC juice and powder groups. One survey indicated that the Kimchi with added HC juice had a unique odor, but no difference was found between the HC powder group and the control group. Also, a survey on preference characteristics indicated there were no differences between the three groups. For the saltiness and acidity of the Kimchi with added HC, there was a significant negative correlation(p<0.05), in which stronger saltiness lower acidity. On the other hand, acidity and HC odor showed a significantly positive correlation(p<0.05). Furthermore, the L value showed a significantly negative correlation(p<0.05) with HC odor.

Sensory Characteristics of Chilled Buckwheat Noodle Soup (mulnaengmyun) (묘사분석을 활용한 시판 물냉면의 평가 기법 확립 및 감각적 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jee;Chung, Seo-Jin;Kim, Miran;Hong, Jaehee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.506-514
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sample presenting types on the sensory characteristics of chilled buckwheat noodle soup (Naeng-myeon). Generic descriptive analysis was performed for evaluating only stock (system 1), only noodle (system 2) and stock with noodle (system 3). Eight kinds of commercially available Naeng-myeon were samples of interest. Ten female descriptive panelists participated. ANOVA and regression analysis were used for data analysis. In the training sessions, ten sensory properties were developed for system 1, four were additionally established for noodle. In each system, the 8 products showed significantly different intensities in almost all sensory attributes like darkness of stock, overall flavor, sweetness, saltiness, sourness. When integrating the two systems, sample presenting types showed significant difference for the seven sensory attributes, especially saltiness, sourness, beef flavor tended to be rated more strongly in system 1 than system 3.