• Title, Summary, Keyword: salts addition

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Alkaline Hydrolysis of Polyester/Acetate Union Fabric (폴리에스테르/아세테이트 혼용직물의 알칼리 가수분해)

  • Ju, Young Min;Kim, Myung Kyoon;Ahn, Kyoung Ryoul;Lee, Jeong Min
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 1996
  • Alkaline hydrolysis to improve the hand of PET/acetate union fabric was studied in relation to skin saponification and retarding effect of salts on the alkaline hydrolysis of cellulose acetate fiber, accelerating effect of salts on the alkaline hydrolysis of PET fiber, and changes of total hand value(T.H.V) of PET/acetate union fabric treated with alkali/salt solution. It was found that the rate of saponification of acetate was delayed by the addition of salts such as LiCl, NaCl and CH$_{3}$COONa into NaOH solution below 10 minutes. The rate of shrinkage of acetate fabric treated with 5g/l NaOH solution at 9$0^{\circ}C$ and 60 minutes showed 20 % but it was decreased 8% by. the addition of 120g/l Concentration of inorganic salts. We could know that the rate of alkaline hydrolysis of filament yarn treated with alkali solution at 9$0^{\circ}C$ and 60 minutes was delayed about 3 % using 2,000T/M of hard twist yarn, especially acetate filament treated with alkali solution at 9$0^{\circ}C$ and 10 minutes was delayed about 10%. T.H.V. of PET/acetate union fabric was increased from 2.77 to 3.04~3.18 by the addition of salts into alkali solution.

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Effect of Heat Treatment and Salts Addition on Dongchimi Fermentation (열처리와 염의 첨가가 동치미 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • 강근옥;김종군;김우정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.565-571
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    • 1991
  • A short time microwave heat treatment, bringing in hot NaCl solution, addition of KCI, CaCl2, MgCl2 into brining solution and salts mixture of phosphates into half fermented dongchim were investigated for their effects on some quality of dongchimi, a Korean pickle of Chinese radish roots, during fermentation. The reference dongchimi was prepared by brining the radish roots in 7% NaCl added with seasonings at $25^{\circ}C$. The result showed that microwave heat treatment affected little on the pH or total acidity change during fermentation. Soaking the roots in 80-9$0^{\circ}C$ hot salt solution significantly reduced the fermentation and softening rate of dongchimi while a rather rapid fementation was found for those soaked in 7$0^{\circ}C$. Addition of KCI and CaCl2 into brining solution slowed the pH decrease and softening of the roots, respectively. The dangchimi added with the salts mixture of phosphate, citrate and nitrite was significantly extreneded the fermentation time to pH 4.0 by more than two folds.

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An Experimental Study on the Deterioration of Concrete Due to De-icing Salts (융빙제에 의한 콘크리트의 내구성능 저하에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 고경택;류금성;이종석;김도겸;김성욱;이장화
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.973-978
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    • 2001
  • In clod weather regions, a strong seasonal wind brings sea salts to the land. In addition to it, recently, the spreading amount of de-icing salts has increased numerously for the purpose of removing snow and ice. Thus the salts environment around concrete structures becomes so severe that various damages of concrete due to applied salts will be brought up. It is briskly carried out study on effects of do-icing salts on concrete in America, Japan, European countries. However, there are not test method for the deterioration of concrete subjected to both freezing-thawing and chloride attack in Korea. In this study, we conduct on test for the compound deterioration subjected to both freezing-thawing and chloride attack, in order to investigate effects of de-icing salts on the deterioration of concrete.

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Combined effects of microwave heating and salts addition on physical characteristics of Kakdugi (Microwave 열처리 및 혼합염의 첨가가 깍두기의 물리적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Jung-Won;Kim, Jong-Koon;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 1991
  • Effects of KCl addition in brining solution, microwave heating and salts mixture addition into half fermented Kakdugi on physical and sensory properties were investigated during fermentation and storage. The concentration range of salts added were $0.001{\sim}0.01\;M$. The hardness of the Chinese radish was rapidly reducing during first 30 minutes of fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$ and then slightly decreased thereafter, while storage at $4^{\circ}C$ caused much slower decrease. Kakdugi prepared by salting in NaCl-KCI solution showed a slight higher values in hardness. The Hunter color values of Kakdugi liquid was steadily increased in 'L' value and slight decrease in 'a' value during fermentation. The Kakdugi prepared by salting in NaCl-KCl solution and stored after addition of salts mixture was evaluated desirable for organoleptic odor and taste.

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Effects of Seed-Soaked $GA_3$ and Inorganic Salts on Mesocotyl and Coleoptile Elongation in Rice

  • Nam, Taeg-Su;Lee, Byun-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2000
  • The elongation of mesocotyl and coleoptile plays important roles in the seedling emergence and stand establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the effects of seed-presoaking treatments of GA$_3$ and some inorganic salts on the mesocotyl, and coleoptile elongation of rice. Seed-soaked GA$_3$ promoted the elongation of mesocotyl, but little effect on the coleoptile elongation. The stimulation effects of GA$_3$ were found to be enhanced by addition of CaCl$_2$ However, the sole treatment of CaCl$_2$ showed no stimulating effect on the mesocotyl and coleoptile elongation. Mesocotyl elongation was most prominent in the combined treatments of 50ppm GA$_3$ with 100 mM CaCl$_2$. The synergistic effects of GA$_3$ and CaCl$_2$ on mesocotyl elongation varied with varietal groups. The stimulating effects of GA$_3$ were enhanced significantly by the addition of CaCl$_2$ in japonica varieties, Dongjinbyeo, Ilpumbyeo and Milyang 95, and tall indica variety, Labelle, but not in semidwarf Tongil type varieties, Tongilbyeo, Milyang 23, and Nampungbyeo, and semi-dwarf indica, Short Labelle. The promoting effects of GA$_3$ on the mesocotyl elongation were decreased in proportion to the lowered osmotic potential by PEG 6000 on the contrary to CaCl$_2$ This implies that the synergistic effects of CaCl$_2$ with GA$_3$ on mesocotyl elongation was not caused by osmotic potential lowered by CaCl$_2$ addition but by the salt itself. Salts such as Ca(NO$_3$)$_2$, MgCl$_2$ BaCl$_2$, NaCl, KCl and KNO$_3$ showed the synergistic effects with GA$_3$ on mesocotyl elongation as well. The degree of synergistic effects showed no differences among salts tested, implying that there is no specificity of ions constituting the salts.

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Effect of Water Addition Ratio, Stirring Time and Ca Salts on Textural Properties of Soygel (콩묵 제조시 가수량, 교반시간 및 Ca염의 양이 텍스쳐 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hye-Jeen;Ko, Young-Su;Choi, Hee-Sook;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 1995
  • Rheological properties of whole soybean gel(soygel) were investigated as affected by the water addition ratio, stirring time and Ca salts. The soygel was prepared by suspension of whole soy flour(WSF, 300 mesh) in boiling water, addition of sodium alginate and Ca salts followed by thorough mixing and gel formation at $4^{\circ}C$. The texture properties of hardness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness of the gel were increased as the stirring time prolonged from 5 to 30 minutes. From the results of the rheological and sensory properties, 20 minutes of stirring time was selected for whole soybean gel preparation. Eventhough increase in water addition ratio from 8 to 12 times(water/WSF, v/w) resulted a decrease in hardness and adhesiveness, 10 times ratio was chosen as proper the water addition based on textural uniformity. Among the Ca salts, $CaSO_4$ produced the highest hardness followed by Ca $gluconate-CaSO_4$ mixture(413g) and Ca gluconate at the water addition level of 10 times. In order to determine the amounts of Ca salts, and 0.125g of Ca gluconate or $CaSO_4$ per g WSF were found to be optimum in terms of textural and sensory properties. The proper mixing ratio of Ca gluconate and $CaSO_4$ was found to be 50 : 50, 25 : 75 and 0 : 100.

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Effect of Ammonium Salts on the Growth of Methanotrophs, Intermediates, Nitrogen Compounds and Enzyme Expression (암모늄염이 메탄산화균의 성장 및 반응 대사 산물, 메탄산화 효소발현, 질소화합물에 미치는 특성 분석)

  • Kim, I tae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzed the effect of ammonium salts on the growth of methanotrophs and manifestation of reactive metabolites, nitrogen compounds and enzymes in aerobic water conditions. It was conducted to understand the basic characteristics required for the application of methanotrophs to bioremediation based on the results. Ammonium salts did not inhibit the specific growth rate of methanotrophs, however, methane consumption was decreased because certain percent of MMO (methane monooxygenases) was used for oxidation of ammonium salts. Ammonium salts did not give negative effects on the proliferation of aggregated methanotrophs community. This was due to different preferences methanotroph Type 1 and II each had in ammonium salts, which rather had positive effect on the comprehensive growth of methanotrophs in cluster level. Nitrite, the final product of ammonium salts oxidation caused by methane monooxygenases, was consistently accumulated, and the generation of methanol and formaldehyde decreased due to decrease of methane monooxygenases which were relatively available. The decreasing rate at this time was 10.7% for COD, 34.8% for methanol, and 24.8% for formate. The decrease in the generation of methanol was found to be the most remarkable. In addition, sMMO(soluble methane monooxygenases) was not manifested at certain level (50 mM as $NH_4Cl$) of concentration of ammonium salts.

Synthesis of $Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_3$ by $Li_2SO_4-Na_2SO_4$ Molten Salts ($Li_2SO_4-Na_2SO_4$ 용융염에 의한 $Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_3$의 합성)

  • 윤기현;조용수;남윤우;강동헌
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 1993
  • Stability and formation of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) phase synthesized in Li2SO4-Na2SO4 molten salts have been investigated. And powder characteristics of PMN have been studied with a variation of processing parameters such as temperature, time, amount of the salts, and excess PbO. More ratio of Li2SO4 to Na2SO4 influences the percentage of perovskite phase due to the difference of the eutectic point of the salts, but does not influence the powder characteristics. The shape of PMN particles shows faceted morphology with bimodal distribution consisting with large and submicron parts. Particle size of PMN increased greatly with increasing soaking time or amount of salts rather than temperature. The addition of excess PbO resulted in round PMN crystallites without submicron particles. These results are discussed by XRD, SEM and thermal analyses.

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Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium using 3-Hydroxy flavone in the Presence of Quarternary Ammonium Salts in NaOH Medium

  • Princey, J. Morris;Nagarajan, Prabavathi
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 2012
  • The anticorrosive effect of 3-Hydroxyflavone (3HF) in combination with quarternary ammonium bromide and iodide salts (QAB and QAI) for aluminium corrosion in NaOH medium was studied at the temperature range of 303K-323K using weight loss study, potentiodynamic polarization study and impedance spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the inhibitor concentration and it further increases on the addition of quarternary ammonium bromide and iodide salts. The enhanced inhibition efficiency of the inhibitor in the presence of quarternary ammonium salts may be due to synergistic effect. The adsorption process of 3HF on the aluminium surface obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of adsorption is further supported by Scanning Electron Microscopic study (SEM).

Effect of Enzyme and Inorganic Salts Addition and Heat Treatment on kimchi Fermentation (효소 및 염의 첨가와 순간 열처리가 김치발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kun-Og;Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Lee, Hyung-Jae;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 1991
  • The effects of microwave heat treatment and addition of enzyme, kimchi liquid, buffer solution and several salts on the changes in pH of kimchi liquid were investigated during fermentation at $25{\sim}35^{\circ}C$. It was found that microwave heat treatment on brined chinese cabbage and enzyme addition of cellulase and amylase showed a little improvement effect, while combination of both methods significantly increased the fermentation rate. The addition of kimchi liquid having pH 4.6 was found to be very desirable for both shortening the fermentation time and flavor acceptance. Among the inorganic salts and buffer solution studied, phosphate buffer(pH 4.6), sodium nitrite and $Na_2HPO_4$ were significantly effective for reduction of kimchi fermentation rate by two to three folds.

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