• Title, Summary, Keyword: sediment

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Tank Model using Kalman Filter for Sediment Yield (유사량산정을 위한 Kalman filter를 이용한 탱크모델)

  • Lee, Yeong-Hwa
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1319-1324
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    • 2007
  • A tank model in conjunction with Kalman filter is developed for prediction of sediment yield from an upland watershed in Northwestern Mississippi. The state vector of the system model represents the parameters of the tank model. The initial values of the state vector were estimated by trial and error. The sediment yield of each tank is computed by multiplying the total sediment yield by the sediment yield coefficient. The sediment concentration of the first tank is computed from its storage and the sediment concentration distribution(SCD); the sediment concentration of the next lower tank is obtained by its storage and the sediment infiltration of the upper tank; and so on. The sediment yield computed by the tank model using Kalman filter was in good agreement with the observed sediment yield and was more accurate than the sediment yield computed by the tank model.

A Study on Establishing Optimum Scale of Sediment Basin for Preventing the Outflow of Sediment - In the case of Buju Mountain in Mokpo city, Korea - (토사유출 방지용 침사지 적정규모 설정방안에 관한 연구 -목포시 부주산을 사례로-)

  • 우창호;황국웅
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 1999
  • This study examines the existing theories related to detention basin and embodies the calculation process of sediment basin. It investigated the scale of sediment basin by actual measurement at Buju Mountain, Mokpo city which causes the environmental problems like erosion and outflow of sediment due to the excessive development, finds the problems of existing sediment basin by applying and analyzing the physical factors which affect the execution of sediment basin using GIS as the method establishing the scale of sediment basin embodied in this study and then suggests the oteimum scale. Comparing the surface area of the existing sediment basin and of the required one, all of the surface areas of the existing sediment basins were smaller than those of the required one. Therefore, it can be expected that the trap efficient of sediment will be declined. The required one. Therefore, it can be expected that the trap efficient of sediment will be declined. The required minimum depth was fully satisfied, but it is analyzed that the volume of sediment basin will affect the neighboring environment because it can not accomodate the inflow discharge volume except sediment basin C. It is consistent with the actual situation which causes a serious environmental problem due to the overflow of sediment basin during the heavy storm event except sediment basin C and also it verifies the validity of calculation process of establishing optimum sediment basin suggested in this study.

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Numerical analysis on erosion process of replenished sediment on rock bed

  • Takebayashi, Hiroshi;Yoshiiku, Musashi;Shiuchi, Makoto;Yamashita, Masahiro;Nakata, Yasusuke
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.17-17
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    • 2011
  • As a method of countermeasure to bed degradation and armoring phenomena of bed material in the downstream area of dam reservoirs, sediment augmentation (replenished sediment) has been carried out in many Japanese rivers. In general, bed of the replenished sediment site is composed of rocks, because the site is located in the downstream area of the dams and sediment supply is very small. Bed deformation process has been researched by many researchers. As a method of countermeasure to bed degradation and armoring phenomena of bed material in the downstream area of dam reservoirs, sediment augmentation (replenished sediment) has been carried out in many Japanese rivers. In general, bed of the replenished sediment site is composed of rocks, because the site is located in the downstream area of the dams and sediment supply is very small. Bed deformation process has been researched by many researchers. However, most of them can treat movable bed only and cannot be applied to the bed deformation process of sediment on rocks. If the friction angle between the sediment and the bed surface is assumed to be the same as the friction angle between the sediment and the sediment, sediment transport rate must be smaller without sediment deposition layer on the rocks. As a result, the reproduced bed geometry is affected very well. In this study, non-equilibrium transport process of non-cohesive sediment on rigid bed is introduced into the horizontal two dimensional bed deformation model and the model is applied to the erosion process of replenished sediment on rock in the Nakagawa, Japan. Here, the Japanese largest scale sediment augmentation has been performed in the Nakagawa. The results show that the amounts of the eroded sediment and the remained sediment reproduced by the developed numerical model are $56300m^3$ and $26800m^3$, respectively. On the other hand, the amounts of the eroded sediment and the remained sediment measured in the field after the floods are $56600m^3$ and $26500m^3$, respectively. The difference between the model and field data is very small. Furthermore, the bed geometry of the replenished sediment after the floods reproduced by the developed model has a good agreement with the measured bed geometry after the floods. These results indicate that the developed model is able to simulate the erosion process of replenished sediment on rocks very well. Furthermore, the erosion speed of the replenished sediment during the decreasing process of the water discharge is faster than that during the increasing process of the water discharge. The replenished sediment is eroded well, when the top of the replenished sediment is covered by the water. In general, water surface level is kept to be high during the decreasing process of the discharge during floods, because water surface level at the downstream end is high. Hence, it is considered that the high water surface level during the decreasing process of the water discharge affects on the fast erosion of the replenished sediment.

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Comparison of Sediment Yield by IUSG and Tank Model in River Basin (하천유역의 유사량의 비교연구)

  • Lee, Yeong-Hwa
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2009
  • In this study a sediment yield is compared by IUSG, IUSG with Kalman filter, tank model and tank model with Kalman filter separately. The IUSG is the distribution of sediment from an instantaneous burst of rainfall producing one unit of runoff. The IUSG, defined as a product of the sediment concentration distribution (SCD) and the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is known to depend on the characteristics of the effective rainfall. In the IUSG with Kalman filter, the state vector of the watershed sediment yield system is constituted by the IUSG. The initial values of the state vector are assumed as the average of the IUSG values and the initial sediment yield estimated from the average IUSG. A tank model consisting of three tanks was developed for prediction of sediment yield. The sediment yield of each tank was computed by multiplying the total sediment yield by the sediment yield coefficients; the yield was obtained by the product of the runoff of each tank and the sediment concentration in the tank. A tank model with Kalman filter is developed for prediction of sediment yield. The state vector of the system model represents the parameters of the tank model. The initial values of the state vector were estimated by trial and error.

An Efficient Method Of The Suspended Sediment-Discharge Measurement Using Entropy Concept

  • Choo, Tai-Ho
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 2000
  • A method is presented which enables easily the computation of the suspended sediment discharge as the mean sediment concentration and mean flow velocity. This method has significant advantages over the traditional method, which principally depend on a set of measured concentration data. The method is based on both a new sediment concentration and mean sediment concentration equations which have been derived from the entropy concept used in statistical mechanics and information theory: (1) The sediment concentration distribution equations derived, are capable of describing the variation of the concentration in the vertical direction. (2) The mean concentration equation derived, is capable of calculating easily the mean concentration by using only one measured concentration in open channel. The present study mainly addresses the following two subjects : (1) new sediment concentration and mean sediment concentration equations are derived from the entropy concept : (2) An efficient and useful method of suspended sediment-discharge measurements is developed which can facilitate the estimation of suspended sediment-discharge in open channel. Flume and laboratory data are used to carry out the research task outlined above. An efficient method for determining the suspended sediment-discharge in the open channel has been developed. The method presented also is efficient and applicable in estimating the sediment transport in rivers and the sediment deposit in the reservoirs, and can drastically reduce the time and cost of sediment measurements.

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An Efficient Management of Sediment Deposit for Reservoir Long-Term Operation (2) - Sediment Distribution and Reduction Method in Reservoir (저수지 장기운영을 위한 퇴적토사의 효율적 관리(2) - 저수지 퇴사분포 및 저감방안)

  • Ahn, Jae Hyun;Jang, Su Hyung;Choi, Won Suk;Yoon, Yong Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1094-1100
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    • 2006
  • In this study, the reservoir sediment reduction methods for long-term operation are proposed by the analysis of both sediment deposit characteristics and sediment reduction effect by each method. To that end, a flowchart for sediment analysis in reservoir is established and sediment deposit is simulated by SMS-SED2D model. The sediment reduction methods which are sediment passing (sluicing), flushing, trapping, bypassing and mechanical removal are used. From the simulation results, the effective method for sediment reduction is operation which is coupled by both sediment passing with sand gate and sediment trapping with debris dam. And If sediment flushing will be used once a year after 50 years, conservation storage can be secured until 100 years after dam construction.

Sediment Yield by Instantaneous Unit Sediment Graph

  • Yeong Hwa Lee
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1993
  • An instantaneous unit sediment graph (IUSG) model is investigated for prediction of sediment yield from an upland watershed In Northwestern Mississippi. Sediment yields are predicted by convolving source runoff with an IUSG. The IUSG is the distribution of sediment from an instantaneous burst of rainfall producing one unit of runoff. The IUSG, defined as a product of the sediment concentration distribution (SCD) and the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is known to depend on the characteristics of the effective rainfall. The IUH is derived by the Nash model for each event. The SCD is assumed to be an exponential function for each event and its parameters were correlated with the effective rainfall characteristics. A sediment routing function, based on travel time and sediment particle size, is used to predict the SCD.

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Sediment Yield by Instantaneous Unit Sediment Graph

  • Lee, Yeong-Hwa
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1998
  • An instantaneous unit sediment graph (IUSG) model is investigated for prediction of sediment yield from an upland watershed in Northwestern Mississippi. Sediment yields are predicted by convolving source runoff with an IUSG. The IUSG is the distribution of sediment from an instantaneous burst of rainfall producing one unit of runoff. The IUSG, defined as a product of the sediment concentration distribution (SCD) and the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is known to depend on the characteristics of the effective rainfall. The IUH is derived by the Nash model for each event. The SCD is assumed to be an exponential function for each event and its parameters were correlated with the effective rainfall characteristics. A sediment routing function, based on travel time and sediment particle size, is used to predict the SCD.

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A Study on Prediction of Sediment and Riverbed Variation According to Sediment Transportation Functions (유사량 산정공식에 따른 유사 및 하상변동 예측에 관한 연구)

  • Go, Su Hyeon;Song, In Ryeol;Kim, Chang Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.263-277
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of riverbed variation due to the sediment protection weir located on the estuary of the main stream of Taehwa river using I-D finite difference model, HEC-6 model, and the followings are the results of estimating sediment transport rate, amount of scour or deposition, and accumulated amount of deposit according to before and after of the sediment protection weir removal with various flow rates in the channel. Ackers-White transport function produced the greatest sediment transport rate while Meyer-Peter showed the smallest sediment transport rate at the most down stream area of the watershed through the sediment transport rate analyses for various flow rates according to the existence or nonexistence of the sediment protection weir. Toffaleti's and Colby transport function were closest to the average value, and the difference among the results of the sediment transport functions showed up to 8~9 times. Duboy's transport function produced the greatest riverbed variation while Toffaleti's showed the smallest variation through the riverbed variation analyses according to the existence or nonexistence of the sediment protection weir. Yang's was closest to the average value, and the difference among the results of the riverbed variation analyses ranged from 1.4 times to 11 times. It is thought that a sediment transport function must be selected very carefully with respect to the criteria of sediment yield estimation because the analysis results of the sediment transport rate and riverbed variation according to flow rates showed significant differences among the sediment transport functions, and the differences of sediment transport rate and riverbed variation according to the various sediment transport functions decreased as the flow rate increased.

Analysis of Sediment Reduction Efficiency with Net Type Sediment Settling Pond at Highland Agricultural Region (그물망침사지를 이용한 고랭지밭 흙탕물 저감효과 연구)

  • Hyun, Geun-Woo;Park, Han-Kyu;Lee, Yong-Sik;Lee, Suk-Jong;Park, Jeong-Hee;Jun, Sang Ho;Choi, Jaewan;Lim, Kyoung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.215-224
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to estimate effects of sediment reduction with net type sediment settling pond at highland agricultural areas. Flow and sediment monitoring system with rainfall gauge were installed at the study area for real-time monitoring and analysis. It was found that amount and intensity of rainfall events strongly affect sediment yield from the study area. With net type sediment settling pond, it was expected that approximately 61% of sediment could be removed. The correlation between heavy metals and SS were analyzed in this study. $R^2$ values were 0.644, 0.876, 0.945, and 0.928 for Fe, Mn, Al, and Si, respectively. This results indicate that heavy metals also could be removed with net type sediment settling pond. As shown in this study, the sediment settling pond will be an efficient sediment reduction facility at highland agricultural areas. For maximum reduction efficiencies of sediment and other pollutants at agricultural fields, simplified sediment settling pond should be designed and implemented.