• Title, Summary, Keyword: sediment

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Growth of two mud shrimps (Upogebia major and Austinogebia wuhsienweni) settled in Boryeong and Hongseong tidal flat (보령과 홍성 갯벌에 착저한 쏙 2종(Upogebia major and Austinogebia wuhsienweni)의 성장)

  • Song, Jae-Hee;Ahn, Hyun-Mi;Jeung, Hee-Do;Chung, Sang-Ok;Kang, Hee-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.217-227
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the initial growth, burrowing depth, and relative growth of mud shrimps (Upogebia major and Austinogebia wuhsienweni), living in damaged high density tidal flat shellfish farms form 2008 in the Western coast of Korea. By August, young mud shrimps (Upogebia major), which had settled down on the tidal flats in early May, grew to more than 10 mm in carapace length (CL). At the end of the first year, their CL and total length (TL) increased to 14.21 mm and 42.28 mm, respectively. The inhabiting depth of the young mud shrimps (Upogebia major) increased rapidly up to about 6 months after stocking (5 cm in July, 12.5 cm in September, and 28 cm in November, respectively). The inhabiting depth of adult mud shrimps in their burrows was about 10-93 cm during the year. As results, the analysis of the relative growth between the carapace length (CL) - the total length (TL) and the CL - total wet weight (TWW), the total wet weight of mud shrimps at Boryeong Saho (inner part of the Cheonsu-bay) was estimated to be 1.2-4 g heavier than those of Boryeong Jugyo (Outer part of the Cheonsu-bay) tidal flat. The young mud shrimps primarily grew from April to October. It is therefore crucial to observe whether the settlement of young mud shrimps on tidal shellfish farms from May to June to minimize the damage of shellfish farms by newly stocked young mud shrimps. In addition, it is recommended that young mud shrimps grown in fisheries be harvested before they dig deep into the sediment until early December.

Hydraulic Stability Examination of Rainwater Reservoir Pipe Network System on Various Inflow Conditions (유입량 변화에 따른 도심지 내 우수저류조 관망시스템의 안정성 검토)

  • Yoo, Hyung Ju;Kim, Dong Hyun;Maeng, Seung Jin;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2019
  • Recently, as the occurrence frequency of sudden floods due to climate change increased, it is necessary to install the facilities that can cope with the initial stormwater. Most researches have been conducted on the design of facilities applying the Low Impact Development (LID) and the reduction effect on rainfall runoff to examine with 1D or 2D numerical models. However, the studies on the examination about flow characteristics and stability of pipe network systems were relatively insufficient in the literature. In this study, the stability of the pipe network system in rainwater storage tank was examined by using 3D numerical model, FLOW-3D. The changes of velocity and dynamic pressure were examined according to the number of rainwater storage tank and compared with the design criteria to derive the optimal design plan for a rainwater storage tank. As a results of numerical simulation with the design values in the previous study, it was confirmed that the velocity became increased as the number of rainwater storage tank increased. And magnitude of the velocity in pipes was formed within the design criteria. However, the velocity in the additional rainwater storage pipe was about 3.44 m/s exceeding the allowable range of the design criteria, when three or more additional rainwater storage tanks were installed. In the case of turbulence intensity and bottom shear stress, the bottom shear stress was larger than the critical shear stress as the additional rainwater storage was increased. So, the deposition of sediment was unlikely to occur, but it should be considered that the floc was formed by the reduction of the turbulence intensity. In addition, the dynamic pressure was also satisfied with the design criteria when the results were compared with the allowable internal pressure of the pipes generally used in the design of rainwater storage tank. Based on these results, it was suitable to install up to two additional rainwater storage tanks because the drainage becomes well when increasing of the number of storage tank and the velocity in the pipe becomes faster to be vulnerable to damage the pipe. However, this study has a assumption about the specifications of the rainwater storage tanks and the inflow of stormwater and has a limitation such that deriving the suitable rainwater storage tank design by simply adding the storage tank. Therefore, the various storage tank types and stormwater inflow scenarios will be asked to derive more efficient design plans in the future.

The Effects of pH Change in Extraction Solution on the Heavy Metals Extraction from Soil and Controversial Points for Partial Extraction in Korean Standard Method (용출액의 pH 변화가 토양내 중금속 용출에 미치는 영향과 그에 따른 국내 토양 오염 공정시험방법의 문제점)

  • 오창환;유연희;이평구;이영엽
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2003
  • Heavy metals are extracted from Chonju stream sediment, roadside soils and sediments along Honam expressway, soils and tailings from mining area using three different methods (partial extraction in Standard Method, partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution and Sequential Extraction Method). In samples having buffer capacity against acid, pH 1 (0.1 N HCl) of extraction solution can not be maintained and pH of extraction solution increases up to 8.0 when partial extraction in Standard Method is used. The averages and ranges of HPE(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction in Standard Method)/HPEM(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution) values are 0.479 and 0.145~0.929 for Cd, 0.534 and 0.078~0.928 for Zn, 0.432 and 0.041~0.992 for Mn, 0.359 and 0.011~0.874 for Cu, 0.150 and 0.018~0.530 for Cr, 0.219 and 0.003~0.853 for Pb, and 0.088 and 1.73${\times}$10$^{-5}$~0.303 for Fe. These data indicate that the difference between HPE and HPEM is large in the order of Fe, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Zn. The amounts of heavy metals extracted decreases in the follow order; Sum III(sum of fraction I, II, III in sequential extraction)>HPEM>Sum III (sum of fraction I and II)>HPE for Zn, Cd and Mn and Sum III>HPEM>HPE for Cr and Fe. In the case Cr, Sum II is lower than HPEM and higher than HPE. In case of Cu, extracted heavy metals is large in the order Sum IV>HPEM>Sum III HPE. HPE/HPEM value decreases with increasing the amount of HCl used for maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution. For samples with high buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value in all elements is lower than 0.2. On the other hand, for samples with low buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value are over 0.2 and many samples have values higher than 0.6 for Zn, Cd Mn and Cu due to the small difference between Sum II and Sum III, and relatively higher mobility. However, for Fe and Cr, HPE/HPEM value is below 0.2 even for samples with low buffer capacity due to their low mobility and big difference between Sum II and Sum III. This study indicates that the partial extraction method in Korean Standard Method of soil is not suitable for an assessment of soil contamination in area where buffer capacity of soil can be decreased or lost because of a long term exposure to environmental damage such as acidic rain.

A Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soil in Kimhae Plain (김해평야(金海平野)에 분포(分布)된 특이산성토(特異酸性土)(답)(沓)의 이화학적성질(理化學的性質)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Park, N.J.;Park, Y.S.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 1969
  • The study on physico-chemical characteristics of the acid sulfate soil present in Kimhae plain was carried out with 28 surface and subsoils from lower and higher produtive area and two representative profile samples from the areas reclaimed a few decades ago and around 10 years ago respectively. 1. There are no differences in soil texture between lower and higher productive soils being mostly silty clay loam and silty clay. 2. Very significant differences in pH, degree of base saturation and extractable aluminium content are observed; lower pH, lower degree of base saturation and higher aluminium in the lower productive soils and subsoils. The pH and degree of base saturation of these soils are extremely low whereas aluminium content is very high compared to ordinary paddy soil. 3. Cation exchange capacity of these soils are slightly higher than ordinary paddy soils. In higher productive soils, exchangeable calcium and magnesium are of same order, whereas in lower productive soils magnesium content is appreciably higher than calcium. 4. Though the soil is derived from marine and estuarine sediment, the soluble salt content is not high. There are only few lower productive surface soils and subsoils having Ec values of the saturation extracts higher than 4 mmhos but lower than 9 mmhos/cm. 5. Organic matter content of these soils is a bit higher compared to ordinary paddy soils, but, nitrogen content is comparatively low. C/N ratio of these soils is around 12. 6. Sulfur content is considerably higher but oxidizable sulfur is found to be very low. Total sulfur is generally high in subsoils and lower productive soils. 7. Active iron and available silica are slightly higher than ordinary paddy soils but easily reducible manganese is very low. Almost no differences are also observed between lower and higher productive soils. 8. Available phosphorus content is extremely low in particular, regardless of higher or lower productive soils. 9. The two representative profiles from the area of earlier reclamation and recent one show that samples from earlier reclaimed area contain less amount of free acids, sulfur compounds, toxic aluminium and soluble salts etc. than the other. This indicate greater leaching and possible addition of lime for a longer period of time. 10. From the results obtained, it can be concluded the higher productivity of group I soils is due to the greater leaching and neutralisation of acidity by liming materials, It can also be concluded that the productivity of both types can be increased by addition of liming materials and improvement of drainage facilities.

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The Late Quaternary Environmental Change in Youngyang Basin, South Eastern Part of Korea Penninsula (第四紀 後期 英陽盆地의 自然環境變化)

  • Yoon, Soon-Ock;Jo, Wha-Ryong
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.447-468
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    • 1996
  • The peat layer was deposited on the abandoned channel of incised meander of River Banbyuncheon with 7 meter thickness on Youngyang basin. The late Quaternary environmental change on the study area was discussed based on pollen anaalysis and radiocarbon-dating from this peat. The swamp which was caused to sediment the peat, was produced by which the fan debris from the adjacent slope damed the waterflow on the abandoned channel. The peat layer contains continuous vegetational history from 60,000y.B.P. to Recent. The peat deposit was divided into two layers by the organic thin sand horizon, which was sedimented at one time and made unconformity between the lower decomposed compact peat layers and the upper fresh fiberous peat layer. As the result of the pollen analysis, both peat layers from the two boring sites, Profile YY1 and Profile YY2 were divided into five Pollenzones(Pollenzone I, II, III, IV and V) and 12 Subzones which were mainly corresponded by the AP (Arboreal Pollen)-Dominance. The two profiles have some differences on the sedimentary facies and on the pollen composition as well. Therefore these were in common with the Pollenone III, however the Pollenzone I and II existed only on the Profile YY1 and the Pollenzone IV and V existed only on the Profile YY2. The lower layer containing the Pollenzone I, II and III revealed vegetational records of Pleistocene, which was characterized as tundra-like landscape and thin forested landscapes. It represented the NAP (Non-Arboreal Pollen)-period with a plenty of Artemisia sp., Sanguisorba sp., Umbelliferae, Gramineae and Cyperaceae. However a relatively high proportion of the boreal trees with Picea sp., Pinus sp. and Betula sp. as AP was observed in the lower layer. The upper layer contained the Pollenzone IVb and V and vegetational history in Holocene which was characterized by thick forested landscape with rich tree pollen. It represented AP-period with plenty of Pinus sp. and Quercus sp. as temperate trees. The temperature fluctuation supposed from the vegetational records is as follows; the Pollenzone I(Betula-Dominance, about 57,000y.B.P.) represents relatively cold period. The Pollenzone II(EMW-Domi-nance, 57,000-43,000y.B.P.)represents relatively warm period. This period is supposed to be Interstadial, the transi-tional stage from Alt- to Mittel Wurm. The Pollenzone III(Butula-, Pinus- and Picea-Dominace in turns, 43,000-15,000y.B.P.) reproesents cold period which had been built from Mittel-to Jung Wurm. Especially the Subzone IIId represents the coldest period throughout the Pollenzone III. It is corresponds to Wurm Glacial Maximu. It is supposed that the mean temperature in July of this period was coller about 10${^\circ}$C than present. The Pollenzone IV and V represent the vegetational history of Holocene. Tilia, Quercus and Pinus were dominant in turns during this period. Subzone IVb and Pollenzone I and II at east coastal plain of Korean penninsula reported by JO(1979).

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The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Organic Matter on the Surface Sediment and Its Origin in Gamak Bay, Korea (가막만 표층퇴적물중 유기물량의 시.공간적 분포 특성)

  • Noh Il-Hyeon;Yoon Yang-Ho;Kim Dae-Il;Park Jong-Sick
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2006
  • A field survey on the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and origins of organic matter in surface sediments was carried out monthly at six stations in Gamak Bay, South Korea from April 2000 to March 2002. The range of ignition loss(IL) was $4.6{\sim}11.6%(7.1{\pm}1.6%)$, while chemical oxygen demand(CODs) ranged from $12.25{\sim}99.26mgO_2/g-dry(30.98{\pm}19.09mgO_2/g-dry)$, acid volatile sulfide(AVS) went from no detection(ND)${\sim}10.29mgS/g-dry(1.02{\pm}0.58mgS/g-dry)$, and phaeopigment was $6.84{\sim}116.18{\mu}g/g-dry(23.72{\pm}21.16{\mu}g/g-dry)$. The ranges of particulate organic carbon(POC) and particulate organic nitrogen(PON) were $5.45{\sim}23.24 mgC/g-dty(10.34{\pm}4.40C\;mgC/g-dry)$ and $0.71{\sim}2.99mgN/g-dry(1.37{\pm}0.58mgN/g-dry)$, respectively. Water content was in the range of $43.1{\sim}77.6%(55.8{\pm}5.6%)$, and mud content(silt+clay) was higher than 95% at all stations. The spatial distribution of organic matter in surface sediments was greatly divided between the northwestern, central and eastern areas, southern entrance area from the distribution characteristic of their organic matters. The concentrations of almost all items were greater at the northwestern and southern entrance area than at the other areas in Gamak Bay. In particular, sedimentary pollution was very serious at the northwestern area, because the area had an excessive supply of organic matter due to aquaculture activity and the inflow of sewage from the land. These materials stayed longer because of the topographical characteristics of such as basin and the anoxic conditions in the bottom seawater environment caused by thermocline in the summer. The tendency of temporal change was most prominently in the period of high-water temperatures than low-water ones at the northwestern and southern entrance areas. On the other hand, the central and eastern areas did not show a regular trend for changing the concentrations of each item but mainly showed a higher tendency during the low-water temperatures. This was observed for all but AVS concentrations which were higher during the period of high-water temperature at all stations. Especially, the central and eastern areas showed a large temporal increase of AVS concentration during those periods of high-water temperature where the concentration of CODs was in excess of $20mgO_2/g-dry$. The results show that the organic matters in surface sediments in Gamak Bay actually originated from autochthonous organic matters with eight or less in average C/N ratio including the organic matters generated by the use of ocean, rather than terrigenous organic matters. However, the formation of autochthonous organic matter was mainly derived from detritus than living phytoplankton, indicated the results of the POC/phaeopigment ratio. In addition, the CODs/IL ratio results demonstrate that the detritus was the product of artificial activities such as dregs feeding and fecal pellets of farm organisms caused by aquaculture activities rather than the dynamic of natural ocean activities.

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The Present State of Domestic Acceptance of Various International Conventions for the Prevention of Marine Pollution (해양오염방지를 위한 각종 국제협약의 국내 수용 현황)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2006
  • Domestic laws such as Korea Marine Pollution Prevention Law (KMPPL) which has been mae and amended according to the conclusions and amendments of various international conventions for the prevention a marine pollution such as MARPOL 73/78 were reviewed and compared with the major contents of the relevant international conventions. Alternative measures for legislating new laws or amending existing laws such as KMPPL for the acceptance of major contents of existing international conventions were proposed. Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78 into which the regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ship have been adopted has been recently accepted in KMPPL which should be applied to ships which are the moving sources of air pollution at sea rather tlnn in Korea Air Environment Conservation Law which should be applied to automobiles and industrial installations in land. The major contents of LC 72/95 have been accepted in KMPPL However, a few of substances requiring special care in Annex II of 72LC, a few of items in characteristics and composition for the matter in relation to criteria governing the issue of permits for the dumping of matter at sea in Annex III of 72LC, and a few of items in wastes or other matter that may be considered for dumping in Annex I of 96 Protocol have not been accepted in KMPPL yet. The major contents of OPRC 90 have been accepted in KMPPL. However, oil pollution emergency plans for sea ports and oil handling facilities, and national contingency plan for preparedness and response have not been accepted in KMPPL yet. The waste oil related articles if Basel Convention, which shall regulate and prohibit transboundary movement of hazardous waste, should be accepted in KMPPL in order to prevent the transfer if scrap-purpose tanker ships containing oil/water mixtures and chemicals remained on beard from advanced countries to developing and/or underdeveloped countries. International Convention for the Control if Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on the Ships should be accepted in KMPPL rather tlnn in Korea Noxious Chemicals Management Law. International Convention for Ship's Ballast Water/Sediment Management should be accepted in KMPPL or by a new law in order to prevent domestic marine ecosystem and costal environment from the invasion of harmful exotic species through the discharge of ship's ballast water.

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Effects of Size and Environmental Condition on Burrowing of Artificial Seedling of Ark Shell, Scapharca broughtonii (Schrenck) (피조개, Scapharca broughtonii (Schrenck) 인공치패의 크기 및 환경조건이 잠입에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byeong-Hak;Shin, Yun-Kyung;Choi, Nack-Joong;Oh, Bong-Se;Sohn, Sang-Gyu;Jung, Choon-Goo;Son, Tai-Sun;Kang, Kyoung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2007
  • The influence of individual size, sediment, gain size, water temperature, salinity and air exposure on burrowing rate was investigated in order to obtain the basic biological data on applying shellfish farm for a sustainable production of ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii (Schrenk). The burrowing rate on individual size 300 minutes after starting the experiment was the highest in the shell length $16.3\;{\pm}\;1.2\;mm$, 97.7%. The highest burrowing rates were 97.0% in $12.8\;{\pm}\;0.8\;mm$, 96.7% in $9.2\;{\pm}\;1.0\;mm$, and 96.3% in $5.9\;{\pm}\;0.7\;mm$. The clams over 6 mm of shell length had burrowing ability and the burrowing rate was not related to the shell size. The burrowing rate depending on the kind of grain at the bottom after 300 minutes was the highest, 98.3%, in the mixture of sand and silt with a ratio of 75:25. The rates were 98% in silt (100%), 97.3% in mixture sand and silt with a ratio of 50:50, 97.3% in sand and silt ratio of 25:75, and 86.3% in sand (100%) in this specific order. On grain size of the soil in the seafloor, the burrowing rates after 300 minutes was at its highest in the group of sand in pore size 1 mm with 85.0%, and the $12\;{\mu}m$ to 1 mm in the grain size was fitted to burrowing of artificial seed. In the case of water temperature, the burrowing rates were at its highest after 300 minutes. In $30^{\circ}C$ group, the rate was 96.7% and in $25^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$, 90.0%. The rates decreased as the water temperature decreased below $15^{\circ}C$. The burrowing rates on salinity were the highest in 30 psu with 93.3% and at 15 psu and below, there was no noticeable change in the burrowing rate. On air exposure, the burrowing rates after 300 minutes were the highest in 1 hour with 93.3%, and remarkably decreased as air exposure time is longer after 12 hours of air exposure.

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Evaluation of CH4 Flux for Continuous Observation from Intertidal Flat Sediments in the Eoeun-ri, Taean-gun on the Mid-western Coast of Korea (서해안 태안 어은리 갯벌의 연속관측 메탄(CH4) 플럭스 특성 평가)

  • Lee, Jun-Ho;Rho, Kyoung Chan;Woo, Han Jun;Kang, Jeongwon;Jeong, Kap-Sik;Jang, Seok
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.147-160
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    • 2015
  • In 2014, on 31 August and 1 September, the emissions of $CH_4$, $CO_2$, and $O_2$ gases were measured six times using the closed chamber method from exposed tidal flat sediments in the same position relative to the low point of the tidal cycle in the Eoeun-ri, Taean-gun, on the Mid-western Coast of Korea. The concentrations of $CH_4$ in the air sample collected in the chamber were measured using gas chromatography with an EG analyzer, model GS-23, within 6 hours of collection, and the other gases were measured in real time using a multi-gas monitor. The gas emission fluxes (source (+), and sink (-)) were calculated from a simple linear regression analysis of the changes in the concentrations over time. In order to see the surrounding parameters (water content, temperature, total organic carbon, average mean size of sediments, and the temperature of the inner chamber) were measured at the study site. On the first day, across three measurements during 5 hours 20 minutes, the observed $CO_2$ flux absorption was -137.00 to $-81.73mg/m^2/hr$, and the $O_2$ absorption, measured simultaneously, was -0.03 to $0.00mg/m^2/hr$. On the second day using an identical number of measurements, the $CO_2$ absorption was -20.43 to $-2.11mg/m^2/hr$, and the $O_2$ absorption -0.18 to $-0.14mg/m^2/hr$. The $CH_4$ absorption before low tide was $-0.02mg/m^2/hr$ (first day, Pearson correlation coefficient using the SPSS statistical analysis is -0.555(n=5, p=0.332, pronounced negative linear relationship)), and $-0.15mg/m^2/hr$ (second day, -0.915(n=5, p=0.030, strong negative linear relationship)) on both measurement days. The emitted flux after low tide on both measurement days reached a minimum of $+0.00mg/m^2/hr$ (+0.713(n=5, p=0.176, linear relationship which can be almost ignored)), and a maximum of $+0.03mg/m^2/hr$ (+0.194(n=5, p=0.754, weak positive linear relationship)) after low tide. However, the absolute values of the $CH_4$ fluxes were analyzed at different times. These results suggest that rate for $CH_4$ fluxes, even the same time and area, were influenced by changes in the tidal cycle characteristics of surface sediments for understanding their correlation with these gas emissions, and surrounding parameters such as physiochemical sediments conditions.