• Title, Summary, Keyword: science curriculum

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Ways to Incorporate Key Competencies in the Science Curriculum

  • Kwak, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.450-458
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    • 2012
  • This study explored ways to implement a competencies-based curriculum in schools by reviewing exemplary cases that have introduced Key Competencies (KCs) in the school science curriculum. Since the OECD redefined key competencies as 'what people should know and do in order to lead a successful life in a well-functioning society', many countries have emphasized the use of a competencies-based curriculum. Foreign and domestic classroom cases, which have used a competencies-based curriculum in science teaching, were collected and analyzed. Through open-ended interviews with teachers and principals, we investigated changes of teachers' professional knowledge and practice that were evident as a result of the implementation of competencies-based curriculum in science class. Foreign science teachers suggested ways to relate competencies-based curriculum and science curriculum including maintaining a balance between competencies-based curriculum and content-based curriculum. They also integrated KCs into all subject-based curriculums, gave priority to KCs over subject matter knowledge, and developed KCs through teaching science contents that students wanted to learn. On the other hand, Korean science teachers suggested reconstructing competencies-based curriculum by extracting common attributes from the existing subject areas. They also made KCs realized through content teaching, and developed various KCs within science contexts. Implications of the competencies-based curriculum for science teaching and learning were discussed at the end.

The Comparison of the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea and the New Science Curriculum of Japan in Elementary School Levels (한국의 제7차 과학과 교육과정과 일본의 이과 신교육과정 비교 - 초등학교 교육과정을 중심으로 -)

  • 서상오;고광병;정귀향;이성호;박현주
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2001
  • The 7th Science Curriculum of Korea is applied in elementary schools from 2000, and the New Science Curriculum of Japan is applied in schools from 2002. In this study, we made a comparison between the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea and the New Science Curriculum of Japan in relation to Elementary school in aspects of construction, aim, and contents. The major findings of this study are as follows. 1. The New Science Curriculum of Japan presents a specific aim, treatment of content, and process skills according to grade, but the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea does not classify them according to grade. Hence the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea emphasize on the sequence between grades. 2. In aim of Science Curriculum, the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea show more emphasis on the practical application than the New Science Curriculum of Japan. 3. In construction of content, a area of science content is handled with gradual advance in several grades and several areas of content are treated in a grade in the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea. On the contrary, a area of content is treated intensively in a grade in the New Science Curriculum of Japan. Therefore, the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea shows more reflection of connection and hierarchy between grades. 4. The statements of the 7th Science Curriculum of Korea are centering around specific matters and include specific activities, but the New Science Curriculum of Japan focuses on concepts to team and does not state specific activities.

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International Comparison of Contents about Particle Concept in National Science Curricula (국가 수준 과학과 교육과정의 입자 관련 내용 국제 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Hyo-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.164-176
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to find some suggestions for reorganization of contents about particle concept of matter in Korean science curriculum. For the purpose of this study, authors analyzed features of Korean science curriculum and compared science curricula of Korea, USA, UK, Japan and Finland. From the result of this study, authors find some features and important suggestions about reorganization of contents about particle in science curriculum. First, the sequence of contents about particle concepts in 2009 Revised National Curriculum was similar to that in the 6th National Science Curriculum. And the feature of 2009 Revised National Curriculum showed the articulation of contents about particle concept. If contents about particle concept is increased in elementary science curriculum, the total articulation would be increased. Second, the presenting sequence of atomic structure-first and laws about atom-later should be changed to laws about atomic-first and atomic structure-later. This presenting sequence is grounded by science curricula of other countries, history of science and developmental psychology. And science curriculum of Korea was required specific extended concept statement like science curricula of USA or UK. Also, Korean science curriculum could benchmark Finnish science curriculum if we want to develop some integrated learning activities such as those in STS or STEAM program.

Curriculum Reform Movement of Science Education in the US: A Case of Earth Science Curriculum

  • Park, Do-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.730-744
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    • 2006
  • The United States curriculum reform movement has recently started in each area of science education. The initiatives on curriculum reform stem from a notion that the low rate of science curricula offered in schools has been a serious problem. The schools in the United States are not only facing a lack of offerings within science curricula but also low enrollment in science courses, especially in physics, chemistry, and earth science. This trend resulted in low performances on international achievement tests including TIMSS and PISA. This paper introduces the efforts to solve existing problems through curriculum reform; including ChemCom, BioCom, EarthComm, and Active Physics. In this paper, a discussion is presented to show how the curricula can help address the status quo in science education. More specifically, this paper focuses on curriculum reform in high school earth science (EarthComm), providing a closer look at the scope and sequence of the reform movement. EarthComm was chosen because it was released based on the development of the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996). Consequently, EarthComm became a curriculum that espoused the visions of the Standards, which has been guiding the reform of the US curriculum. At the end of this paper, two research outcomes of the EarthComm curriculum implementation in schools are discussed in terms of student learning and differences from conventional curricula.

Analysis of the Alignment between Elementary Science Curriculum and Teacher Guidebook - Examining Learning Objectives in 2009 Grade 3~4 Science Curriculum - (초등 과학과 교육과정과 교사용지도서 목표 간의 비교 분석 - 2009 개정 교육과정 3~4학년을 중심으로 -)

  • Na, Jiyeon;Yoon, Hye-Gyoung;Kim, Mijung
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.183-193
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    • 2015
  • Teacher guidebooks are practical and commonly used resources for teachers to deliver the goals and contents of science curriculum in classroom teaching. Thus, the alignment of teacher guidebooks and science curriculum could be critical to undertake the effectiveness of curriculum implication in science classrooms. This study is to investigate how the learning objectives of science curriculum are implicated in teacher guidebooks by analyzing the dimensions of knowledge and cognitive process in learning objectives in both documents. Grade 3~4 learning objectives (82 objectives in the curriculum, 459 in the teacher guidebook, 541 in total) in 2009 Revised science curriculum and teacher guidebooks were coded and analyzed based on the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. The analysis focused on how the knowledge dimensions and cognitive processes of the curriculum were emphasized and restructured in the teacher guidebooks to examine the coalition between the two important documents. The study found: 1) the learning objectives in Grade 3~4 in both documents were skewed to certain knowledge dimension (conceptual) and cognitive process (understand); 2) there was a high coalition between unit objectives and lesson objectives in the teacher guidebooks, however, relatively low coalition between the curriculum and the teacher guidebooks; and 3) learning objectives in the curriculum were delivered in teacher guidebooks in various patterns (similar, detailed, additional, in portion, and the same), and 'detailed' and 'additional' were frequently shown. There also appeared new objectives in the teacher guidebooks, which were not present in the curriculum. The findings in this study could provide some suggestions to the current project of developing 2015 Science Curriculum in regard to understanding the dimensions of knowledge and cognitive process of learning objectives and their alignments with textbooks and teacher guidebooks.

A Case Study on Elementary School Teachers' Reconstruction Experience of Science Curriculum (초등 교사의 과학과 교육과정 재구성 경험에 대한 사례 연구)

  • Lim, Hwa Young;Yoon, Hye-Gyoung
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.102-115
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated how elementary school teachers reconstruct science curriculum and how they perceive about their experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with four elementary school teachers who had experience in restructuring science curriculum. Two distinct types of reconstruction were found; restructuring within the subject and integrating between subjects. The teachers who were restructuring science curriculum from personal needs usually substitute, delete, add some contents or activities and change the order of unit within science subject. In contrast, the teachers who were participating in research school usually integrated science with other subjects, developing a new unit or project. The latter recognized the need of teachers' reconstruction of science curriculum more strongly and the importance of teacher's voluntary learning community in implementing the reconstruction. Though they had some difficulties in identifying students' interests and level of understanding and lack of time, all teachers valued curriculum reconstruction by relating it to teacher professional development, identity as a teacher, and job consciousness.

Analysis and Evaluation of the Content Relevance in the 7th National Primary Science Curriculum (제7차 초등학교 과학과 교육과정 내용의 적정성 분석 및 평가)

  • Lee Yang-Rak;Part Jae-Keun;Lee Bong-Woo;Han In-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.214-225
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the content relevance of the 7th national primary science curriculum and textbooks. To fulfill the purpose of the study, we 1) analyzed the 7th national science curriculum of Korea, Californian science standards, the national science curriculum of England and Japan, and current Korean and Japanese science textbooks, 2) conducted a nationwide survey to gather opinions from students, teachers, and professors of teachers colleges about the relevance of the science curriculum and textbooks. Main findings of this study are as follows: First, the science contents at each grade level should be determined by the students' characteristics, not by an equal portion rule among physics, chemistry, biology and earth science. Second, the excessive overlapping and repetition of contents due to the spiral curriculum should be avoid. Third, the number of topics at each grade level should be reduced, and the similar topics and themes should be integrated for students' deeper understanding. Fourth, the number of science concepts and activities should be reduced to an appropriate level considering the time allotment for science classes, teachers workload, laboratory conditions, etc. Fifth, differentiated curriculum, such as in-depth and supplementary course, should be described not in science contents, but in teaching and learning strategy.

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Contents Analysis of Astronomy in Science Textbooks of Elementary School according to the Changes of the Curriculum (교육과정의 변천에 따른 초등학교 과학과 교과서의 천문에 관한 내용 분석)

  • Choi, Hyun-Dong;Kwon, Chi-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Earth Science Education
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.32-42
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to provide meaningful basic materials for organizing a science curriculum in future by analyzing the status and changes of contents about astronomical phenomena in textbooks according to the changes of the science curriculum of elementary school. A main target of analysis is science textbooks of elementary school in curriculums from 1st to 7th. For the analysis, the analytic frame based on contents in astronomy textbooks of teachers colleges and colleges of education was used. The result of the analysis is as in the following. First, astronomy accounted for average about 7% of all pages of textbooks in all of science curriculums. The 1st educational curriculum had the most learning quantity of 10.40%, and the 6th curriculum had the least quantity of 4.39%. These results show that astronomy was not a small part and was considered important in each science curriculum of elementary school considering that earth science accounted for 17-26% of all pages in elementary school science curriculum. Second, the things that have been dealt with in common in all science curriculums from 1st to 7th of elementary school are the shape of the earth, the rotation and the revolution of the earth, the occurrence of the seasons, the apparent motion of the sun, the status and motion of the moon, the movement of a star, the brightness and distance of a star, constellations, the sun, planets and others. These contents are expected to be dealt with continuously as basic contents to organize astronomy regardless of the changes of curriculum. Third, in science curriculum of elementary school, astronomical phenomena based on life experiences regarding the earth, the moon and the sun are mainly dealt with in the first and the second grade. Contents requiring principles-understanding and research are dealt with in the fifth and sixth grade. These results show that elementary school science curriculum dealing with astronomy reflects the developmental stages of students and considers principle of learning possibility.

The Trends in the U.S. and Korean Science Curriculum Reforms

  • Kwak, Young-Sun;Choe, Seung-Urn
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.194-206
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    • 2002
  • This article describes the major themes to change in historical and philosophical perspectives of science education that lead the US and Korean science curriculum reform movements since 1957. Inquiry teaching and criticism of teaching science as inquiry in the late 1950s and the 1960s, Science-Technology-Society (STS) Curricula, and Science Literacy and the 1980s science literacy crisis are discussed. In the US, three major curricular projects as responses to the scientific literacy crisis are exemplary such as the Project 2061 sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Project on Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SS&C) initiated by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) published by the National Research Council. To identify how each set of national content standards differ, we compared specific content standards related to the theory of plate tectonics in Earth and Space science in grades 9-12 over the three national standards: Benchmarks of AAAS, NSES of the NRC, and SS&C of the NSTA. Against this historical background of the US science education reform movements, the curriculum reform movements in Korea is briefly discussed. In general, Korean science curriculum reform movements have reflected and resembled the recommendations of the US reform movements. In addition, it is important to note that throughout the history of curriculum revision in Korea, there have been continuing pendulum swings between a theoretical, discipline-centered curriculum and a liberal, humanistic, and student-centered curriculum, which pays more attention to students in terms of their interest and psychological preparedness. In conclusion, the sixth and seventh national science curriculum revisions reflect rather a student-centered movement by reducing technical and sophisticated topics, taking constructivism learning theory into consideration, and adding more STS related topics.

Analysis of Teachers' Perception and Application Status of Science Subject Competencies of 2015 Revised Curriculum in Elementary Schools (2015 개정 교육과정 과학과 교과역량에 대한 초등교사의 인식과 적용 실태 분석)

  • Ha, Jihoon;Shin, Youngjoon;Kwak, Youngsun
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.219-227
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze field application of science subject competences of the 2015 revised curriculum for the second year of application. For this purpose, a survey with 133 elementary school teachers, and in-depth interviews with 10 teachers were conducted. According to the results, elementary school teachers had a positive awareness toward the science subject competence, which is a characteristic of the 2015 revised science curriculum, and teachers were applying the science subject competence to their own classes. This tendency was stronger in teachers in science-leading schools than in teachers in regular schools. Teachers wanted support for applying science subject competencies to their classes. To support this, it is necessary to provide the curriculum materials focused on science subject competencies, reinforce teacher training on competence-related curriculum, and activate the professional teacher community.