• Title, Summary, Keyword: saltiness

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Differences in Sodium-Intake Related Dietary Behaviors and Correlation Analysis According to Salty Taste Preference of University Students in Busan Area (부산지역 대학생의 짠맛 선호도에 따른 소금 섭취 식행동 차이와 상관성 분석)

  • Kang, Min-Ji;Choi, Ki-Bo;Lyu, Eun-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.477-484
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness of the meaning of a low-sodium diet as well as the self-reported preference of saltiness and sodium-intake related dietary behaviors for university students in Busan. A survey was conducted with 977 students (male: 512, female: 465). For the self-reported preference of saltiness, 45.8% of the participants reported 'moderate' preference, 35.3% reported 'salty' preference, and 18.8% reported 'unsalty' preference. Males had significantly higher scores than females (p<0.01). Regarding awareness of the meaning of a low-sodium diet, 20.8 % of the students did not recognize the phraseand, males had significantly lower awareness than females (p<0.01). The 'salty' group had a significantly lower rate than others (p<0.01). Males had significant higher sodium-related dietary behaviors scores than females for the following questions 'I often eat dried seafood and salted seafood', 'I usually eat all the broth in soups or stews' (p<0.01), 'I usually eat a lot of kimchi and salt-pickled vegetables', 'I usually eat soy dip or hot pepper dip with sushi and fritters' (p<0.05). Mean scores for sodium-related dietary behaviors by self-reported preference of saltiness were 2.49/5.00 (unsalty), 2.87/5.00 (moderate), and 3.19/5.00 (salty), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). The lower the scores for the self-reported preference of saltiness, the lower the scores for sodium intake-related dietary behaviors (p<0.01). The average score for sodium-related dietary behaviors in the group familiar with the meaning of a low-sodium diet was significantly lower than that of the group that 'did not know' (p<0.01).

Amino Acid Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Chicken Stock by Different Salt Contents (소금 첨가량을 달리한 닭 육수의 아미노산 조성 및 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, Doog-Seok;Kim, Jog-Seck;Seoung, Tae-Jong
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.274-285
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    • 2010
  • This study attempts to develop a mass production product standardized by the application of high pressure extraction cooking(HPEC) in order to suggest a desirable direction for the development of salt contained standardized chicken stock. In our experiment on chicken stock with varying its salt content, the total free amino acid content was highest in S3, which contained 0.3% of salt In addition, when the total content of free amino acid was divided into the contents of essential amino acid, palatable amino acid, and other types of amino acid, they showed the same distribution as the total content of free amino acid. In addition, the total content of palatable amino acid was highest among the specimens. In the results of investigating the palatability of chicken stock according to salt content, saltiness increased with the increase of the salt content, but no significant difference was observed in preference for saltiness. It is believed to have come from the difference in the sensory evaluators' preference for saltiness, and it shows that the salt content has an effect on sweet taste, delicate taste, fishy smell, and color. In particular, specimen 83, which contained 0.3% of salt, showed the highest content of palatable amino acid, and the highest level of delicate taste in sensory tests, suggesting the correlation between palatable amino acid and delicate taste.

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Quality Characteristics of Ginger Extract Candy with Salicornia herbacea L. for Calming Effect on Morning Sickness (입덧 진정효과를 위한 생강함초캔디의 제조조건 최적화)

  • Kim, Dah-sol;Lee, Heejeong;Jung, Eun-kyung;Joo, Nami
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2018
  • The primary objective of this study was to develop an optimal composite recipe for ginger extract candy with Salicornia herbacea L., for consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy. The secondary objective was to examine quality characteristics of the candy. The physical and mechanical properties and sensory properties for pregnant women in were measured, and these values were applied to mathematical models. Time of stirring water solution, saltiness, pH, and redness of the candy increased as concentrations of ginger juice did, but variations in pH were not significant. The hardness values of the candy ranged from 3,063.90 to $5,681.65dyne/cm^3$. The average values of sweetness and time stirring the water solution were 5.36% and 14.1 minutes, respectively. However, hardness and sweetness stirring water solution were not significant. The range of sensory values of color (P<0.01), flavor (P<0.05), sweetness, saltiness, spiciness, and overall quality (P<0.05) ranged from were 3.73~5.32, 4.05~5.05, 3.67~5.14, 3.59~5.09, 3.55~5.15, and 3.32~5.45, respectively. Results suggest that ginger extract candy with Salicornia herbacea L. should be comprised of 7.37 g of ginger juice and 1.77 g of salt. Consequently, it could be a functional candy for pregnant women.

A Study of Salt's Effects on Cooked Food (각종 식염의 조리효과에 관한 연구)

  • 문수재
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 1979
  • The phyio-chemical properties of Ion exchange salt, crude salt, particaly refined salt, and Isoized salt were determined. The basic amount of salt used in cooking were standardized . Acceptabilities as to the taste and saltiness of food prepared with the standard amounts of various kinds of salt were compared. Whereupon, the following conclusion was obtained. 1) Crude salt showed 12.23 per cent water content, the highest among the kinds of salt examined, while particaly refined salt had 2.53% water content. Refined salt, Ion exchange salt, and Iodized salt showed 0.36%, and 0.28%, respectively. 2) Where the same amount of salt was dissolved in the same amount of water, crude salt and partialy refined salt were dissolved twice as Ion exchange salt of fine-grain form, refined salt, and Iodized salt. In actual cooking, Ion exchanges salt and refined salt are used only half as much as raw salt, and it can be said that the time required for dissolving salt is the same. 3) The comparison between content and weight of various kinds of salt showed that the weights of Ion exchange salt, Iodized salt, and refined salt were two times as heavy as crude salt and partialy refined condition of same content. 40 The threshold concentration of salt is the sensed degree of saltiness. Different concentrations were recorded for various for various kinds of salt, the threshold concentration of Ion exchanges salt showed the lowest degree of 0.05, while that of partialy refined salt was 0.09 equivalent to 1.8 times that of the former. 5) Experimental cooking involving various kinds of salt indicated that where salt was used accurately, soup, vegetables, kimchi, and soybean sauce which were prepared with Ion exchanges salt showed the best acceptability , but no statistical differences could be noted among sarious kinds of salt used in preparing those foods.

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Relationship between Obesity, Threshold of Salty Taste, Optimal Saltiness and Blood Pressure in Middle School Students in Fishing Village (어촌지역 중학생들의 비만, 짠맛의 역치, 최적염미도와 혈압과의 관련성)

  • Lee, Joo Hee;Moon, Su Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.257-268
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this research was to evaluate the correlation between obesity, threshold of salty taste, optimal saltiness and blood pressure in middle school students in a fishing village. The subjects were 115 boys and 103 girls in middle school in a fishing village. The BMI index and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of subjects were measured, and the subjects were divided into a normal and obese group according to their BMI. The threshold of salty taste and salt preference for a semisolid dish (steamed egg dish), liquid dish (bean sprout soup), and a solid dish (raw radish salad), were estimated by sensory evaluation. Calorie intake was measured using the weighing plate method. The boys in the obese group showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those in the normal, but girls did not. Furthermore, calorie intakes of the boys in the obese group were significantly higher than those in the normal group, but this was not shown in girls. On the threshold of salty taste, both boys and girls in the obese group needed higher concentration of salt than those in the normal group. The threshold of salty taste were significantly positively correlated with systolic pressure and diastolic pressure in boys. Regarding the salt preference in the steamed egg dish, bean-sprout soup, and raw radish salad, both boys and girls in the obese group preferred higher concentrations. The higher concentration they preferred, the higher the systolic and diastolic pressures were in boys, but only systolic blood pressure was higher in girls. From these results, it is evident that a nutritional education program is needed in school to help restricting middle school students salt consumption and decreasing obesity to prevent hypertension.

Quality Changes of Immature Green Cherry Tomato Pickles with Different Concentration of Soy Sauce and Soaking Temperature During Storage (푸른 방울토마토로 제조한 저염 장아찌의 저장 중 품질 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Jin-A;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.295-307
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to develop and standardize a preparation method for low-sodium tomato jangachi (traditional Korean pickle) via short-term fermentation with immature green cherry tomatoes. In order to determine the preferred concentrations of soy sauce and soaking temperatures of immature cherry tomato pickles in different stages of storage, we conducted an analysis of physico-chemical characteristics and microbiological properties, and also performed a preference test on samples of immature green cherry tomato pickles. Immature cherry tomatoes were prepared in three different soy sauce concentrations --20, 40, and 60%-- and three different soaking temperatures --60, 80, and 100$^{\circ}C$-- and then stored for 28 days at 5$^{\circ}C$. As a result, the pH increased significantly with increases in the amount of soy in the dipping solution (p<0.05). The saltiness was maintained at levels of approximately $0.17{\sim}0.28%$ (20% group), $0.32{\sim}0.67%$% (40%group), $0.48{\sim}1.00%$ (60% group) during storage periods. These results show that the saltiness of immature cherry tomato pickles was substantially lower than that of commercial pickles. The contents of reducing sugar and lightness decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of soy dipping solution. The redness and yellowness values of the tomatoes decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of soy sauce. Additionally, the lower the concentration of soy sauce used, the more rapidly the hardness of the immature cherry tomato pickles was reduced at 100$^{\circ}C$. PME activity moved within a narrow range, and then stabilized during the storage period. With regard to the results of the consumer preference test, 20%-100$^{\circ}C$ was the most preferred condition overall, 40%-80$^{\circ}C$ was the condition in which the texture was most preferred, and 40%-80$^{\circ}C$ was the condition that yielded the highest color scores.

The development of a taste education program for preschoolers and evaluation of a program by parents and childcare personnel

  • Shon, Choengmin;Park, Young;Ryou, Hyunjoo;Na, Woori;Choi, Kyungsuk
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.466-473
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    • 2012
  • The change in people's dietary life has led to an increase in an intake of processed foods and food chemicals, raising awareness about taste education for preschoolers whose dietary habits start to grow. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of parents and childcare personnel after developing a taste education program and demonstrating it in class. A part of the curriculum developed by Piusais and Pierre was referred for the program. After educating 524 preschoolers in child care facilities in Seoul, a satisfaction survey was conducted on the program. The data in this study were analyzed using SPSS 14.0. Statistical analysis was conducted based on the frequency after collecting the data. Mean ${\pm}$ SD used to determine satisfaction with taste education, with preferences marked on a five-point scale and the alpha was set at 0.05. The program includes five teachers' guides with subjects of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and harmony of flavor, and ten kinds of teaching tools. For the change in parents' recognition of the need for taste education based on five-point scale, the average of $4.06{\pm}0.62$ before the program has significantly increased to $4.32{\pm}0.52$ (P < 0.01). Regarding the change in the preferences for sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness, the average has increased to $3.83{\pm}0.61$, $3.62{\pm}0.66$, $3.64{\pm}0.66$, and $3.56{\pm}0.75$ respectively. In an evaluation of instructors in child care facilities, the average scores for education method, education effect, education contents and nutritionists, and teaching tools were at $4.15{\pm}0.63$, $3.91{\pm}0.50$, $4.18{\pm}0.50$, and $3.80{\pm}0.56$ respectively. In addition, the need for a continuous taste education scored $4.42{\pm}0.67$. This program has created a positive change in preschoolers' dietary life, therefore the continuation and propagation of the taste education program should be considered.

Relationships Between Bone Mineral Density and Menopausal Symptoms, Life Habits, Preference of Food Saltiness in Postmenopausal Women (폐경후 여성의 골밀도와 갱년기 자각증상, 생활습관 및 짠맛에 대한 기호도와의 관련성)

  • Lee Bo-Kyung;Kim Eun-Mi;Chang Yu-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 1999
  • This study was desingned to investigate the relationships between bone mineral density(BMD) of the lumbar spine($L2\rightarrowL4$) and menopausal symptoms, health conciousness, bone health status, activity intensity, preference of food saltiness in 41 postmenopausal women. Lumbago was main menopausal symptom, and BMD of the subjects with lumbago was significantly low compared with BMD of the subjects without lumbago(p<0.01). BMD of the subjects who felt healthy was significantly higher than BMD of them who felt inbetween or weak(p<0.05). BMD of the subjects who had good bone status of the lumbar spine was significantly higher than BMD of them who had bent lumbar spine or experienced bone fracture(p<0.001). BMD of the subjects who were active was significantly higher than BMD of them whose activity was moderate or sedentary(p<0.05). BMD of the subjects who preferred very insipid taste was significantly high compared with BMD of them who preferred insipid, moderate or salty taste, and BMD of the subjects who preferred very salty taste was significantly low(p<0.01). This study suggested that decrease of BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly related to lumbago, bone fracture and bent lumbar spine. And when they were active and not preferred salty taste, bone loss of the lumbar spine was decreased.

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Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

  • Chun, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Byong-Soo;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Cho, Hyung-Yong;Min, Sang-Gi;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.576-581
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    • 2014
  • Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents.

The Gender Difference between Diet Therapy Satisfaction and Awareness of Nutrition Education of Inpatients in Some Small and Medium-Sized Hospitals in Southern Gyeonggi Area (경기남부지역 일부 중소병원 치료식 환자의 성별 급식만족도와 영양교육에 대한 인식 비교)

  • Rhie, Seung-Gyo
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.61-77
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out on hospitalized patients receiving diet therapy satisfaction and awareness of nutrition education in small and medium-sized hospitals in southern Gyeonggi area. By the face-to-face interview with questionnaire method, the survey was carried out on 150 subjects (99 males and 51 females). The patients (64.7% of males, 52.9% of females) heard the description of diet therapy without the aid of written manual. Patients were moderately satisfied by food that was rated based on these indicators: tastiness (2.45), saltiness (2.23), smelliness (2.23), and appetizing appearance (2.39) as a 4 point scale. Most of the patients (80.8% of males, 69.8% of females) wanted to continue diet therapy. The importance of diet was correlated with the tastiness, saltiness, and appetizing appearance of diet. And the help of dietitians' explanation was correlated with appetite. 55.6% of males and 35.4% of females received nutrition education before (p<0.05). The number of times nutrition education was received was once for male (33.3%) and three times for female (44.4%). Most nutrition education satisfaction that was calculated on a 4 point scale was well understood (3.03), recognized importance (3.44 for males, 2.78 for females) and help for disease management (p<0.01). Also they were satisfied with the explanation of disease (3.20). Nutrition education satisfaction was correlated positively with explanation about food related to disease, the current dietary treatment, how to prepare diet recipes, and dietitian's kindness, but negatively with satisfaction with explanation of diet therapy, and the description and help for disease management. In conclusion, the most important factor in practicing diet therapy was meeting with the dietitian. Intensive nutrition education after the patient's discharge is necessary for patients to continue diet therapy.