• Title, Summary, Keyword: scaling

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SCALING ANALYSIS IN BEPU LICENSING OF LWR

  • D'auria, Francesco;Lanfredini, Marco;Muellner, Nikolaus
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.611-622
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    • 2012
  • "Scaling" plays an important role for safety analyses in the licensing of water cooled nuclear power reactors. Accident analyses, a sub set of safety analyses, is mostly based on nuclear reactor system thermal hydraulics, and therefore based on an adequate experimental data base, and in recent licensing applications, on best estimate computer code calculations. In the field of nuclear reactor technology, only a small set of the needed experiments can be executed at a nuclear power plant; the major part of experiments, either because of economics or because of safety concerns, has to be executed at reduced scale facilities. How to address the scaling issue has been the subject of numerous investigations in the past few decades (a lot of work has been performed in the 80thies and 90thies of the last century), and is still the focus of many scientific studies. The present paper proposes a "roadmap" to scaling. Key elements are the "scaling-pyramid", related "scaling bridges" and a logical path across scaling achievements (which constitute the "scaling puzzle"). The objective is addressing the scaling issue when demonstrating the applicability of the system codes, the "key-to-scaling", in the licensing process of a nuclear power plant. The proposed "road map to scaling" aims at solving the "scaling puzzle", by introducing a unified approach to the problem.

Awareness and satisfaction toward health insurance coverage of scaling (스켈링 건강보험 서비스에 대한 인식 및 만족도)

  • Jung, Jae-Yeon;Lim, Mi-Hee
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.1107-1116
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine awareness and satisfaction toward health insurance coverage of scaling. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 221 patients receiving scaling service from July to August, 2014. The informed consent was approved after the explanation of purpose of the study. The questionnaire consisted of general characteristics of the subjects, awareness toward health insurance coverage of scaling, scaling service covered by health insurance, and satisfaction with health insurance service. Results: Those recognizing the health insurance service extension accounted for 87.3 percent and 67.4 percent answered that the appropriate coverage age would be 20 years old. The recommendable frequency of scaling was once a year and this accounted for 49.3 percent. Fifty percent of the subjects thought health insurance coverage of scaling would be reasonable and 34.8 percent acquired the information from mass media. The most common service providers were dental hygienists and the length of service was from 20 to 30 minutes. The contents of service included scaling service, toothbrushing method, and oral care. The satisfaction was 4.39 points. Conclusions: The health insurance coverage of scaling will improve the oral health and quality of life in Korean adults. So the government should try to extend the scaling coverage by health insurance and the frequency of scaling.

Degree of scaling fear in college students (일부 대학생들의 스케일링두려움의 정도)

  • Cho, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1207-1214
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study aims to investigate degree of scaling fear (Fear when scaling: FWS, Fear from dental hygienist unbelief: FFDHU, and Fear after scaling: FAS) in college students. Methods: 113 students were recruited for the study in Daegu Health College between March and June of 2017. Frequency table of general characteristics was generated, and then the t-test and ANOVA (scheffes's post hoct) were used to analyze the differences between scaling fear and two or three groups of variables. Results: Mean scores of scaling fear in 113 students were 2.24 (FWS), 1.76 (FFDHU), and 1.76 (FAS). Score 2.48 of female's scaling fear (FWS) was significantly higher than men's 2.02 (p<0.05). Smokers who have smoked less than 3 years (2.56) (FWS) were lower than those who have smoked over 3 years (1.55) (p<0.01). Score of students want the explanation of scaling when scaling (1.94) (FWS) were significantly higher than those who does not (1.59) (p<0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that there were gender and smoking periods when scaling to effect a score of scaling fear.

Comparative Study of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Global Scaling Analysis (Global Scaling 분석방법에 따른 기능적 자기공명영상의 비교 연구)

  • Yoo, Dong-Soo
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effect of global scaling analysis on brain activation for sensory and motor functional MR imaging study. Materials and methods : Four normal subjects without abnormal neurological history were included. Arm extension-flexion movement was used for motor function and 1KHz pure tone stimulation was used for auditory function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 3T MRI (GE, Milwaukee, USA) using BOLD-EPI technique and SPM2 was employed for data analysis. On data analysis, the brain activation images were obtained with and without global scaling by fixing other parameters such as motion correction and realignment. Results : The difference in brain activation between no scaling and global scaling was not large in case of right upper extremity movement (p<0.000001). For auditory test, brain activation with global scaling showed larger activation than that of without global scaling (p<0.05). Conclusion : A caution must be taken into account when analyzing functional imaging data with global scaling especially for functional study of small local BOLD signal change.

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Oral health attitudes and behaviors among clients receiving scaling (치면세마실습실 방문자의 스켈링 행태에 관한 분석)

  • Kang, Yong-Ju;Jang, Gye-Won;Jeong, Mi-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.773-782
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The purpose of the study was to investigate self-reported oral health attitudes and behaviors among patients receiving scaling services and provide guidelines for developing preventive programs for dental disease. Methods : The survey was administered to a sample of 462 receiving voluntary scaling service in the practice lab in the department of dental hygiene at J health college. Results : 1. Of all participants, 261(56.5%) reported that they received scaling services in the past. 134 of the women (62.6%) and 127 of the men (51.2%) received scaling services 2. Analysis of the regular scaling attendance rates showed that only 16.2% of all participants received routine scaling. 13.7% of the male participants and 19.2% of the female participants received scaling on a regular basis. 3. Participants commonly reported "self-motivation" and "suggestion by others" (37.9% and 34.1%, respectively) as the main reasons for obtaining scaling services. 4. The main reasons for not obtaining scaling services were "I did not know about scaling" (39.3%), "I don't feel it is necessary" (27.4%) and "because I am scared" (20.9%). More men (42.1%) than women (35%) reported that they did not know about scaling. 5. Of the total participants, 41.6% reported that they were concerned about oral health at a moderate level, and 30.3% reported that they were concerned about oral health at a high level. 6. Of the participants who responded "very concerned about oral health" and "extremely concerned about oral health", the majority obtained scaling service (70.2% and 84.2%, respectively). Conclusions : The study suggested that researchers and national health authorities should develop routine scaling, preventive dental care, and oral health programs for oral health promotion and disease prevention.

Recognition about national health insurance of dental scaling in industry accident injury patients (스케일링 건강보험 급여화에 대한 산재환자의 인식도)

  • Lee, Hea Shoon;Lee, Kyung Hee
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.561-568
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the recognition and needs on the national health insurance coverage of scaling in industry accident injury patients. National health insurance coverage of dental scaling will start in September, 2013. Methods : Subjects were 649 industrial injury patients and they completed self-reported questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0 for percentage, chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results : Recognition on national health insurance coverage of dental scaling was not fully known to industrial injury patients (24.5%). Highly educated and high income workers seemed to recognize national health insurance coverage of dental scaling (p<.001). Recognition for national health insurance coverage of dental scaling revealed a significance (r=.576, p<.001). Most of the industrial injury workers thought that 50,000 to 100,000 Korean Won of dental scaling fee is reasonable. The coverage of dental scaling should be more than twice over 20 years old. Conclusions : It is necessary to encourage the patients to take regular dental scaling checkup and make them know the health insurance coverage of scaling. The preventive oral health care may improve oral health care and quality of life.

Analysis of factors affecting the scaling experience of patients visiting the dental prophylaxis practice lab (치면세마 실습 대상자의 스케일링 경험에 영향을 미치는 요인분석)

  • Yun, Hyun-Kyung;Choi, Gyu-Yil
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.961-967
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to establish the regular scaling checkup service and to improve oral health care on the basis of knowledge, attitude, and belief by Dental Prophylaxis Practice Lab in A university. Methods : Subjects were 324 patients who visited Dental Prophylaxis Practice Lab in A university for the preventive removal of tartar from April to June 8, 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 through the frequency analysis, chi-test, and logistics regression analysis. Results : In relation to scaling experience by age, 65.3% had experienced scaling checkup and those between 20 to 29 (34.7%) did not receive the scaling therapy. Smokers tended to have received more scaling experience than nonsmokers. Second, the number of untreated dental caries and missing teeth due to dental caries were important because the variables of oral health condition affected the scaling experience. Conclusions : It is necessary to increase the scaling experience and regular dental checkup by providing the education to improve dental clinics visit based on the knowledge and belief towards the scaling.

The Clinical Effect with the Use of Gel Anesthesia within Gingival Sulcus during Scaling

  • Park, Seong-Ok;Im, Ae-Jung;Ahn, Yong-Soon;Jung, Im-Hee;Lim, Do-Seon
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2018
  • Although scaling is the primary method for improving oral health, it is also associated with dental fear. The objective of this study was to empirically verify whether the use of gel anesthetic within the gingival sulcus during scaling relieves pain and improves other factors. A total of 128 patients scheduled to undergo scaling at a dental clinic of a general hospital located in the Gyeonggi Province, between July 2014 and July 2015, were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent scaling following the application of 20% benzocaine gel or placebo gel anesthetic within the gingival sulcus, and the data was collected using a questionnaire. There was a significant difference in the severity of pain, participant satisfaction, perceived sensitivity, overall discomfort, and fear of scaling between the two groups. The two groups were compared in terms of perceived need for gel anesthesia, willingness to pay for anesthesia costs, and willingness to receive scaling in the future. There were significant differences in all the three parameters depending on whether gel anesthesia was used or not. There were significant differences between the two groups in perceived sensitivity immediately after scaling and one day after scaling, with no difference seen one week after scaling. With regards to overall discomfort over time, there were significant differences between the two groups immediately after scaling. Based on these findings, we expect that application of gel anesthetic within the gingival sulcus during scaling will reduce pain, perceived sensitivity, overall discomfort, and fear of scaling with increased satisfaction.

Differences in view of dental hygienist and patient's scaling actual condition and disputes (치과위생사와 환자의 치석제거 실태와 분쟁에 대한 견해 차이)

  • Seong, Mi-Gyung;Kang, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Yu-Rin
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.623-633
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Since scaling has been covered by insurance, the number of patients undergoing scaling has increased. Simultaneously, legal disputes around scaling have increased. Therefore, this study was aimed at comparing the differences between the perceptions of dental hygienists and patients regarding the scaling procedure and providing dental hygienists with basic data to find ways to reduce disputes arising from these differences. Methods: A survey was conducted on 119 dental hygienists working in Busan and the South Gyeongsang Province and 110 patients who visited hospitals for scaling. Frequency analyses were performed for dental hygienists' scaling behavior and patient discomfort during scaling. The independent t-test and chi-square test were performed to compare the perceptions of dental hygienists and patients regarding the scaling procedure. Results: Polishing after scaling was performed according to 70.1% of dental hygienists but only 29.9% of patients. Oral health education was provided according to 20.4% of dental hygienists, while 79.6% of patients said that they received oral health education at the Dentiform. The scaling time was reported to be shorter by patients than by dental hygienists. Both dental hygienists and patients said that legal action was required if problems occurred during scaling, and the refund standard was that patients needed it more than dental hygienists. Conclusions: There are differences between the perceptions of dental hygienists and patients regarding scaling. Dental hygienists should identify these differences and try to prevent conflicts or disputes with patients around scaling.

Effects of Music on Dental Anxiety and Pain during Ultrasonic Teeth Scaling (치석제거술시 치통 및 불안에 대한 음악의 효과)

  • Kim, Hyo-Suk;Choi, Chung-Ho;Hwang, Kyu-Yoon;Lee, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to evaluate the effects of music on dental pain and anxiety during ultrasonic scaling. One hundred and twenty five patients visited dental unit of Soonchunhyang University Chunan hospital for scaling were enrolled during August 1999 and February 2000. The patients were allocated randomly into two groups. music (n = 61) and control groups (n = 65). The music group patients listened to self-selected music using an earphone during scaling. Standardized questionnaire were used to assess the subjective denial pain and anxiety before and after scaling in both groups. In music group, more information on music effect was collected. To evaluate changes of physical signs by scaling, blood pressure and pulse were checked by a wrist check oscillometric. The results were as follows: 1. No significant difference in dental pain and anxiety between before and after scaling was observed in music group. However, the music group patients were satisfied with music because of reduction of pain(93.5%) and anxiety(93.4%), 96.7% of music subjects wanted to listen to music in next scaling. 2. While no significant difference in systolic blood pressure before scaling between music and control groups, systolic blood pressure of control group during scaling was significantly higher than that of music group(P<0.05). 3. In multiple logistic regression. the odds ratio(OR) of pain was decreased with age and female patients had higher OR (1.7, p>0.05). Patients with previous scaling experience complained of more dental pain during scaling than patients without experience. Music was not a significant predictor of denial pain during scaling, controlling for possible confounders. 4. While age. music. and scaling experience were not related to dental anxiety during scaling, sex and dental hygiene index were significant predictors of dental anxiety in multiple logistic regression. 5. Both during and after scaling. mean blood pressure of music patients were significantly lower than control patients after controlling for age, sex, and BMI. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that although listening to music did not disappear the dental pain and anxiety. but reduced the intensity of pain and anxiety during scaling. Furthermore, our data imply thai music has a effect of reduction of increasing blood pressure by scaling.

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