• Title, Summary, Keyword: salts

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Characteristics of Chemical Contents of Horizontal Spray Salts from Deep Ocean Water (수평 분무식 해양심층수 소금의 성분 특성)

  • MOON Deok-Soo;KIM Hyun-Ju;SHIN Phil-Kwon;JUNG Dong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2005
  • We have developed a new method of manufacturing salts by horizontal spray drying technique, using the concentrated deep ocean water after desalination processes. We studied the chemical characteristics of the spray-dried salts. Sodium content in the spray salts is $28.4\%$, which is $10-30\%$ lower than that of bay salts, bamboo salts and boiling salts $(32-38.2\%)$. However, the contents of magnesium, potassium and calcium of the spray salts are 2.5 times, 3 times and 4.5 times higher relative to those of bay salts, respectively. On the one hand, sulfur content in spray salts is 14 times lower than those of bay salts, which is caused by their volatilization during spray and vaporization of the concentrated seawater. Enrichment factors of Mg (0.8), K (0.9) and Ca (1.0) in the spray salts are relatively higher than those in bay salt (0.2-0.3), bamboo salt (0.15-0.4) and boiled salt (0.4-0.7), respectively. On the contrary, enrichment factor of sulfur in spray salts is observed to be 0.07, which is considerably lower than those in other salts (0.3-0.7). It means that the minerals like Mg, K and Ca can be well conserved from seawater to salts through spray drying techniques, while volatile elements like sulfur, lead, mercury and organic compounds can be easily removed from seawater via spray and heating processes.

Elements in a Bamboo Salt and Comparision of Its Elemental Contents with Those in Other Salts (죽염의 제조과정에 따른 성분함량의 변화 및 타 염류와의 비교)

  • 김영희;류효익
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2003
  • The majority of table salts are bay salts and chemical salts. However, chemical salts are known to have a different composition in biological electrolytes and quality of bay salts are getting worse due to the increasing seawater contamination. These facts may have led to the increasing usage of various health-promoting salts. Bamboo salt was introduced in 1986 as a solution to replace table salts to eliminate those detrimental effects, to promote general health and to treat diseases. Although all bamboo salts from different manufacturers have been used for the same health and medical purposes, each manufacturer utilizes different manufacturing process. The ICP analysis was used to study the changes of elemental contents in a bamboo salt during the manufacturing steps as well as these contents in various bamboo salts and other salts. After the first step, contents of Li and Sr in the bamboo salt were increased in comparison with those in the raw material, bay salt. As the next steps continued, contents of K, Ca and Ba were continuously increased. At the completion of the final step, contents of Mg and P were decreased and those of Cu, Mn and Mo were gradually increased. Bamboo salts contained lower contents of Mg, Al, B, and P, but higher contents of K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Li, Ba, Sr and Mo than bay salt.

Comparison of Mineral Content and External Structure of Various Salts (소금의 종류별 미네랄 함량과 외형구조 비교연구)

  • 박건영;하정옥
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 1998
  • There are several types of salts that classifed into raw salts(Chunil salt, Saeng salt), purified salts (NaCl reagent grade, Hanju salt) and processed salts(Gueun salt, Saeng kum, Bamboo salt) in Korea. Their major element is NaCl but raw salt from sea water contains other minerals such as K, Mg and S. Mineral contents of the various kinds of salt analyzed with ICP-AES and AAS were different, especially on the contents of K, Mg and Ca. Chunil salt was abundant in Ca(1,037ppm), K(3,707ppm), Mg(10,266ppm) and S(7,459ppm), and salt water from the Chunil salt contained small amounts of Pb, Al, Cr and Hg. Processed salts contained high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Especially, high levels of K, P, Fe and Ge were detected in bamboo salt. Purified salts showed regular crystal form and raw salts exhibited irregular crystal form under the SEM. The processed salts were not crystal form, but fused and irregular round form.

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Radiation protective qualities of some selected lead and bismuth salts in the wide gamma energy region

  • Sayyed, M.I.;Akman, F.;Kacal, M.R.;Kumar, A.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.860-866
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    • 2019
  • The lead element or its salts are good radiation shielding materials. However, their toxic effects are high. Due to less toxicity of bismuth salts, the radiation shielding properties of the bismuth salts have been investigated and compared to that of lead salts to establish them as a better alternative to radiation shielding material to the lead element or its salts. The transmission geometry was utilized to measure the mass attenuation coefficient (${\mu}/{\rho}$) of different salts containing lead and bismuth using a high-resolution HPGe detector and different energies (between 81 and 1333 keV) emitted from point sources of $^{133}Ba$, $^{57}Co$, $^{22}Na$, $^{54}Mn$, $^{137}Cs$, and $^{60}Co$. The experimental ${\mu}/{\rho}$ results are compared with the theoretical values obtained through WinXCOM program. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with their experimental ones. The radiation protection efficiencies, mean free paths, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for the present compounds were determined. The bismuth fluoride ($BiF_3$) is found to have maximum radiation protection efficiency among the selected salts. The results showed that present salts are more effective for reducing the intensity of gamma photons at low energy region.

A Study on the Heavy Metal Contents of Common Salts in Korea (우리나라 일부 소금의 중금속 함량에 대한 조사연구)

  • Hwang, Seong-Hi
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 1988
  • In order to determine the content levels of trace metals in common salts, 64 bay salt samples were collected from three producing districts and 33 bay salt samples, 32 remade salt samples and 5 fine salt samples were collected from 7 major cities in Korea, from August to September 1987. These were analysed for content levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results were as follows: 1. Lead contents in three type salts were N.D. - 1081.9 $\mu$g/kg and fourteen percent of the 114 samples exceeded the World Health Organization(WHO) criteria of 100$\mu$g/kg. Cadmium contents of samples were N.D.- 382C.5 $\mu$g/kg and five percent of the 114 samples were over the Spanish criteria of 500 $\mu$g/kg. Copper contents of samples were 8,9-214.9 $\mu$g/kg and there was not a sample over the World Health Organization(WHO) criteria of 500 $\mu$g/kg. Zinc contents ranged N.D. - 342.9 $\mu$g/kg and Manganese contents ranged N.D.- 8.31 mg/kg. 2. The comparison of heavy metal contents among the bay salts from three producing districts was significantly different in Pb, Cd and Cu contents. 3. The comparison of heavy metal contents between the bay salts and remade salts was not significantly different in Pb, Cd and Cu contents. 4. The contents of Pb, Cd, Zn and Mn in fine salts were much lower than those of bay salts and remade salts.

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A Survey on the Use and Recognition of Various Salts in Kimchi Production (김치에 사용되는 소금의 이용실태 및 소비자 인식 연구)

  • Kim, Ju-Hyeon;Yoon, Hei-Ryeo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.554-561
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    • 2011
  • The nutritional value of kimchi is gaining global focus along with new possibilities and uses for the various salts used in making kimchi. The purpose of the study is to conduct research on the uses of various salts and investigate the consumer recognition of salt use in kimchi preparation. The findings are from 824 consumers over 19 years old from 15 locations who participated in this questionnaire via one-to-one interviews from September 23rd to October 14th, 2009. The results of the questionnaire show that when customers cooked, 71.9% used solar salt, 62.2% used flower salt (refined salt), 27.4% used Hanju salt (purified salt), 59.0% used processed salt (roasted salt), 47.4% used bamboo salt, 69.4% used Mat salt (table salt), and 18.2% used low sodium salt. The most preferred origin of salts was domestic. Most customers salted Chinese cabbage while preparing kimchi. Consumers showed low perceptions of different salts used in kimchi production, and did not exactly recognize the characteristics of various salts. The preferences for domestic and solar salts were very high, while the preference for sea salts was low. In conclusion, various types of salts could improve the quality of kimchi. This study hopes to help consumers produce better kimchi to match different needs. Therefore, attention should be paid to promoting the characteristics of various salts influencing the quality of kimchi.

An Experimental Study on the Deterioration of Concrete Due to De-icing Salts (융빙제에 의한 콘크리트의 내구성능 저하에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 고경택;류금성;이종석;김도겸;김성욱;이장화
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.973-978
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    • 2001
  • In clod weather regions, a strong seasonal wind brings sea salts to the land. In addition to it, recently, the spreading amount of de-icing salts has increased numerously for the purpose of removing snow and ice. Thus the salts environment around concrete structures becomes so severe that various damages of concrete due to applied salts will be brought up. It is briskly carried out study on effects of do-icing salts on concrete in America, Japan, European countries. However, there are not test method for the deterioration of concrete subjected to both freezing-thawing and chloride attack in Korea. In this study, we conduct on test for the compound deterioration subjected to both freezing-thawing and chloride attack, in order to investigate effects of de-icing salts on the deterioration of concrete.

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Flame Retardancy of Zelkova Sarrata Treated with Ammonium Salts (암모늄염으로 처리된 느티나무의 난연성 시험)

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.399-406
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to test the flame retardancy of zelkova sarrata-based materials by the treatment of ammonium salts. Zelkova sarrata plate was soaked by the treatment with three 20 wt% ammonium salt solutions consisting ammonium chloride (AMSL), monoammonium phosphate (MAPP), and diammonium phosphate (DAPP), respectively, at the room temperature. After the drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustion properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). When the ammonium salts were used as the retardant for zelkova sarrata, the flame retardancy improved due to the treated ammonium salts in the virgin zelkova sarrata. However the specimen shows increasing CO over virgin zelkova sarrata and It is supposed that toxicities depend on extents. Also, the specimen with ammonium salts showed the higher total smoke release (TSR) than that of virgin plate. Of specimens treated with ammonium salts the ammonium chloride handled the test side was considered a improved inhibitory effect of combustion.

Effect of Ammonium Salts on the Growth of Methanotrophs, Intermediates, Nitrogen Compounds and Enzyme Expression (암모늄염이 메탄산화균의 성장 및 반응 대사 산물, 메탄산화 효소발현, 질소화합물에 미치는 특성 분석)

  • Kim, I tae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzed the effect of ammonium salts on the growth of methanotrophs and manifestation of reactive metabolites, nitrogen compounds and enzymes in aerobic water conditions. It was conducted to understand the basic characteristics required for the application of methanotrophs to bioremediation based on the results. Ammonium salts did not inhibit the specific growth rate of methanotrophs, however, methane consumption was decreased because certain percent of MMO (methane monooxygenases) was used for oxidation of ammonium salts. Ammonium salts did not give negative effects on the proliferation of aggregated methanotrophs community. This was due to different preferences methanotroph Type 1 and II each had in ammonium salts, which rather had positive effect on the comprehensive growth of methanotrophs in cluster level. Nitrite, the final product of ammonium salts oxidation caused by methane monooxygenases, was consistently accumulated, and the generation of methanol and formaldehyde decreased due to decrease of methane monooxygenases which were relatively available. The decreasing rate at this time was 10.7% for COD, 34.8% for methanol, and 24.8% for formate. The decrease in the generation of methanol was found to be the most remarkable. In addition, sMMO(soluble methane monooxygenases) was not manifested at certain level (50 mM as $NH_4Cl$) of concentration of ammonium salts.

Influence of Heat Treatment on the Physicochemical Property and Mineral Composition of Various Processed Salts

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Lee, Seog-Won;Rhee, Chul
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1010-1015
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    • 2008
  • The effects of heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and mineral composition of sun-dried salt were investigated. The salts parched at high temperature were appeared the higher alkalinity and the lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) than the samples without heat treatment. The commercial salts (bamboo salt and yellow loess salt) and the sun-dried salt parched at high temperature had relatively higher sodium ion content (418-450 ppm) compared to that (418.0 ppm) of refined salt. The increase of calcium ion occurred in the salts parched at high temperature compared to the sun-dried salt without heat treatment, but the magnesium ion was vice versa. The commercial salt, yellow loess salt had highest turbidity (0.973) whereas sun-dried salt showed lowest level (0.097) among the tested samples. Turbidity of heat treatment samples decreased as solubility increased. The maximum concentration of dialyzed salt was reached after 4 hr regardless of various processed salts, but those had no difference significantly among the tested samples. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the parched sun-dried salts showed different peak intensity with common salts, and they were similar to the patterns of oxide salts, especially MgO. The maximum value (2.56%) of MgO appeared in the sun-dried salt parched at $1,400^{\circ}C$.