• 제목, 요약, 키워드: season

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Seasonal Changes in Nutritive Value of Some Grass Species in West Sumatra, Indonesia

  • Evitayani, Evitayani;Warly, L.;Fariani, A.;Ichinohe, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1663-1668
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the potential nutritive value of commonly found grasses collected at native pasture in West Sumatra, Indonesia during dry and rainy seasons. Variables measured included chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, concentration of Ca, P and Mg, gas production and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the grasses. The results showed that species and season had significant effect on chemical composition and mineral concentration. Crude protein content in the dry season ranged from 6.5% (B. decumbens) to 14.4% (P. maximum) and increased slightly from 7.8% (B. decumbens) to 14. 8% (A. compressus) in the rainy season. Data on fiber fraction showed that grass contained more NDF, ADF and ADL in dry season than in rainy season. Data on mineral concentration showed that C. plectostachyus and P. maximum in dry season had higher Ca than those of other species, while in rainy season P. maximum had highest Ca concentration. In dry season, the DMD varied from 50. 4% (P.purpuphoides) to 59.1% (P. purpureum), while in rainy season ranged from 50.3% (A. gayanus) to 61.8% (P. purpureum). The potential and rate of gas production were significantly (p<0.05) affected by species and season. During dry season, potential of gas production ranged from 21.8 ml/200 mg (A. compressus) to 45.1 ml/200 mg (C. plectostachyus), while in rainy season it varied from 35.6 ml/200 mg (A. gayanus) to 47.5 ml/200 mg (P. purpureum). ME content of grasses varied from 6.0 to 8.3 MJ/kg in dry season and increased slightly from 6.4 to 8.6 MJ/kg in rainy season. Both in dry and rainy seasons, the highest ME content was occurred in P. purpureum and C. plectostachyus. In conclusion, nutritive value of the observed grasses in West Sumatra, Indonesia was relatively higher during rainy season compared with dry season. Pennisetum purpureum and Cynodon plectostachyus had the best nutritive value in both dry and rainy seasons.

Contribution analysis of carcass traits and seasonal effect on auction price for Hanwoo steers

  • Kang, Tae Hun;Cho, Seong-Keun;Seo, Jakyeom;Kim, Myunghoo;Kim, Byeong-Woo
    • 농업과학연구
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.461-469
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of carcass traits (backfat thickness, eye muscle area, carcass weight and marbling score) and the season at slaughter to the price (auction and market) using squared semi-partial correlation. The season at slaughter (summer expressed as season_2, autumn as season_3, and winter as season_4) were added into the estimation as dummy variables, and spring was set as a default variable. In this study, the carcass grades of 22,298 Hanwoo steers slaughtered from 2012 to 2017 were used to performmultiple regression analysis. The rankings of the contribution of the carcass traits and the seasons at slaughter to the auction prices were in the order of marbling score (68.63%), season_4 (11.88%), backfat thickness (10.45%), eye muscle area (6.11%), season_3 (2.19%), season_2 (0.45%) and carcass weight (0.28%). (R-square of the regression = 0.4101). The rankings of the contribution to the total prices were in the order of carcass weight (51.74%), marbling score (32.12%), season_4 (6.04%), backfat thickness (5.54%), eye muscle area (3.22%), season_3 (1.14%), and season_2 (0.19%). (R-Square of the regression = 0.6486). As a result, season_3 and season_4 had a negative effect on the auction price and total price. Because of seasonal event such as Korean Thanksgiving Day and Korean New Year's Day on season_3 and season_4, much supply was needed to meet the high demand. Thus, the seasonal effect at slaughter could be another factor to be cosideredin when considering of slaughter or breeding.

Change of Various Characteristics between Spawning and Non-spawning Season in Diploid and Induced Triploid Far Eastern Catfish, Silurus asotus

  • Lim, Sun Young;Gil, Hyun Woo;Park, In-Seok
    • 한국발생생물학회지:발생과생식
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.275-286
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences fatty acids and hormonal parameters in the spawning and non-spawning season between the diploid and induced triploid Far Eastern catfish, Silurus asotus. The measured triploids were produced by cold shock for 50 min at $4^{\circ}C$ in May 2014, the spawning season of diploid was in May, and the non-spawning season was designated in January. Estradiol and testosterone and gonadosomatic index of diploid were higher than those of induced triploid in spawning season (P<0.05), and those of diploid in spawning season were higher than non-spawning season. On the other hand, thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroxine of induced triploid were higher than those of diploid in spawning season (P<0.05). Erythrocyte count of diploid was higher than that of induced triploid in spawning season and non-spawning seasons. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of induced triploid were higher than those of diploid in both seasons (P<0.05). Percentages of total saturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of induced triploid were higher than those of diploid in spawning season, but those of diploid were higher in non-spawning season (P<0.05). Percentages of total mono unsaturated fatty acids and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids of diploid were higher than those of induced triploids in spawning season, while those of induced triploid in non-spawning season were higher (P<0.05). Therefore, induced triploids in the spawning season tend to concentrate on growth and lipid-synthesization, whereas, diploids concentrate on reproduction and gonadal maturation rather than on growth. In non-spawning season, growth and lipid-synthesization were not significantly different between diploid and induced triploid.

난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디의 혼식에 관한 생태학적 연구 (Ecological Studies on the Warm-Season Turfgrass and Cool-Season Turfgrass Mixtures)

  • 박봉주
    • 한국환경복원기술학회지
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2003
  • 본 연구는 난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디의 혼식구의 5년간에 걸친 초종 구성비율의 경년변화를 조사하여 안정성이 높은 초종 품종의 조합을 밝히고 시비법이 난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디 초종의 구성비율에 미치는 영향을 검토하였다. 한지형 잔디를 혼식하여 5년째인 시점에서 난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디 혼식구의 초종 구성비율은 센티페드그래스와 버팔로그래스와의 혼식구를 제외하고는 들잔디, 세인트어거스틴그래스, 버뮤다그래스는 대체적으로 반반 정도의 비교적 안정된 혼식비율을 유지하고 있었다. 이들 초종들은 난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디의 혼식을 위한 이용적성이 높은 것으로 사료된다. 그러나, 센티페드그래스와의 혼식구에서는 센티페드그래스가 버팔로그래스와의 혼식구에서는 한지형 잔디가 우점하여 이들 난지형 잔디는 한지형 잔디와의 혼식에 적합하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디 혼식구의 시비는 난지형 잔디가 휴면중인 시기에 실시하면 한지형 잔디가 우점하게 되는 경향을 보여 난지형 잔디의 생육기인 4~8월 사이에 실시하는 것이 바람직한 것으로 나타났다. 이들 난지형 잔디와 한지형 잔디 혼식구는 장기간에 걸쳐 안정적으로 일정한 초종 구성비율이 유지되는 것이 중요하기 때문에 앞으로도 계속적인 조사가 이루어져야 할 것으로 사료된다.

Nutritive Evaluation of Forage Plants Grown in South Sulawesi, Indonesia II. Mineral Composition

  • Nasrullah, Nasrullah;Niimi, Mitsuhiro;Akashi, Ryo;Kawamura, Osamu
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2004
  • In order to evaluate the nutritive value of the forage plants in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 266 samples (61 grasses and 65 legumes grown in the dry season, 60 grasses and 80 legumes grown in the rainy season) were collected from the highland and the lowland in 1998 to 2000, and were subjected to the determination of mineral composition. The mean contents of Ca, Mg, P, Na and K in grasses were 0.6, 0.3, 0.5, 0.1 and 2.3%, respectively, and in legumes were 1.8, 0.5, 0.8, 0.1 and 1.7%, respectively. The least-squares analysis of variance demonstrated as follows; For the grasses, Ca content was significantly affected by the year${\times}$season, year${\times}$altitude, and the season${\times}$altitude interactions. Mg content was significantly affected by year and season and P content was significantly affected by altitude, year and by the year${\times}$altitude interaction. For the legumes, Ca content was significantly affected by altitude and the year${\times}$season, season${\times}$altitude and the year${\times}$altitude interactions and Mg content was significantly affected by season or altitude and by the year${\times}$season interaction. These results indicate that Ca content of forage plants grown at the lowland in rainy season was higher than at the highland in dry season. Mg content of forage plants grown at the lowland in dry season was higher than at the highland in rainy season and P content of forage plants grown in the highland was higher than in the lowland.

Evaluation of seasonal effects on production performance of lactation sows reared in two different environments in South Korea

  • Yin, Jia;Yan, Lei;Kim, Inho
    • 농업과학연구
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.417-426
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate seasonal effects on production performance of lactation sows reared in two different environments in South Korea. A total of 76 sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) from the Dankook University experimental farm and 120 sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) from a commercial farm were collected. In the current study, reduced (p < 0.01) feed intake and energy intake during lactation were observed in warm season compared with cool season in both farms. Sows in cool season had higher backfat thickness at weaning but lower back fat loss (p < 0.01) than those in warm season. The weaning to estrus interval was lower (p < 0.01) in cool season than in warm season. Piglets weaned in warm season had lower (p < 0.01) body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and average daily gain (ADG) at weaning than did those weaned in cool season on the Dankook University farm, whereas the reduction effect was only observed during 0 - 21 d on the commercial farm (p < 0.01). Moreover, piglets weaned in cool season had higher BW, BWG, and ADG (p < 0.05) on both farms. In conclusion, our results indicate that warm season had very negative effects on feed intake and production performance of lactating sows and piglets.

창원시 대산면 취수 부지의 지하수와 낙동강의 수리화학적 특성 비교

  • 함세영;정재열;이정환;김형수;류상훈;김태원;김문수
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.307-311
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    • 2006
  • Chemical analyses were conducted for Nakdong River water and riverbank filtrate in Daesan-Myeon area, Changwon City in 2005. Chemical components show different trends in wet season (June, July, August and September) and dry season (the other months). The patterns of chemical variation are classified into four types. Chemical components belonging Type I, as Na and $HCO_3$, show decrease in concentration during wet season and increase in concentration during dry season for both Nakdong River water and the riverbank filtrate. Chemical components belonging Type II, as Mg and $SO_4$, show decrease in concentration during wet season and increase in concentration during dry season for Nakdong River water while show the opposite trend for the riverbank filtrate. Chemical components belonging Type III, as Cl and $NO_3$, show increase in concentration from the start of wet season and high concentration during dry season for both Nakdong River water and the riverbank filtrate. Chemical components belonging Type IV, as Fe, show increase in concentration during wet season and decrease in concentration during dry season for both Nakdong River water and the riverbank filtrate.

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Nuritive Evalution of Forage Plants Grown in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

  • Nasrullah, Nasrullah;Niimi, M.;Akashi, R.;Kawamura, O.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.693-701
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    • 2003
  • In order to evaluate the nutritive value of the forage plants in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 266 samples (61 grasses and 65 legumes grown in the dry season, 60 grasses and 80 legumes grown in the rainy season) were collected from the highland and lowland in 1998 to 2000, and were subjected to the determination of chemical composition and digestibility. The least-squares analysis of variance demonstrated that the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of grasses was not significantly affected by season or altitude. On the other hand, the some proximate components and cell wall components were significantly affected by season and altitude including the season${\times}$altitude interaction. For the legumes, the in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD) and cellulose content were significantly affected by season. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) content was significantly affected by season and altitude. The interaction of the season${\times}$altitude for IVDMD, of the year${\times}$season for some proximate components and of the year${\times}$season and the season${\times}$altitude for some cell wall components were significant. These results indicate that the forages grown at highland in dry season have a relatively high quality. The means of the total digestible nutrient (TDN) content estimated from IVDMD in grasses and in legumes were 50.3% and 57.4%, respectively, and the crude protein contents were 7.7% and 17.6%, respectively. The correlation coefficients between IVDMD and the contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were relatively high in all of forage plants, suggesting that these components would provide an accurate prediction of digestibility or TDN content. A close relationship between IVNDFD and lignin content indicates that the lignin would be the most accurate predictor of cell wall digestibility.

우리나라 공공하수처리시설의 방류수 수질현황 분석을 통한 겨울철 방류수수질기준의 적정성 평가 (Evaluation of Korean Water Quality Standards in Winter by Characteristics and Statistical Analyses of the Effluent Water Quality at the Sewage Treatment Plants in Korea)

  • 엄철용;주경훈;윤주환;최익훈;박재영;이한샘;고광백
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.523-532
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    • 2011
  • In this study, from 2004 to 2008 influents and discharging effluents from 241 municipal public sewage treatment plants were surveyed. Statistics including average, Coefficient of Variation (CV) and Coefficient of Reliability (COR) for each season, time series analysis for removal efficiency and water quality of effluents, and a comparison of the effluent standards in Korea and other countries were presented. The average concentrations of TN and TP in influents. during winter season were 32.6 and 3.78 mg/L and during other season were 30.8 and 3.61 mg/L in 2008, respectively. The average TN concentration on the basis of the maximum monthly concentrations in the effluents during winter season ranged from 14.2~17.4 mg/L and during other season ranged from 12.2~14.8 mg/L. The TP concentration in the effluents depending on the each season was no big difference. TN removal efficiency decreased from Jan. to Feb. and TP removal efficiency decreased in Jan., Jun and July. Maximum COR during winter season were 0.61 but the COR for TN and TP during other season ranged from 0.96~1.48 and 1.09~1.81, respectively, due to big difference in the standard for TN and TP in effluents depending on the season. TN and TP standards for effluent of sewage treatment during winter season in Korea was much higher than those in other countries. Therefore the lower effluent standards during winter season is essential for the water quality improvement.

Comparison of total energy expenditure between the farming season and off farming season and accuracy assessment of estimated energy requirement prediction equation of Korean farmers

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung;Yeon, Seo-Eun;Lee, Sun-Hee;Choe, Jeong-Sook
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to compare total energy expenditure (including PAL and RMR) of Korean farmers between the farming season and off farming season and to assess the accuracy of estimated energy requirement (EER) prediction equation reported in KDRIs. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were 72 Korean farmers (males 23, females 49) aged 30-64 years. Total energy expenditure was calculated by multiplying measured RMR by PAL. EER was calculated by using the prediction equation suggested in KDRIs 2010. RESULTS: The physical activity level (PAL) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the farming season (male $1.77{\pm}0.22$, female $1.69{\pm}0.24$) than the off farming season (male $1.53{\pm}0.32$, female $1.52{\pm}0.19$). But resting metabolic rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the off farming season (male $1,890{\pm}233kcal/day$, female $1,446{\pm}140kcal/day$) compared to the farming season (male $1,727{\pm}163kcal/day$, female $1,356{\pm}164kcal/day$). TEE ($2,304{\pm}497kcal/day$) of females was significantly higher in the farming season than that ($2,183{\pm}389kcal/day$) of the off farming season, but in males, there was no significant difference between two seasons in TEE. On the other hand, EER of male and female ($2,825{\pm}354kcal/day$ and $2,115{\pm}293kcal/day$) of the farming season was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those ($2,562{\pm}339kcal/day$ and $1,994{\pm}224kcal/day$) of the off farming season. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that there is a significant difference in PAL and TEE of farmers between farming and off farming seasons. And EER prediction equation proposed by KDRI 2010 underestimated TEE, thus EER prediction equation for farmers should be reviewed.