• Title, Summary, Keyword: self-normalized

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SELF-NORMALIZED WEAK LIMIT THEOREMS FOR A ø-MIXING SEQUENCE

  • Choi, Yong-Kab;Moon, Hee-Jin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.1139-1153
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    • 2010
  • Let {$X_j,\;j\geq1$} be a strictly stationary $\phi$-mixing sequence of non-degenerate random variables with $EX_1$ = 0. In this paper, we establish a self-normalized weak invariance principle and a central limit theorem for the sequence {$X_j$} under the condition that L(x) := $EX_1^2I{|X_1|{\leq}x}$ is a slowly varying function at $\infty$, without any higher moment conditions.

A SELF-NORMALIZED LIL FOR CONDITIONALLY TRIMMED SUMS AND CONDITIONALLY CENSORED SUMS

  • Pang Tian Xiao;Lin Zheng Yan
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.859-869
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    • 2006
  • Let {$X,\;X_n;n\;{\geq}\;1$} be a sequence of ${\imath}.{\imath}.d.$ random variables which belong to the attraction of the normal law, and $X^{(1)}_n,...,X^{(n)}_n$ be an arrangement of $X_1,...,X_n$ in decreasing order of magnitude, i.e., $\|X^{(1)}_n\|{\geq}{\cdots}{\geq}\|X^{(n)}_n\|$. Suppose that {${\gamma}_n$} is a sequence of constants satisfying some mild conditions and d'($t_{nk}$) is an appropriate truncation level, where $n_k=[{\beta}^k]\;and\;{\beta}$ is any constant larger than one. Then we show that the conditionally trimmed sums obeys the self-normalized law of the iterated logarithm (LIL). Moreover, the self-normalized LIL for conditionally censored sums is also discussed.

A Study on Efficient CNU Algorithm for High Speed LDPC decoding in DVB-S2 (DVB-S2 기반 고속 LDPC 복호를 위한 효율적인 CNU 계산방식에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Byeong-Su;Kim, Min-Hyuk;Jung, Ji-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1892-1897
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, efficient CNU(Check Node Update) algorithms are analyzed for high speed LDPC decoding in DVB-S2 standard. In aspect to CNU methods, there are some kinds of CNU methods. Among of them, MP (Min Product) method is quite often used in LDPC decoding. However MP needs LUT (Look Up Table) that is critical path in LDPC decoding speed. A new SC-NMS (Self-Corrected Normalized Min-Sum) method is proposed in the paper. NMS needs only normalized scaling factor instead of LUT and compensates the overestimation of MP approximation. In addition, SC method is proposed. It gives a faster convergence toward a decoded codeword. If a message change its sign between two iterations, it is not reliable and to avoid to propagate noisy information, its module is set to 0. The performance of SC-NMS has a little degrade compare to MP by 0.1 dB, however considering computational complexity and decoding speed, SC-NMS algorithm is optimal method for CNU algorithm.

A SUPPLEMENT TO PRECISE ASYMPTOTICS IN THE LAW OF THE ITERATED LOGARITHM FOR SELF-NORMALIZED SUMS

  • Hwang, Kyo-Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1601-1611
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    • 2008
  • Let X, $X_1$, $X_2$, ... be i.i.d. random variables with zero means, variance one, and set $S_n\;=\;{\sum}^n_{i=1}\;X_i$, $n\;{\geq}\;1$. Gut and $Sp{\check{a}}taru$ [3] established the precise asymptotics in the law of the iterated logarithm and Li, Nguyen and Rosalsky [7] generalized their result under minimal conditions. If P($|S_n|\;{\geq}\;{\varepsilon}{\sqrt{2n\;{\log}\;{\log}\;n}}$) is replaced by E{$|S_n|/{\sqrt{n}}-{\varepsilon}{\sqrt{2\;{\log}\;{\log}\;n}$}+ in their results, the new one is called the moment version of precise asymptotics in the law of the iterated logarithm. We establish such a result for self-normalized sums, when X belongs to the domain of attraction of the normal law.

Design of the Extended PID Self-Tuner (확장된 PID 자기동조기의 설계)

  • 金鍾煥;崔桂根
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.439-444
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    • 1986
  • In this paper the PID-B self-tuner[1] is extended to allow a less abrupt response to set point or plant parameter changes and to control a nonminimum phase plant. The proposed extended PID/ST derived from the direct pole-placement PID/ST is obtained with the Bezout identity as the underlying design method. And its control gains are normalized by the integral control gain. Although the integral control gain is normalized to 1 in our scheme, the so-called "set point and derivative kick" can be avoided sufficiently by normalizing the measurement vector and set point.

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Development and Application of a Self-management Program based on Prothrombin INR Monitoring for Patients with Cardiac Valve Replacement (심장판막수술 후 프로트롬빈 INR 모니터링형 자가관리프로그램 개발 및 적용)

  • Jeon, Hyun Rye;Park, Jeong Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.554-564
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-management program based on INR monitoring for patients with cardiac valve replacement. Methods: This program was comprised of five weekly sessions based on Sousa's Enhance-Behavior Performance Model. The first session included individual teaching, and the other four sessions included Prothrombin Time International Normalized Ratios (PT INR) self-monitoring, telephone counseling and self-management checklist recording. Participants were patients who had cardiac valve replacement. They were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. Sixteen in the experimental group participated in the self-management program and seventeen in the control group participated in general care. Self-management knowledge, self-efficacy, self-management behavior and PT INR were measured as dependent variables. Data were analyzed using Mann Whitney U-test, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: The experimental group showed significantly higher post-test scores in self-management knowledge (t=5.86, p<.001), self-efficacy (F=18.32, p<.001), and self-management behavior (t=3.44, p=.002) compared to the control group. Also, the experimental group showed significantly higher frequency in maintaining the treatment range of PT INR compared to the control group (${\chi}^2=4.80$, p=.028). Conclusion: The results of the research on the self-management program based on PT INR monitoring showed that it is effective in improving self-management knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-management behavior as well as maintaining treatment range of PT INR of patients with cardiac valve replacement.

ON THE RATES OF THE ALMOST SURE CONVERGENCE FOR SELF-NORMALIZED LAW OF THE ITERATED LOGARITHM

  • Pang, Tian-Xiao
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.1137-1146
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    • 2011
  • Let {$X_i$, $i{\geq}1$} be a sequence of i.i.d. nondegenerate random variables which is in the domain of attraction of the normal law with mean zero and possibly infinite variance. Denote $S_n={\sum}_{i=1}^n\;X_i$, $M_n=max_{1{\leq}i{\leq}n}\;{\mid}S_i{\mid}$ and $V_n^2={\sum}_{i=1}^n\;X_i^2$. Then for d > -1, we showed that under some regularity conditions, $$\lim_{{\varepsilon}{\searrow}0}{\varepsilon}^2^{d+1}\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(loglogn)^d}{nlogn}I\{M_n/V_n{\geq}\sqrt{2loglogn}({\varepsilon}+{\alpha}_n)\}=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}(1+d)}{\Gamma}(d+3/2)\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^k}{(2k+1)^{2d+2}}\;a.s.$$ holds in this paper, where If g denotes the indicator function.

A FPGA Design of High Speed LDPC Decoder Based on HSS (HSS 기반의 고속 LDPC 복호기 FPGA 설계)

  • Kim, Min-Hyuk;Park, Tae-Doo;Jung, Ji-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1248-1255
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    • 2012
  • LDPC decoder architectures are generally classified into serial, parallel and partially parallel architectures. Conventional method of LDPC decoding in general give rise to a large number of computation operations, mass power consumption, and decoding delay. It is necessary to reduce the iteration numbers and computation operations without performance degradation. This paper studies horizontal shuffle scheduling(HSS) algorithm and self-correction normalized min-sum(SC-NMS) algorithm. In the result, number of iteration is half than conventional algorithm and performance is almost same between sum-product(SP) and SC-NMS. Finally, This paper implements high-speed LDPC decoder based on FPGA. Decoding throughput is 816 Mbps.

Steel - concrete bond potentials in self-compacting concrete mixes incorporating dolomite powder

  • Kamal, Mounir M.;Safan, Mohamed A.;Al-Gazzar, Mohamed A.
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.273-288
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    • 2013
  • The main objective of this research was to evaluate the potentials of self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixes to develop bond strength. The investigated mixes incorporated relatively high contents of dolomite powder replacing Portland cement. Either silica fume or fly ash was used along with the dolomite powder in some mixes. Seven mixes were proportioned and cast without vibration in long beams with 10 mm and 16 mm steel dowels fixed vertically along the flowing path. The beams were then broken into discrete test specimens. A push-put configuration was adopted for conducting the bond test. The variation of the ultimate bond strength along the flowing path for the different mixes was evaluated. The steel-concrete bond adequacy was evaluated based on normalized bond strength. The results showed that the bond strength was reduced due to Portland cement replacement with dolomite powder. The addition of either silica fume or fly ash positively hindered further degradation as the dolomite powder content increased. However, all SCC mixes containing up to 30% dolomite powder still yielded bond strengths that were adequate for design purpose. The test results demonstrated inconsistent normalized bond strength in the case of the larger diameter compared to the smaller one.

Effects of an Interpersonal Caring Music Activity Program on Loneliness, Self-esteem, and the Stress Response in Children of Single-parent Families (대인돌봄 음악활동 프로그램이 한 부모 가정 아동의 외로움, 자아존중감, 스트레스 반응에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Su hee;Lee, Sook
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2017
  • This study is designed as a non-equivalent controlled before-and-after quasi-experimental study by having a control group for the effect of the interpersonal caring music activity program in children of single-parent families. Data collection was carried out in 22 children of single-parent families as the study group and in 23 children as the control group recruited from 22 community centers for children located in N city from July to September, 2014. As the study tool, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was used to measure loneliness, self-esteem scale and the stress response. With the collected data and using SPSS 18.0 for Window program, the Homogeneity test between the study group and the control group was conducted by using t-test and ${\chi}^2$-test while the study hypotheses were verified by analyzing with the independent t-test. The results of the study are as follows. Loneliness and self-esteem of the subjects did not show significant difference in the study groups. The sympathetic nervous system activity (normalized LF) has been lowered and the parasympathetic nervous system activity (normalized HF) has been increased as the stress response, while the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system activity ratio (LF/ HF) score was lowered with significant difference, which had supported the hypotheses. Based on these results of this study, the interpersonal caring music activity program can be utilized as a stress management program for the children of single-parent families during a short period of time.