• Title, Summary, Keyword: season

Search Result 7,413, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

Improvement and Evaluation of Emission Formulas in UM-CMAQ-Pollen Model (UM-CMAQ-Pollen 모델의 참나무 꽃가루 배출량 산정식 개선과 예측성능 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Hee;Seo, Yun Am;Kim, Kyu Rang;Cho, Changbum;Han, Mae Ja
    • Atmosphere
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2019
  • For the allergy patient who needs to know the situation about the extent of pollen risk, the National Institute of Meteorological Sciences developed a pollen forecasting system based on the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ). In the old system, pollen emission from the oak was estimated just based on the airborne concentration and meteorology factors, resulted in high uncertainty. For improving the quality of current pollen forecasting system, therefore the estimation of pollen emission is now corrected based on the observation of pollen emission at the oak forest to better reflect the real emission pattern. In this study, the performance of the previous (NIMS2014) and current (NIMS2016) model system was compared using observed oak pollen concentration. Daily pollen concentrations and emissions were simulated in pollen season 2016 and accuracy of onset and end of pollen season were evaluated. In the NIMS2014 model, pollen season was longer than actual pollen season; The simulated pollen season started 6 days earlier and finished 13.25 days later than the actual pollen season. The NIMS2016 model, however, the simulated pollen season started only 1.83 days later, and finished 0.25 days later than the actual pollen season, showing the improvement to predict the temporal range of pollen events. Also, the NIMS2016 model shows better performance for the prediction of pollen concentration, while there is a still large uncertainty to capture the maximum pollen concentration at the target site. Continuous efforts to correct these problems will be required in the future.

A Study on the Growth Characteristics of Native Plants by Seeding Amounts of Cool-season Turfgrasses on the Disturbed Slope (훼손비탈면의 한지형 잔디 파종량에 따른 자생식물의 생육특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Hwan;Shim, Sang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.12 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2009
  • This research was initiated to investigate the revegetation characteristics under the seeding amount treatments of cool-season turfgrasses on the disturbed slope. 4 different seeding amounts of cool-season turfgrasses (0.0 $g/m^2$, 1.5 $g/m^2$, 3.0 $g/m^2$, 6.0 $g/m^2$) with the same seeding amounts of native woody (Rhus chinensis, Albizzia julibrissin) and herbaceous plants (Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus, Dianthus sinensis, Aster yomena) were treated with 3 replications on the experimental disturbed slope. Data such as soil hardness (mm), moisture content (%), surface coverage rate (%), the number of each germinating plant and plant height were analyzed. There were no statistic differences observed in the soil hardness and the soil moisture content while a significant difference was observed in the surface coverage rates. The surface coverage rates were higher in 3.0 $g/m^2$ and 6.0 $g/m^2$ plots compared to the rest two plots of cool-season turfgrasses. However, the emergence of native woody and herbaceous plants was relatively low in 3.0 $g/m^2$ and 6.0 $g/m^2$ plots of high seeding amounts of cool-season turfgrasses. This result indicated that high seeding amounts of cool-season turfgrasses could decrease the emergence of native woody and herbaceous plants. We concluded that 1.5 g~3.0 $g/m^2$ seeding amounts of cool-season turfgrasses was optimum level for the balanced emergence of cool-season turfgrasses, native woody and herbaceous plants in the viewpoint of the ecological disturbed slope revegetation.

The Rice and Barley Farm Couples' Time Use Patterns (미맥 농가부부의 생활시간구조)

  • Han, Young-Sun;Lee, Yon-Suk
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-132
    • /
    • 2007
  • The purposes of this study are to analyze the time use patterns of rice and barley for farm couples. The data used for this study were collected from farm households during the farming seasons (17th to 30th June) and the off-farming seasons (28th November to 11th December) of 2005, using a time diary. The sample for this study consisted of 118 couples, whose principal crops were rice and barley, living in rural area in eight provinces. SPSS Win 12.0 was utilized to analyze the data. The statistical methods used were frequency, percentage and paired t-test. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the personal care time of wives was shorter than that of husbands, regardless of the fanning period, with the couples showing more personal care time during the off-farming season than during the farming season. Secondly, the total work(paid work plus housework) time of wives was longer than that of husbands during both the farming season and the off-farming season, showing that the labor burden of wives was bigger than that of husbands. Compared to the farming season, the total work time for both husbands and wives was shorter during the off-farming season, due to reduced farm work time, but the housework time increased for both husbands and wives. Thirdly, the leisure time of husbands was longer than that of wives during both seasons. The leisure time increased for both husbands and wives during the off-farming season, but the portion of the increase was bigger for husbands than for wives.

  • PDF

Season of Diagnosis and Survival of Advanced Lung Cancer Cases - Any Correlation?

  • Oguz, Arzu;Unal, Dilek;Kurtul, Neslihan;Aykas, Fatma;Mutlu, Hasan;Karagoz, Hatice;Cetinkaya, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.7
    • /
    • pp.4325-4328
    • /
    • 2013
  • Introduction: The influence of season at diagnosis on cancer survival has been an intriguing issue for many years. Most studies have shown a possible correlation in between the seasonality and some cancer type survival. With short expected survival, lung cancer is an arena that still is in need of new prognostic factors and models. We aimed to investigate the effect of season of diagnosis on 3 months, 1 and 2 years survival rates and overall survival of non small cell lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The files of non small cell lung cancer patients that were stages IIIB and IV at diagnosis were reviewed retrospectively. According to diagnosis date, the patients were grouped into 4 season groups, autumn, winter, spring and summer. Results: A total of 279 advanced non small cell lung cancer patients' files were reviewed. Median overall survival was 15 months in the entire population. Overall 3 months, 1 and 2 years survival rates were 91.0%, 58.2% and 31.2% respectively. The season of diagnosis was significantly correlated with 3 months survival rates, being diagnosed in spring being associated with better survival. Also the season was significantly correlated with T stage of the disease. For 1 and 2 years survival rates and overall survival, the season of diagnosis was not significantly correlated. There was no correlation detected between season and overall survivals according to histological subtypes of non small cell lung cancer. Conclusion: As a new finding in advanced non small cell lung cancer patients, it can be concluded that being diagnosed in spring can be a favorable prognostic factor for short term survival.

Recurrence Season Impacts the Survival of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

  • Liu, Xiao-Hui;Man, Ya-Nan;Wu, Xiong-Zhi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1627-1632
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: Several studies indicated that the diagnosis season affects the prognosis of some cancers, such as examples in the prostate, colon and breast. This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether the diagnosis and recurrent season impacts the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Methods: From January 2005 to August 2010, 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients were analyzed and followed up until August 2013. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to make the survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent prognostic factors. Results: The prognostic factors of overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients included age, clinical stage, pathological type, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. Moreover, clinical stage, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles also impacted the progression-free survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. The diagnosis season did not have a significantly relationship with the survival of operable epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Median overall survival of patients with recurrent month from April to November was 47 months, which was longer (P < 0.001) than that of patients with recurrence month from December to March (19 months). Median progression-free survival of patients with recurrence month from April to November and December to March was 20 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. However, the diagnosed season does not appear to exert a significant influence.

Flooding Tolerance of Cool-Season Turfgrass for the Revegetation of Waterside Slopes (수변 비탈면 녹화를 위한 한지형잔디의 내침수성 연구)

  • Shim, Sang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.45-52
    • /
    • 2015
  • Cool-season turfgrass is a rapidly increasing of usage for the revegetation of waterside slopes in dams, lakes and rivers. The purpose of this research is to identify the flooding tolerance of cool-season turfgrass with respect to the flooding periods of 0(control), 2, 4 and 6 days, respectively. The surface coverage ratio, turfgrass injury and soil moisture content were measured to assess the flooding tolerance of cool-season turfgrass. The increase in the flooding periods with 4 and 6 days resulted in the lower surface coverage ratio for cool-season turfgrass while no significant difference was found in the 2 days flooding when compared to 0 day (the control plot) flooding plot. In case of the turfgrass injury and the soil moisture content, however, the higher values were found with the increase of flooding periods in 2, 4 to 6 days. We observed that the higher the turfgrass injury and soil moisture content increased, the lower the surface covrage ratio decreased. In these regards, we also observed that the tolerance of cool season turfgrass were high in the 2 days flooding condition, medium in the 4 days flooding condition and low in the 6 days flooding condition. The flooding tolerance of cool-season turfgrass was gradually weakened in over 2 days flooding periods due to $O_2$ deficiency in the anaerobic soil condition. Therefore, we could suggest cool-season turfgrass within 2 days flooding periods for the revegetation of waterside slopes in dams, lakes and rivers.

Desalinization Effect of Off-season Crop Cultivation in Long-term Oriental Melon Cultivated Plastic Film House Soils (휴경기 후작물 재배에 의한 참외 장기연작 비닐하우스 토양의 제염 효과)

  • Byeon, Il-Su;Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.34 no.4
    • /
    • pp.253-259
    • /
    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: During the off-season, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage and water dropwort is often used to desalinize plastic film house soils. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double-cropping systems on the salt removal in oriental melon cultivated plastic film house soils.METHODS AND RESULTS: Electrical conductivity (EC) and soluble salt contents were measured in soils collected from plastic film houses of oriental melon cultivation before and after the off-season crop cultivation. Also the same measurements were performed in the next oriental melon season to estimate the desalinization effect of double-cropping systems. During the cultivation of Chinese cabbage under open-field condition, ECeof surface soil was reduced from 6.0 to 0.8 dS/m. Double-cropping of water dropwort in flooded soil was also efficient in removing the salts accumulated during oriental melon cultivation. In the house soils where salts were removed during the off-season crop cultivation, soil ECewas maintained below 3 dS/m during the next oriental melon cultivation season.CONCLUSION: The off-season cropping under open-field or flooded condition was effective in desalinization of plastic film house soils. Since the salt removal effect is not expected to last for several years, the double-cropping system should be introduced every season to maintain soil EC below the critical level.

Effects of Mulching Treatments on Fall Cultivation of Potato (피복처리가 감자추작에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung-Hyun Choi;Jae-Young Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.126-132
    • /
    • 1978
  • To examine the effects of P.E. film and rice straw mulching on fall grown potato(Shimabara cultivar) in the middle region of Korea, sprouted seed tuber pieces were transplanted with six kinds of mulching treatments on 24th July and harvested on 25th October. P.E. film mulching from transplanting resulted the perfect rot of transplanted seed pieces due to the excessive high soil temperature (noon soil temperature of about 4$0^{\circ}C$ continued until the middle of August). P.E. film mulching from 15th September to harvest increased the marketable tuber yields by 35% due to the raising of soil temperature by 1-3$^{\circ}C$ and maintaining of available soil moisture in dry season. Rice straw (whole or cut in 10cm length) mulching lowered the soil temperature in hot season and raised it in cool season and maintained available soil moisture in dry season. Therefore better emergence, growth and yields were induced. Effects of whole straw, whole growing season and thicker mulching were greater than cut straw, half growing season and thinner mulching. 6cm mulching of whole or cut straw during whole growing season resulted the increasing of marketable tuber yields by 56 or 48%.

  • PDF

An Overview of Teff (Eragrostis teff Zuccagni) Trotter) as a Potential Summer Forage Crop in Temperate Systems

  • Habte, Ermias;Muktar, Meki S.;Negawo, Alemayehu T.;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Won;Jones, Chris S.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.39 no.3
    • /
    • pp.185-188
    • /
    • 2019
  • The production of traditional cool season grasses in temperate regions is becoming hampered during summer seasons due to water deficit. Thus, incorporating water use efficient warm season annual grasses are generally considered to fill the gap of summer season forage reduction that would offer considerable flexibility and adaptability to respond to forage demand. Teff (Eragrostis teff Zuccagni) Trotter) is, a C4 drought tolerant warm season annual grass primarily grown for grain production, recently gaining interest for forage production particularly during summer season. Previous reports have showed that teff is palatable and has comparable forage biomass and feed quality as compared to other warm season annual grasses which would make it an alternative forage. However, the available data are not comprehensive to explore the potential of teff as forage, hence further assessment of genotype variability and performance along with compatibility study of teff with forage production system of specific environment is key for future utilization.

Changes in Phytoplasma Densities in Witches' Broom-Infected Jujube Trees over Seasons

  • Yi, Jae-Choon;Lim, Tae-Heon;Byeongjin Cha
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.295-299
    • /
    • 2001
  • The relative density of phytoplasmas in witches'broom (WB)-infected jujube trees was investigated using compatitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During dormant and defoliating seasons, the densities of phytoplasmas were about the same in roots and twigs. In early growing season, the density showed the highest rates in roots, then in twigs and in petioles. however, the density was highest in petioles and the lowest in roots during actively growing season. Throughout the year, root samples did not show any serious fluctuation compared with that of t2wigs and petioles. Density was lowest during actively growing season in root samples. In contrast, petiole sample densities varied to a great extent depending on the season, very high during actively growing season, but very low during the early growing season, In twig samples, the densities were very high and almost the same in both defoliating and dormant seasons. Among the parts of the trees, phytoplsma density was the most stable in root samples throughout the year. The highest densities of phytoplasmas were about the same in all tree parts. These results suggest that the phytoplasmas may overwinter not only in roots but also in twigs, and that multiplication rate of phytoplsma becomes very high right after the early growing season.

  • PDF