• Title, Summary, Keyword: sediment

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Flood Risk Management for Weirs: Integrated Application of Artificial Intelligence and RESCON Modelling for Maintaining Reservoir Safety

  • Idrees, Muhammad Bilal;Kim, Dongwook;Lee, Jin-Young;Kim, Tae-Woong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.167-167
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    • 2020
  • Annual sediment deposition in reservoirs behind weirs poses flood risk, while its accurate prediction remains a challenge. Sediment management by hydraulic flushing is an effective method to maintain reservoir storage. In this study, an integrated approach to predict sediment inflow and sediment flushing simulation in reservoirs is presented. The annual sediment inflow prediction was carried out with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) modelling. RESCON model was applied for quantification of sediment flushing feasibility criteria. The integrated approach was applied on Sangju Weir and also on estuary of Nakdong River (NREB). The mean annual sediment inflow predicted at Sangju Weir and NREB was 400,000 ㎥ and 170,000 ㎥, respectively. The sediment characteristics gathered were used to setup RESCON model and sediment balance ratio (SBR) and long term capacity ratio (LTCR) were used as flushing efficiency indicators. For Sangju Weir, the flushing discharge, Qf = 140 ㎥/s with a drawdown of 5 m, and flushing duration, Tf = 10 days was necessary for efficient flushing. At NREB site, the parameters for efficient flushing were Qf = 80 ㎥/s, Tf = 5 days, N = 1, Elf = 2.24 m. The hydraulic flushing was concluded feasible for sediment management at both Sangju Weir and NREB.

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Estimation of Sediment Discharge Controlled by Sediment-filled Check-dam in a Forested Catchment (산림유역의 만사 사방댐에 의한 토사유출 조절 효과 추정)

  • Seo, Jung Il;Chun, Kun Woo;Song, Dong Geun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.3
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    • pp.321-329
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    • 2016
  • To estimate the sediment discharge controlled by sediment-filled check-dam and thereby enhancing factor for check-dam design and dredging criteria, we surveyed slope failures and stream-bed fluctuation caused by geomorphic disturbances (i.e., landslides and debris flows) in Inje, Gangwondo. In general, check-dams play roles for restraining and controlling sediment discharge within a section under the design equilibrium gradient and a section under the design flood gradient, respectively. The results in this study showed same pattern: that is, the closed type check-dam, which has a design restraint sediment discharge of $2,111m^3$, estimated to control a sediment discharge of $3,996m^3$ in the stream section within 250 m right upper area immediately after the disturbances occurred in 2006. As a result, a design control sediment discharge of the check-dam was larger than its design restraint sediment discharge. This represents that the check-dam is still having an own function for controlling sediment discharge although it exceeded the designed capacity by the sediment discharged from upstream during the disturbances. Our finding suggests that the sediment discharge controlling of check-dam may need to be evaluated separately from its sediment discharge restraint. Currently, the country, however, does not consider the design control (or restraint) sediment discharges, based on the actual field survey, as criteria for check-dam design and/or dredging work. Therefore, the accumulation of the quantitative data is required to support that check-dam has functions for both restraining and controlling sediment discharge. This would be a way to develop our erosion control technology to the scientific technology equipped with a more objective and systematic aspects.

Field Experimental Analysis of Effects of Sediment Traps (현장실험을 통한 침사구의 효과 분석)

  • Choi, Kyungsook;Jang, Jeongryeol
    • KCID journal
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the effects of NPS(non point source) pollution reduction of sediment traps through field experiments. Various sizes of 4 sediment traps were applied in a upland field located in Gunwi and assessed the infiltration and storage effects as well as NPS pollution reduction effects of this technique. The characteristics of deposited soil in the sediment traps were also analyzed including distribution of particle size, soil texture, and chemical properties. The results showed that slightly different composition of soil particle size from each sediment trap with high proportion of 0.15mm and 0.25mm ranges of soil particle diameters, while the loamy sand is the main types of deposited soils in the sediment traps. Decreased NPS pollution were observed from the water quality analysis of the samples taken from the sediment traps. Further research need to be proceeded continuously to improve this technique in order to utilize on upland fields for management of agricultural NPS pollutions.

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Estimating magnitude of suspended sediment transport in ungauged east coastal zone (미계측 동해안 유역의 토사유출 규모의 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sangeun;Kang, Sanghyeok
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2018
  • Coastal sediment archives are used as indicators of changes on shore sediment production and fluvial sediment transport, but rivers crossing coastal plains may not be efficient conveyors of sediment to the coast. In some case there is a net loss of sediment in lower coastal plain reaches, so that sediment input from an upstream exceeds the sediment yield (SY) at the river mouth. The main source of sediment in coastal area is the load from land. In Korea, data on suspended SY are limited owing to a lack of logistic support for systematic sediment sampling activities. This paper presents an integrated approach to estimate SY for ungauged coastal basins, using a soil erosion model and a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) model. For applying the SDR model, a basin specific parameter was validated on the basis of field data. The proposed relationships may be considered useful for predicting suspended SY in ungauged basins that have geologic, climatic and hydrologic conditions similar to the study area.

Ratio of Bedload to Total Sediment Load in Gravel-bed Rivers (자갈하천 총유사량에 대한 소류사의 비율)

  • Park, Sang Doeg
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.15-29
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    • 2018
  • The sediment transport process in a river reflects the process of geomorphological change in the watershed, influencesthe river bed variation and the river channel migration, and is a parametric phenomenon that exhibits a dynamic self-adjusting process. Sediment load is divided into bedload and suspended load depending on the dominant mechanism. Quantitative sediment load is important information for solving river problems. Because it is difficult and time consuming to measure bedload, compared to that ofsuspended load, data on the sediment transport load and the research required for the gravel-bed rivers are insufficient. This study is to analyze the ratio of the bedload to the total sediment load in gravel-bed rivers. The sediment load ratio in gravel-bed rivers increases with the flow rate per unit width, and the rate of the bedload varies more rapidly than the suspended load. The sediment transport efficiency coefficient has been affected by the ratio of the flow depth to the mean diameter of particles and has been dependent on the shear velocity Reynolds number. So $A^{\ast}$ and $B^{\ast}$ are introduced to compensate for the uncertainties such as bed materials, sediment transport, and flow velocity distribution, and the coefficient of bedload ratio has been presented. For the sediment load data in experimental channels and rivers, A* was 3.1. The dominant variables of $B^{\ast}$ were $u_*d_m/{\nu}$ in the gravel-bed and h/dm in the sand-bed. When $B^{\ast}$ the is the same, in the experimental channels the coefficient of bedload ratio was affected by the bed forms, but in the rivers it was of little difference between the gravel-bed and sand-bed.

Characteristics of Seasonal Sediment Transport in Haeundae Beach (표층퇴적물 및 표사수지에 의한 해운대 해수욕장의 계절별 표사 이동특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Sup;Tac, Dae-Ho;Yoon, Eun-Chan;Kim, Seok-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.547-556
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    • 2007
  • The sediment transport by waves, wave-induced current and tidal current was calculated using the TRANSPOR2004, then the seasonal sediment budget was analyzed. Also, annual sediment budget was calculated, and sediment circulation patterns was deduced in the broad area including Haeundae beach. A sediment mainly inflows from the east coast of the beach and then moves to the eastward to the Dongback Is, where the 80% of inflow sediment transported to the eastward as a longshore sediment while 20% of them going out to the offshore at the center of the beach. Above results shows a good agreement with the sediment transport trend analysis results by the Gao model.

Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics by Sediment Protection Weir on Natural River Estuary (자연하도 하구부의 방사보에 의한 수리학적특성 해석)

  • Ahn, Seung-Seop;Choi, Yun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2001
  • This study examines the effects of removal of the sediment protection weir at Taehwa river mouth on hydraulic and around river environment considering the fact that the effects of the sediment protection weir which is installed to protect water level drop of Ulsan harbor caused by sediments according to flood in Taehwa river, Dong-chun, and so forth may add water quality contamination by flow stagnance in normal and drought period and accumulation of pollutants. The result is as follows. First, it is estimated from the examination of variation characteristics water depth and level for Taehwa river before and after removal of the sediment protection weir that about 0.01m of water depth down according to removal of the sediment protection weir occurs when low flow runs between the sediment protection weir which is located about 2.3km away from the estuary and Samho-gyo which is about 9.0km away from the sediment protection weir, and about 0.01~0.56m(directly upstream point of the sediment protection weir 0.56m, Myongchon-gyo 0.14m, Ulsan-gyo 0.03m, and Taehwa-gyo 0.02m) downs when design flood flows between the sediment protection weir and the upstream of Taehwa-gyo which is 10km away from the sediment protection weir. Therefore, it is thought that variation of hydraulic characteristics of water depth down and so on according to removal of the sediment protection weir is slight because water depth variation is only about 1cm between directly upstream point of the sediment protection weir and Samho-gyo. Next, it is estimated from the examination of variation characteristics of flow velocity for Taehwa river before and after removal of the sediment protection weir that about 0.0lm/s of flow velocity increase occurs between the directly upstream point of the sediment protection weir which is about 2.4km away from the estuary and the directly upstream point of Samho-gyo when low flow runs, and about 0.01~0.44m/s increases between the sediment protection weir and Samho-gyo when design flood flows. Therefore, riverbed erosion by the increased flow velocity is concerned but it is thought that the concern about riverbed erosion is not great because the mean velocity is about 0.07~1.36m/s when low flow runs, and about 1.02~2.41m/s when design flood flows for the sector which experiences the flow velocity variation.

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Characteristics of sediment transportation and sediment budget in Nakdong River under weir operations (보 운영에 따른 낙동강 유사이송특성 및 유사수지 분석)

  • Son, Kwang Ik;Jang, Chang-Lae
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.50 no.9
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    • pp.587-595
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    • 2017
  • Hydraulic characteristics affecting sediment transport capacity due to the weir operations were investigated and developed sediment rating curves for four gaging stations (Nakdong, Gumi, Waegwan, and Jindong) in Nakdong River. Analysis found that the sediment transportaion capability had been decreased and it could be proved from the field measurement records in 2013. Applicabilities of nine sediment transport prediction techniques, which are imbeded in GUIDE program, were examined and adopted for the four gaging stations. Analysis of sediment balance for Nakdong River, including 9 major tributaries, had been carried out with pseudo 2-D numerical model and found that: 1) sedimentation phenomena will be prevailed along the Nakdong River. 2) Engelund-Hansen technique shows the least error in estimation of sediment balance. 3) Engelund-Hansen technique most appropriately describes the sediment characteristics for four gaging stations. 4) Estimated error from the sediment balance for Nakdong River was smaller than the error caused by the estimation of sediment incomming from 9 tributries. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the accuracy of predicting the sediment incomming from the tributaties for better sediment balance analysis.

A Study for Testing Conditions of Microtox Toxicity Test to the Quality of Sediment in Domestic Rivers (국내 하천 퇴적물 건강성평가를 위한 Microtox 독성시험 조건확립 연구)

  • 정홍배;박정규;문성환;류태권;김소정;배철한;황인영
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2001
  • Six rivers were selected as preliminary screening sites to determine the test conditions of Microtox in assessing the toxicity of the sediment. In addition, a pH range of 6.0∼6.5 was established in testing pore water, aqueous extracts and organic extracts. Each extractable fraction of sediment showed different toxicities. Therefore, in order to properly examine the toxicity in the sediment, all extractable fractions of sediment samples needed to be tested with Microtox. Thus, sediment samples were additionally collected from at least 4 secondary sites within 50∼100m area of the primary sampling site to reduce any variation or deviation in toxicity assessment. From all sediment toxicity data that was collected from this study, it was concluded that the Keumho river was the most polluted with the highest sediment toxicity of all the rivers analyzed and needed further detailed research on its pollution problem.

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A Study on Sediment Load in the Milyang River (유사량 산정에 관한 연구 (밀양강을 중심으로))

  • 안세영;민벙형
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.96-107
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    • 1980
  • This study is carried out to estimate the rate of sediment transportation both to measure the amount of suspended and bedload sediment that moves on or near the river bed and passes through the cross section of a river in unit time, with suspended and bed load samplers used for the Milyang river and to determine the most satisfactory and convenient formula of some formulas for sediment discharge by comparing the measured rate with the calculated rate. The results of this study are summarized as follows; 1) The interrelationship (1) between the total discharge and the total sediment discharge (2) between discharge and suspended sediment load and (3) between discharge and bed load in the Milyang river are (1) i) 4$\leq$Q$\leq$100 C.M.S. Qr=0. 00272 Q0.70 (kg/sec) ii) 150$\leq$Q$\leq$800 C.M.S. Qr=0. 4807 Q0.46 (kg/sec) (2) Qs~=0. 07576 Q1.02 (kg/sec) (3) QB=0. 00957 Q0.44 (kg/sec) 2) The rate of suspended sediment load to total sediment discharge is found to be about; 99%. The suspended load is shown to be almost wash load which consists of silt and clay. 3) The relation between the total discharge and the suspended sediment load that are measured at three medium and small rivers in Korea is Qs=0. 13831 Q0.97 (kg/sec) 4) Brown's formula is determined to be the most convenient formula for application and comparison with observed data obtained for the Milyang river.

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