• Title, Summary, Keyword: seed disinfection

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Testing for Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Crucifer Seeds and Seed Disinfection (십자화과 채소종자의 검은빛썩음병 감염검정 및 종자소독)

  • Kim Byung Soo
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 1986
  • Total 29 commercial crucifer seed lots were tested for seed transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris by seed washing liquid plating assay. One imported cabbage seed lot was found to carry Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Several methods and chemicals for eradication of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in and on the cabbage seed were tested for effectiveness. Soaking cabbage seed in $3\3%$ hydrogen peroxide solution for 30 minutes effectively eradicated Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in a naturally infested seed lot. In a field survey, black rot turned out to be an important disease in cabbage in Korea.

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Effect of Soil and Tuber Disinfection on Potato Common Scab(S. scabies) in Jeju Field Conditions (감자 더뎅이병 화학적 방제)

  • Hong, Soon-Yeong;Kang, Yong-Kil;Hahm, Young-Il
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.138-141
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    • 2004
  • It was conducted to find out the effect of chemical treatment on seed tubers and soil to control potato common scab in Jeju Island in 2001. Although the treatment of soil disinfection with Dazomet Gr. (30kg/10a) was more effective comparing to the treatment of seed disinfection and the untreated, the control value was merely 40.5%. However, the combined treatment of soil and seed disinfection was considerably more effective to reduce the percentage of infection and infection area, and increase the production of marketable tubers and also increase the control value. Therefore, the combined treatments are demanded to reduce the scab incidence in Jeju field conditions.

Effect of Rice Seed Disinfection of Loess-sulfur on the Suppression of Bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi (벼 키다리병 방제에 관한 황토유황의 종자소독 효과)

  • So, Hyun-Kyu;Kim, Yong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Jun;Han, Eun-Jung;Park, Jong-Ho;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.345-355
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate rice seed disinfection efficacy of loess-sulfur for the suppression of Bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi. Rice seeds were treated at different concentrations of loess-sulfur, soaking time and temperature, and combination of hot-water treatment. Rice cultivar, Shindongjin harvested from Bakanae disease-infested area in 2015, was used. Loess-sulfur was treated as follows; concentration of undiluted solution, 2%, 1% and 0.5%; soaking time of 24 and 48 hours; treatment temperature of $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$; hot water treatment or not. Optimal conditions of rice seed disinfection were selected soaking time of 48 hours and the suspension of 0.5% and 1% loess-sulfur by investigating seed germination and isolation frequency of Fusarium spp. on Komada agar medium in vitro, and were established 3 disinfection conditions as hot water ($60^{\circ}C$, 10 min.) + 1% loess-sulfur ($20^{\circ}C$, 48 hours), 1% loess-sulfur only ($30^{\circ}C$, 48 hours) and 1% loess-sulfur only ($20^{\circ}C$, 48 hours) through additional test in greenhouse. Above 3 conditions were verified by rice seedling box and paddy field test in the way of investigating Bakanae diseased plants (%) and healthy plants (%). Consequently, most effective rice seed disinfection conditions on Bakanae disease were combination of hot water and 1% loess-sulfur and loess-sulfur only at $30^{\circ}C$. Furthermore, treatments with these conditions showed control value of 100% were maintained from seedling to the heading stage in the field. However, treatment of 1% loess-sulfur only at $20^{\circ}C$ showed low control value of 78.2% in paddy field. Hot water only treatment turned out to be an effective disinfection method when conducted thoroughly with $60^{\circ}C$, 10 min. However, it was thought additional soaking process with loess-sulfur after hot water treatment served more high control effect against Bakanae disease when rice seeds were disinfected on a large scale. This results expected rice seed disinfection with loess-sulfur were effectively and easily usable method if farmers had only one of either hot water-disinfector or seed-disinfector. In addition, loess-sulfur is well-known to farmers, simple to manufacture method and cheap.

Disinfection of Fusarium-infected Rice Seeds by Prochloraz and Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah;Lee, Young-yi;Lee, Ho-sun;Sung, Jung-sook;Lee, Seokyoung
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.25-25
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    • 2014
  • Three species of Fusarium, F. fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, are known to be associated with bakanae disease of rice [1, 2]. F. fujikuroi infects rice flowers and survive in endosperm and embryo of the seeds. Infected seed is an important source of primary inoculum of pathogens [3]. Seeds of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Boramchan) collected from bakanae-infected field were found to be 96% infected with Fusarium sp., 52% with F. fujikuroi, 42% with F. verticillioides, and 12% with F. proliferatum as determined by incubation method and species-specific PCR assays. F. fujikuroi was detected at lemma/palea, endosperm and embryo whereas F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were recovered only from lemma/palea by means of component plating test. Seed disinfection methods have been developed to control bakanae disease and prochloraz has been most widely used for rice seeds. Two chemicals formulated with prochloraz (PC 1) and prochloraz + hexaconazole (PC 2) that inhibit biosynthesis of ergosterol strongly reduced the incidence of Fusarium spp. on selective media to 4.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Disease symptoms of rice seedlings in nursery soil were alleviated by chemical treatment; seedlings with elongated leaves or wide angle between leaf and stem were strikingly reduced from 15.6 to 3.2% (PC 1) and 0 (PC 2), stem rots were reduced from 56.9 to 26.2% (PC 1) and 32.1% (PC 2), and normal seedling increased from 0.4 to 13.3% (PC 2). Prochloraz has some disadvantages and risks such as the occurrence of tolerant pathogens [4] and effects on the sterol synthesis in animals and humans [5]. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop new disinfection method that do not induce fungal tolerance and are safe to humans and animals. Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$), that is less toxic, produces no harmful byproducts, and has high oxidizing power, has been reported to be effective at disinfection of several phytopathogenic fungi including Colletotrichum spp. and Alternaria spp. [6]. Gaseous $ClO_2$ applied to rice seeds at a concentration of 20 ppm strongly suppressed mycelial growth of Fusarium fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. The incidence of Fusarium spp. in dry seed with 8.7% seed moisture content (SMC) tended to decrease as the concentration of $ClO_2$ increased from 20 to 40 ppm. Applying 40 ppm $ClO_2$ at 90% relative humidity, incidence was reduced to 5.3% and resulted in significant reduction of disease symptoms on MS media. In nursery soil, stem rot was reduced from 56.9 to 15.4% and the number of normal seedlings increased from 0.4 to 25.5%. With water-soaked seeds (33.1% SMC) holding moisture in the endosperm and embryo, the effectiveness of disinfection using $ClO_2$ increased, even when treated with only 20 ppm for four hours. This suggests that moisture was a key element for action of $ClO_2$. Removal of the palea and lemma from seeds significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium spp. to 3.0%. Seed germination appeared to decrease slightly by water-soaking at $30^{\circ}C$ because of increased SMC and by physical damage of embryos from hulling. These results indicate that the use of gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective as a means to disinfect rice seeds infected with Fusarium spp. and that moisture around the pathogens in the seed was an important factor for the action of $ClO_2$. Further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the best conditions for complete disinfection of Fusarium spp. that infect deep site of rice seeds.

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Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah;Lee, Ho-sun;Lee, Young-yi;Lee, Sokyoung;Sung, Jung-sook
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2015
  • Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil) were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to $20{\mu}g/ml$. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at $10{\mu}g/ml$. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH). However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by $ClO_2$ treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content) showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than $10{\mu}g/ml$ of $ClO_2$. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and $20{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and $10{\mu}g/ml$ at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as $ClO_2$ concentration increased to $20{\mu}g/ml$. Seed germination was not affected by $ClO_2$ treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of $ClO_2$ strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

Germination Characteristics of Medicinal Crop Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara as Affected by Seed Disinfection and Light Quality (종자 소독처리와 광질에 따른 약용작물 잔대 종자의 발아특성)

  • Lee, Hye Ri;Kim, Hyeon Min;Jeong, Hyeon Woo;Oh, Myung Min;Hwang, Seung Jae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.404-410
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    • 2019
  • This study was performed to investigate the seed morphological characteristics and dormancy type of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara that high valued medicinal crop and to select the disinfectants and light quality for germination rate improvement. The seed disinfection was carried out using distilled water (control), NaClO 4%, $H_2O_2$ 4%, and benomyl $500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The light quality treatments were set to dark condition (control I), fluorescent lamp (control II), LEDs [red, blue, green, and combined RB LEDs (red:blue = 8:2, 6:4, 4:6, 2:8)] with a photoperiod of 12/12 (light/dark) and light intensity $150{\pm}10{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ photosynthetic photon flux density. Although the Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara seed was an underdeveloped embryo (E) and seed (S) with an embryo (E):seed (S) ratio of 0.4, it is germinated within 30 days, and seed moisture saturation was reached within 6 hours after immersion. After seed disinfection, the mold incidence rate was significantly inhibited, and the final germination rate was the highest at 87% in the benomyl seed disinfection. The final germination rate was the highest at 92% in the red light, and the mean daily germination was the lowest in the R2B8. Therefore, there is almost no dormancy in the Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara seed, and benomyl seed disinfectant and red light were effective in the improvement of germination rate. So it is considered to the high value of use for medicinal crop Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara cultivation.

Electron Microscopic Study for the Influence of Soaking in Hot Water and Prochloraz Solution on Spore and Mycelium of Fusarium fujikuroi Infected in Rice Seed (온탕소독과 prochloraz 침지소독이 벼 종자에 감염된 Fusarium fujikuroi의 포자와 균사의 형태에 미치는 영향에 대한 전자현미경적 연구)

  • Park, Woo-Sik;Yeh, Wan-Hae;Lee, Se-Weon;Han, Seong-Suk;Lee, Jun-Seong;Lim, Chun-Keun;Lee, Yong-Hwan
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted to find the causes of ineffective seed disinfection methods such as rice seeds soaking in hot water and prochloraz EC solution when the rice seeds were severely infected by Bakanae disease. In case of rice seeds collected from severely diseased field by Bakanae disease, the pathogen as the forms of spores and mycelium were infected in plumule and inner and outer integument of embryo, aleurone layer, and pericarp layer. When the rice seeds were soaked in hot water, the appearances of spores and hypha on the outer pericarp layer were severely disordered, however those of inner region of outer integument and aleurone layer were shown normal. The membrane of hypha on the outer pericarp layer was destroyed within 24 hours, while some spores were healthy and germinated 7 days after soaking, when the rice seeds soaked 24 hours in 125 ppm prochloraz solution at $30^{\circ}C$. These results indicated that the seed disinfection methods were ineffective on the Bakanae disease severely infected rice seed because the hot water did not transmit the pericarp layer of rice seed and also prochloraz solution did not effectively destroy the spore of pathogen.

Effect of Seed Treatment and Observation of Seeds Infested with Fusarium moniforme by Scanning Electron Microscope (Fusarium moniliforme 감염벼종자의 소독과 주사전자현미경적 조직관찰)

  • Sung Jae Mo;Lee Soon Hyung;Yu Seung Hun;Shin Gwan Chull
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 1985
  • This study was carried out to observe the propagule of Fusarium moniliforme on the surface of rice seed and in the vascular bundle of rice stem by scanning electron microscope. Spore and mycelium of F. moniliforme were observed on the surface of rice seed and in the vascular bundle of rice stem. After seed treatment with Benlate T and Busan 3D, F. moniliforme was not isolated from chaffs, but frequently from brown rice, irrespective of disinfection period.

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Influence of water temperature, soaking period, and chemical dosage on Bakanae disease of rice (Gibberella fujikuroi) in seed disinfection (벼 종자소독시 수온 처리시간 및 약량이 벼 키다리병 발병에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Heung-Gyu;Shin, Hae-Ryong;Lee, Yeen;Kim, Suk-Wean;Kwon, Oh-Do;Park, In-Jin;Kuk, Yong-In
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2003
  • In order to develop effective control methods for Bakanae disease caused by Gibberella fujikuroi (Saito) Ito during rearing of rice seedlings, we investigated the disease resistance of 15 rice varieties to G. fujikuroi and control effect of six seed disinfectants, and tried to improve the using methods of the seed disinfectants. Disease resistance was tested by investigating the disease incidence on each rice cultivar grown in rice seedling box infested with or not infested with G. fujikuroi at 30 days after sowing seeds and 20 days after heading date. The results showed that Hwayongbyeo, Dongjinbyeo, Hwoanbyeo, Nonghobyeo, Nampyeongbyeo, and Hwojinbyeo were resistant G. fujikuroi, meanwhile Keulubyeo, Sobibyeo, Odaebyeo, Junambyeo, Samchonebyeo, Sangjubyeo, and Hwabongbyeo were susceptible. Three seed disinfectants, prochloraz, fludioxonil, and carproamid + thiram + fludioxonil controlled Bakanae disease of rice very well, while bonomyl + thiram, thiophanate-methyl + thiram and thiophanate-methyl + triflumizole did not suppress the disease enough. Water temperature was turned to be an important factor for controlling the disease by treating seed disinfectants. Prochloraz showed 61% control value on the disease at $10^{\circ}C$, but it showed above 95% control value at the range of $30-35^{\circ}C$. It was confirmed that the control effect of seed disinfectants increased with increasing water temperature. Meanwhile soaking period of rice seeds in the suspension of seed disinfectants and chemical dosage had no high relation to control the disease. This results suggest that rice varieties, water temperature, and optimal selection of suitable seed disinfectants are very important to control Bakanae disease effectively.