• Title, Summary, Keyword: selective media

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Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Isolated from Rhizosphere of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) (벼 근권에서 분리한 방선균의 다양성과 항균 활성)

  • Lee, Hye-Won;Ahn, Jae-Hyung;Weon, Hang-Yeon;Song, Jaekyeong;Kim, Byung-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.371-378
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    • 2013
  • Various microorganisms live in soil, of which those colonizing rhizosphere interact with nearby plants and tend to develop unique microbial communities. In this study, we isolated diverse actinomycetes from rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in fertilized (APK) and non-fertilized (NF) paddy soils, and investigated the diversity and antimicrobial activity of them. Using four kinds of selective media, 152 isolates were obtained from the soil samples and identified by determining 16S rRNA gene sequence. All of the isolates showed 99.0%~100.0% similarities with type strains and were classified into six genera: Dactylosporangium, Micromonospora, Kitasatospora, Promicromonospora, Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. Most of the isolates, 143 isolates, were classified into the genus Streptomyces. Additionally, many isolates had antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, especially Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast pathogen) in fungi. These findings demonstrated that rice rhizosphere can be a rich source of antagonistic actinomycetes producing diverse bioactive compounds.

Isolation of the Alcohol-Tolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici K3 and S1 and their Physiological Characterization (알코올 내성 젖산균 Pediococcus acidilactici K3와 S1의 분리 및 생리적 특성)

  • Jang, Danbie;Park, Seulki;Lee, Hyunjoo;Pyo, Sangeun;Lee, Han-Seung
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.442-448
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    • 2013
  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a representative group of probiotics and used in many fermented foods and beverages. Several recent studies have shown that LAB are present in makgeolli which is a traditional Korean alcoholic beverage. However, most LAB are intolerant of more than 6% (v/v) alcohol concentrations. For this reason, alcohol-tolerant LAB are isolated from kimchi, makgeolli and nuruk using alcohol containing selective media. After being cultured in MRS broth containing 13% (v/v) alcohol, the two strains which showed the highest increasing O.D values, were finally selected. As results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical characterization using an API kit, the two species were identified as Pediococcus acidilactici K3 and S1. In addition, the identified two strains produced bacteriocins against Staphylococcus aureus. When compared with the P. acidilactici type strain, the two selected strains possessed two to three time higher growth on 12-13% (v/v) alcohol containing MRS broth. The viability of P. acidilactici K3 and S1 when inoculated in makgeolli and stored at $10^{\circ}C$ did not decrease through a period of one month indicating that the selected strains can be used for LAB containing makgeolli.

Assessment Report of Bacterial Contamination in Some School Dining Services with Table Swabs and Air Samples (학교식당 및 교실배식 과정 전·후 미생물 오염에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, HeaYong;Sohn, JuHae;Lee, JaeYoon;Lee, InAe;Ko, JiYean;Ko, NaYun;Park, SungJun;Ko, GwangPyo;Kim, Sungkyoon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.397-404
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate microbial contamination in the school food service environment for the assessment of microbial food safety. Methods: We collected both swab samples from tables and desks and airborne bacterial samples from an elementary school (School A) and a high school (School B). Heterotrophic plate count, total coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were measured with selective media to quantify microbial concentration. PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA genes was performed to identify the strains of S. aureus and B. cereus isolated. In addition, we made a food service checklist for the locations to evaluate the food service environment. A Wilcoxon test was employed to examine the differences in microbial concentration between before lunchtime and afterwards. Results: Heterotrophic plate counts showed higher levels after-lunch compared to before-lunch at School B. However, levels of S. aureus were higher in the after-lunch period (p<0.05) in both classrooms and in the cafeteria in School A. B. cereus was only sparsely detected in School B. Several samples from food dining carts were found to be contaminated with bacteria, and facilities associated with food delivery were found to be vulnerable to bacterial contamination. Although microbial concentrations in the air showed little difference between before- and after-lunchtime in the cafeteria in School A, those in classrooms were greater after-lunchtime at both schools. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the microbial safety in schools after lunchtime of concern. Necessary preventive measures such as hygiene education for students and food handlers should be required to minimize microbial contamination during food service processes in schools.

Clinical Laboratory Aspect of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (카바페넴내성장내세균속균종의 임상검사 측면)

  • Park, Chang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.18-27
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    • 2020
  • The correct distinction of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and ccarbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and the rapid detection of CPE are important for instituting the correct treatment and management of clinical infections. Screening protocols are mainly based on cultures of rectal swab specimens on selective media followed by phenotypic tests to confirm a carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity, the rapid carbapenem inactivation method, lateral flow immunoassay, the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight test and molecular methods. The CPE is accurate for detection, and is essential for the clinical treatment and prevention of infections. A variety of phenotypic methods and gene-based methods are available for the rapid detection of carbapenemases, and these are expected to be routinely used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Therefore, to control the spread of carbapenemase, many laboratories around the world will need to use reliable, fast, high efficiency, simple and low cost methods. Optimal effects in patient applications would require rapid testing of CRE to provide reproducible support for antimicrobial management interventions or the treatment by various types of clinicians. For the optimal test method, it is necessary to combine complementary test methods to discriminate between various resistant bacterial species and to discover the genetic diversity of various types of carbapenemase for arriving at the best infection control strategy.

Biological Activities of Solid-fermentation Garlic with Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lactic acid bacteria를 이용한 마늘 고체 발효에 따른 생리활성)

  • Lee, Jung-Bok;Joo, Woo-Hong;Kwon, Gi-Seok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.446-452
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    • 2016
  • Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its extracts have been used in a wide range of applications, including as folk medicines in many Asian countries. This traditional herb has several functional properties and strong biological activities, making it useful as a functional food material. This study investigated the biological activities of solid-garlic after fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Several solid-garlic fermentation strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Korean traditional fermented food or obtained from the Korean Collection for Type Cultures. Lactic acid bacteria showed selective growth in garlic extracts on MRS media. Fermentation of solid garlic (heated 121℃, 15 min or not heated) by lactic acid bacteria gave total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of 731.0-845.2 g/g and 92.68-413.58 g/g, respectively. The DPPH scavenging activities and SOD like activities were measured as 7,584% and 9499%, respectively. These activities were relatively higher than a positive control, vitamin C. Measurement of antidiabetic activity using α-glucosidase inhibition assay showed that solid garlic fermented with lactic acid bacteria gave a higher activity than the control, acarbose. Fermentation of solid garlic with lactic acid bacteria may therefore help to alleviate adverse biological activities, as well as provide functional food materials.

Disinfection of Fusarium-infected Rice Seeds by Prochloraz and Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah;Lee, Young-yi;Lee, Ho-sun;Sung, Jung-sook;Lee, Seokyoung
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.25-25
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    • 2014
  • Three species of Fusarium, F. fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, are known to be associated with bakanae disease of rice [1, 2]. F. fujikuroi infects rice flowers and survive in endosperm and embryo of the seeds. Infected seed is an important source of primary inoculum of pathogens [3]. Seeds of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Boramchan) collected from bakanae-infected field were found to be 96% infected with Fusarium sp., 52% with F. fujikuroi, 42% with F. verticillioides, and 12% with F. proliferatum as determined by incubation method and species-specific PCR assays. F. fujikuroi was detected at lemma/palea, endosperm and embryo whereas F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were recovered only from lemma/palea by means of component plating test. Seed disinfection methods have been developed to control bakanae disease and prochloraz has been most widely used for rice seeds. Two chemicals formulated with prochloraz (PC 1) and prochloraz + hexaconazole (PC 2) that inhibit biosynthesis of ergosterol strongly reduced the incidence of Fusarium spp. on selective media to 4.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Disease symptoms of rice seedlings in nursery soil were alleviated by chemical treatment; seedlings with elongated leaves or wide angle between leaf and stem were strikingly reduced from 15.6 to 3.2% (PC 1) and 0 (PC 2), stem rots were reduced from 56.9 to 26.2% (PC 1) and 32.1% (PC 2), and normal seedling increased from 0.4 to 13.3% (PC 2). Prochloraz has some disadvantages and risks such as the occurrence of tolerant pathogens [4] and effects on the sterol synthesis in animals and humans [5]. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop new disinfection method that do not induce fungal tolerance and are safe to humans and animals. Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$), that is less toxic, produces no harmful byproducts, and has high oxidizing power, has been reported to be effective at disinfection of several phytopathogenic fungi including Colletotrichum spp. and Alternaria spp. [6]. Gaseous $ClO_2$ applied to rice seeds at a concentration of 20 ppm strongly suppressed mycelial growth of Fusarium fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. The incidence of Fusarium spp. in dry seed with 8.7% seed moisture content (SMC) tended to decrease as the concentration of $ClO_2$ increased from 20 to 40 ppm. Applying 40 ppm $ClO_2$ at 90% relative humidity, incidence was reduced to 5.3% and resulted in significant reduction of disease symptoms on MS media. In nursery soil, stem rot was reduced from 56.9 to 15.4% and the number of normal seedlings increased from 0.4 to 25.5%. With water-soaked seeds (33.1% SMC) holding moisture in the endosperm and embryo, the effectiveness of disinfection using $ClO_2$ increased, even when treated with only 20 ppm for four hours. This suggests that moisture was a key element for action of $ClO_2$. Removal of the palea and lemma from seeds significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium spp. to 3.0%. Seed germination appeared to decrease slightly by water-soaking at $30^{\circ}C$ because of increased SMC and by physical damage of embryos from hulling. These results indicate that the use of gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective as a means to disinfect rice seeds infected with Fusarium spp. and that moisture around the pathogens in the seed was an important factor for the action of $ClO_2$. Further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the best conditions for complete disinfection of Fusarium spp. that infect deep site of rice seeds.

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Biological Control of Sesame Soil-born Disease by Antifungal Microorganisms (참깨 토양전염성병(土壤傳染性病)의 생물학적방제(生物學的防除))

  • Shin, G.C.;Im, G.J.;Yu, S.H.;Park, J.S.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 1987
  • In order to study the biological control of soil-borne disease of sesame, antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma , Bacillus sand streptomyces to Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of sesame plants and some other habitats. Out of the isolates of microorganisms collected a strain of Trichoderma viride was selected as a biological control agent for the study and its effect on the control of damping-off and the seedling growth of sesame was investigated. The results obtained are as follows: 26 percents of Bacillus spp. isolated from the rhizosphere soil of sesame plants showed antagonism to two pathogenic fungi. Important species were B. Subtilis and B. polymyxa. Streptomyces species isolated from the rhizosphere soils of sesame lysed the cell wall of hyphae and conidia of F. oxysporum and reduced conspicuously the formation of macroconidia and chlamydospores of the fungus. 84 percents of Trichoderma spp. isolated from the rhizosphere soil of sesame plants were antagonistic to F. oxysporum and 60 percents of the isolates were antagonistic to both F. oxysporum and R. solani. Trichoderma viride TV-192 selected from antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp. was highly antagonistic to F. oxysporum and soil treatment with the isolate reduced notably damping-off of sesame. T. viride TV-192 showed better growth in crushed rice straw, barley straw and sawdust media than F. oxysporum. Sawdust was selective for the growth of T. viride. Supplementation of wheat bran and mixtures of wheat bran and sawdust inoculated with T. viride TV-192 in the soil reduced remarkably damping-off of sesame by F. oxysporum but high density of the fungus TV-192 caused the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of sesame. Inhibitory effects of Trichoderma species on seed germination and seedling growth of sesame were different according to the isolates of the fungus. Normal sesame seedlings on the bed treated with the fungus showed better growth than not treated seedlings.

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Diagnosis of Enteropathogens in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis: One Year Prospective Study in a Single Hospital (소아의 급성 위장관염의 원인균 진단: 단일 병원에서 1년간의 전향적 연구)

  • Chang, Ju Young;Choi, Ji Eun;Shin, Sue;Yoon, Jong Hyun
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Acute gastroenteritis in children is one of the frequently encountered diseases with relatively high admission rate. The aim of this study is to determine the isolation trends of common and emerging pathogens in acute gastroenteritis in children over a 12-month period in a community hospital. Methods: The study group included the children who were hospitalized to Seoul National University Boramae Hospital from April, 2003 to March, 2004 or visited outpatient clinic from April, 2003 to July, 2003 with presenting features of acute gastroenteritis. Stool specimens were obtained within 2 days after the visit and examined for the following pathogens: rotavirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, pathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli), Campylobacter and Yersinia species. Viral study was done with commercial kits for antigen detection. Identification of the bacterial pathogens was done by culture using selective media. For pathogenic E.coli, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done with the target genes related to the pathogenecity of enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC). Results: The 130 hospitalized children and 28 outpatients were included in this study. The majority of children (>93%) were less than 6 years. Pathogens were isolated in 47% of inpatients and 43% of outpatients, respectively. Rotavirus was the most frequently identified pathogen, accounting for 42.3% of inpatients and 29.6% of outpatients. Nontyphoidal salmonella is the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogen (3.9%) in hospitalized children. Pathogenic E.coli (EPEC, ETEC) was detected in 2.1% (2/97) of inpatients and 25% (3/12) of outpatients. EHEC, adenovirus, Campylobacter, Yersinia and Shigella species were not detected in this study. Conclusion: Rotavirus is the most common enteropathogen in children with acute gastroenteritis. Nontyphoidal salmonella and pathogenic E.coli are important bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter species may not be commonly detected organism in hospitalized children with acute diarrhea.

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Detection of Salmonella Using the Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Real-time PCR (등온 증폭법과 Real-time PCR을 이용한 Salmonella 검출)

  • Ahn, Young-Chang;Cho, Min-Ho;Yoon, Il-Kyu;Jung, Duck-Hyun;Lee, Eun-Young;Kim, Jin-Ho;Jang, Won-Cheoul
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.215-221
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    • 2010
  • Salmonella is an important food-and water-borne pathogen associated with acute gastrointestinal illnesses around the world. The most common serotypes isolated from humans are Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and S. Enteritidis. Traditional detection methods for Salmonella are based on cultures using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies by biochemical and serological tests. These methods are generally time-consuming and not so highly sensitive. Recently, the Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification and real-time PCR has been used as a highly sensitive, specific, and rapid test for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a LAMP and real-time PCR was used to detect S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. We selected target genes, which were the in invA and a randomly cloned sequence specific for the genus Salmonella. With LAMP and real-time PCR, random sequence was detected from Salmonella spp, invA were detected from all strain of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. This assay indicate that the specificity, sensitivity and rapid of the LAMP and real-time PCR make them potentially valuable tools for detection of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis.

Adaptive Data Hiding Techniques for Secure Communication of Images (영상 보안통신을 위한 적응적인 데이터 은닉 기술)

  • 서영호;김수민;김동욱
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5C
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    • pp.664-672
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    • 2004
  • Widespread popularity of wireless data communication devices, coupled with the availability of higher bandwidths, has led to an increased user demand for content-rich media such as images and videos. Since such content often tends to be private, sensitive, or paid for, there exists a requirement for securing such communication. However, solutions that rely only on traditional compute-intensive security mechanisms are unsuitable for resource-constrained wireless and embedded devices. In this paper, we propose a selective partial image encryption scheme for image data hiding , which enables highly efficient secure communication of image data to and from resource constrained wireless devices. The encryption scheme is invoked during the image compression process, with the encryption being performed between the quantizer and the entropy coder stages. Three data selection schemes are proposed: subband selection, data bit selection and random selection. We show that these schemes make secure communication of images feasible for constrained embed-ded devices. In addition we demonstrate how these schemes can be dynamically configured to trade-off the amount of ded devices. In addition we demonstrate how these schemes can be dynamically configured to trade-off the amount of data hiding achieved with the computation requirements imposed on the wireless devices. Experiments conducted on over 500 test images reveal that, by using our techniques, the fraction of data to be encrypted with our scheme varies between 0.0244% and 0.39% of the original image size. The peak signal to noise ratios (PSNR) of the encrypted image were observed to vary between about 9.5㏈ to 7.5㏈. In addition, visual test indicate that our schemes are capable of providing a high degree of data hiding with much lower computational costs.