• Title, Summary, Keyword: serotonin

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A Study on the Serotonin Metabolism and the Morphine-related Analgesic Mechanism in Mice Fed Tryptophan Supplemented Deit (II) (트립토판 보강식이를 섭취한 마우스에서 serotonin 대사와 morphine 진통기작 관련성에 대한 연구(II))

  • 권영혜;이윤옥;김해리
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2001
  • In this study we fed control diet and tryptophan supplemented diets containing 0.35% tryptophan to ICR mice for 2 weeks. The concentrations of serotonin and 5-HIAA were changed by injection of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor, p-CPA and the serotonin precursor, serotoninP and the change of brain serotonin concentration negatively correlated with that of pain sensitivity, and p-CPA and serotoninP also changed the analgesic effect of morphine. The injection of naloxone, the opiate antagonist, resulted in an increase in the writhing frequency, but its antagonistic effect was not significant. The concentration of 5-HIAA elevated in mice brain at least 3hr after administration of morphine hydroxide indicates that the changes in brain serotonin metabolism may be associated with the acute effects of morphine analgesia. In short, these results not only suggest that tryptophan supplemented diet suppress pain sensitivity in mice, but also indicate that at least in part analgesic mechanism of serotonin may be associated with morphine analgesia.

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Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Tryptophan Administration on Brain Serotonin Metabolism (식이 단백질 수준 및 Tryptophan 투여가 Serotonin 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 신동순;김미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.231-247
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    • 1993
  • This study was designed to confirm the effect of dietary protein level and oral administration of tryptophan on brain serotonin metabolism. Two animal experiments were conducted. The objectives and results of research were as follows : In the first experiment, it was investigated whether administration of reserpine to Sprague-Dawley rats fed 6% or 20% casein diet induced decrease in serum tryptophan and large neutral amino acid(LNAA) concentrations, tryptophan/LNAA concentration ratio, brain tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA) contents. Brain serotonin content of 6% casein diet group was lower than those of 20% casein diet group. Both 6% and 20% casein diet groups administered with reserpine to induce the analogous depression, showed the notable decrease in brain serotonin content when they were compared with 20% casein diet group not administered with reserpine. Serum tryptophan/LNAA ration and brain 5-HIAA content showed a tendency similar to the change of serotonin content, but the mean difference among all groups was not significant. From these results, it could be said that when the dietary protein level was low, brain serotonin content was decrease. The second experimnt was to see the change in serum tryptophan concentration and tryptophan/LNAA ratio and brain tryptophan, serotonin and 5-HIAA content when tryptophan was administered orally to the animals treated with reserpine. Serum tryptophan concentration tended to increase in both reserpine-treated 6% and 20% casein diet groups administered with tryptophan, especially in the 6% casein diet group. Serum tryptophan/LNAA concentration ratio tended to incrase in reserpine-tteated 6% casein diet group, while decrease in reserpine-treated 20% casein diet group. Brain tryptophan content was increased in both reserpine-treated 6% and 20% casein diet groups. However, brain serotonin content of reserpine-treated 6% casein diet group showed a tendency to decrease, while that of reserpine-treated 20% casein group increase. Consequently, the effect of tryptophan administration on increase of brain tryptophan and serotonin content in animals treated with reserpine was far more excellent in 20% casein diet groups. It was concluded that dietary protein intake and tryptophan administration increase brain serotonin level. Accordingly, it was possible to confirm that brain function, particularly in aspect of behavior related to the serotonin, was changed with manipulation of dietary composition.

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Bioluminescence immunoassay for neurotransmitter, serotonin using aequorin as a Label (Aequorin을 표지물질로 사용한 신경전달물질, 세로토닌에 대한 생물발광면역분석법)

  • Ryu, Ji-Eun;Choi, Hee-Seon;Park, Ho-Young;Rhee Paeng, In-Sook
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2010
  • A sensitive competitive heterogeneous bioluminescence immunoassay for serotonin was developed using photoprotein, aequorin as a label for the first time with the optimal assay conditions; especially, serotoninavidin conjugate was prepared by Mannich reaction and the synthetic process of serotonin-avidin conjugate was optimized by controlling the initial molar ratios of serotonin, formaldehyde and avidin (1:12,000:25). The developed bioluminescence immunoassay for serotonin showed good sensitivity (LOD of 0.68 ng/mL) with wide area of dynamic range ($5.0{\times}10^{-10}\;M\sim5.0{\times}10^{-7}\;M$). (cf. the range for serotonin in human blood serum is $151{\pm}45\;ng$/mL). In addition, cross-reactivity studies demonstrated that 5-methoxytryptamine showed some cross-reactivity (28.0%), whereas 3-methylindole, melatonin and 5-hydroxylindole-3-acetic acid showed no crossreactivity, and good recoveries were obtained in serum. Thus, this developed method provides a good tool to monitor serotonin in serum.

Contractile Mechanisms of Serotonin in the Renal Arterial smooth muscle of a Rabbit (Serotonin에 의한 가토 신동맥 평활근 수축기전)

  • Lee, Woo-Young;Kim, Se-Hoon;Chang, Seok-Jong
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 1990
  • The contractile mechanisms of serotonin were investigated in the renal artery of a rabbit. The helical strips of isolated renal artery were immersed in the normal or $Ca^{2+}$-free tris-buffered Tyrode's solution, which was equilibrated with 100% $O_{2}$ at $35^{\circ}C$. The contraction by serotonin or norepinephrine (NE) began at $1{\times}10^{-7}\;M$ and reached the maximal contraction at $1{\times}10^{-5}\;M$. The maximal contraction by serotonin corresponded to $58.1{\pm}4.2%$ of maximal contraction by NE. Cyproheptadine, a serotonin receptor blocker, shifted the concentration-response curve to the right without any reduction in the maximum response but shifted that of NE to the right with reduction in maximum response. And phentolamine, an ${\alpha}-receptor$ blocker, shifted the concentration-response curve of serotonin or NE without any reduction in maximum responses. The $pA_{2}$ values for cyproheptadine against serotonin and NE were $10.35{\pm}0.04$ and $8.45{\pm}0.13$, respectively. The $pA_{2}$ values for phentolamine against serotonin and NE were $6.87{\pm}0.04$ and $8.14{\pm}0.08$, respectively. after the pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine, the contraction induced by 100 mM $K^{+}$, tyramine and serotonin reduced to $83.0{\pm}2.0$, $26.8{\pm}6.2$ and $82.0{\pm}3.5%$ of control, respectively. The contraction by serotonin in the $Ca^{2+}$-free Tyrode's solution was increased and sustained with the addition of $Ca^{2+}$ extracellulary. The serotonin-sensitive intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ pool was depleted completely by the pretreatment with NE, but the NE-sensitive intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ pool was depleted partially by the pretreatment with serotonin. From the above results, it is suggested that the contraction induced by serotonin in the renal artery of a rabbit may be due to mechanisms in which serotonin acts directly on specific serotonin receptors and also acts indirectly on ${\alpha}-adrenoceptors$ by displacing NE from neuronal stores.

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Effects of Lead Acetate on the Uptake of [$^3$H]-serotonin by the Synaptosomes Separated from the Cerebrum and Brain Stem of the Rat (초산납이 흰쥐 synaptosome의 [$^3$H]-serotonin의 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • 이규석;박순철
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the physiological changes induced acutely with the low doses of lead acetate in the synaptosomes from the cerebrum and brain stem of the rat. The general uptake patterns of [$^3$H]-serotonin were observed in synaptosomes, as a model of presynaptic nerve terminal, from the cerebrum and brain stem. And the effects of the low doses of lead acetate on the uptake process were investigated id vitro and in vivo. The Km value of the uptake of the [$^3$H]-serotonin by the synaptosomes was 0.5 $\mu$M in the cerebrum and 0.1 $\mu$M in the brain stem. These low values reveal that the synaptosomes from the cerebrum and the brain stem have a high affinity to [$^3$H]-serotonin, especially in brain stem. The uptake of $\mu$M-serotonin was dependant on the sodium and potassium ions. When being treated with ouabain, the $Na^+$ $-K^+$ ATPase inhibitor, the uptake of [$^3$H]-serotonin was reduced. This supports strongly that the uptake of [$^3$H]-serotonin was sensitive to the changes of the concentrations of the sodium and potassium ions. When the calcium channel blocker, verapamil, was treated, the uptake of [$^3$H]-serotonin was changed only in synaptosomes from the brain stem. The uptake of [$^3$H]-serotonin was reduced by the lead treatment in the synaptosomes from the cerebrum and brain stem in vitro and in vivo. [lead acetate, synaptosomes, $^3$H-serotonin, rat]

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Inhibitory Effects of Serotonin Derivatives on Adipogenesis (홍화씨 추출물 유래 세로토닌 유도체의 지방전구세포 분화억제 효능에 대한 연구)

  • Jung, Eun-Sun;Kim, Seung-Beom;Kim, Moo-Han;Shin, Seong-Woo;Lee, Jong-Sung;Park, Deok-Hoon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2011
  • N-feruloylserotonin (FS) and N-(pcoumaroyl) serotonin (CS), serotonin derivatives, which have been isolated as major and unique phenolics of safflower seed extract (SSE), are member of hydroxycinnamic acid amides and are implicated in the defense against pathogen infection and insect feeding. In this study, we evaluate inhibitory effects of N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin and N-Feruloylserotonin on adipogenesis using oil-red O staining, triglyceride and GPDH activity. we found that while serotonin itself did not suppress differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes, N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin and N-Feruloylserotonin inhibited the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, they showed antioxidant effects in DPPH assay. Taken together, these results show that N-feruloylserotonin (FS) and N-(pcoumaroyl) serotonin (CS) suppress differentiation of preadipocytes, suggesting the possibility that these serotonin derivatives can be utilized as an anti-obesity agent.

Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

  • Namkung, Jun;Kim, Hail;Park, Sangkyu
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.12
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    • pp.1023-1028
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    • 2015
  • Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment.

Action of Serotonin on Sodium-Potassium Activated ATPase in Rabbit Red Cell Membrane (토끼 적혈구막의 NaK ATPase의 활성도에 대한 serotonin의 작용)

  • Chung, Soon-Tong;Park, Chul-Bin;Koh, Il-Sup
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 1976
  • The action of serotonin on the sodium plus potassium activated ATPase activity in the rabbit red cell membrane has been investigated. The experiments were also designed to determine the mechanism of action of serotonin on the ATPase activity. The following results were obtained. 1) The NaK ATPase activity of rabbit red cell ghosts is stimulated by low concentration of serotonin but inhibited by higher concentration, and the concentration of serotonin for maximal activity is about 2mM. The pH optimum for the serotonin sensitive component is 8.0. 2) The activating effect of serotonin on the ATPase, with a given concentration of sodium in the medium, is increased by raising the potassium concentration but the ratio of activity is decreased. 3) The activating effect of serotonin on the ATPase, with a given concentration of potassium in the medium, is increased by raising the sodium concentration but the ratio of activity is decreased. 4) The ATPase activity is increased by small amounts of calcium but inhibited by larger amounts and the ratio of activity by serotonin is decreased by small amounts of calcium but increased by larger amounts. 5) The action of serotonin on the ATPase activity was not related to the amino group of lysine, the hydroxyl group of threonine, the carboxyl group of aspartic acid, or the imidazole group of histidine. 6) The action of serotonin on the ATPase activity is due to sulfhydryl group of the enzyme of NaK ATPase.

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Feline Interstitial Cystitis Enhances Mucosa-Dependent Contractile Responses to Serotonin

  • Ikeda, Youko;Wolf-Johnston, Amanda;Roppolo, James R.;Buffington, Charles A.T.;Birder, Lori
    • International Neurourology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.246-251
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To determine whether responses to serotonin are altered in bladder strips from cats diagnosed with a naturally occurring form of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis termed feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Methods: Full thickness bladder strips were isolated from aged matched healthy control cats and cats with clinically verified FIC. Bladder strips were mounted in an organ bath and connected to a tension transducer to record contractile activity. A serotonin dose response ($0.01-10{\mu}M$) was determined for each strip with the mucosa intact or denuded. Results: Bladder strips from control and FIC cats contracted in response to serotonin in a dose-dependent manner. The normalized force of serotonin-evoked contractions was significantly greater in bladder strips from cats with FIC (n=7) than from control cats (n=4). Removal of the mucosa significantly decreased serotonin-mediated responses in both control and FIC bladder preparations. Furthermore, the contractions in response to serotonin were abolished by $1{\mu}M$ atropine in both control and FIC bladder strips. Conclusions: The effect of serotonin on contractile force, but not sensitivity, was potentiated in bladder strips from cats with FIC, and was dependent upon the presence of the mucosa in control and FIC groups. As atropine inhibited these effects of serotonin, we hypothesize that, serotonin enhances acetylcholine release from the mucosa of FIC cat bladder strips, which could account for the increased force generated. In summary, FIC augments the responsiveness of bladder to serotonin, which may contribute to the symptoms associated with this chronic condition.

The Contractile and Electrical Responses of Guinea-pig's Gastric Smooth Muscle to Serotonin

  • Lee, Sang-Jin;Hwang, Sang-Ik;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.133-146
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    • 1991
  • In order to elucidate systematically the effects of serotonin on gastric motility of guinea-pig, the contractile and electrical responses to serotonin were recorded using four kinds of muscle strips prepared from antral circular, antral longitudinal, fundic circular, and fundic longitudinal muscles. Experiments were performed using various methods including isometric contraction recording, transmural electrical field stimulation, junction potential recording, intracellular microelectrode technique, and partition stimulation method. The results were as follows: 1) The effect of serotonin on spontaneous contractions was inhibitory in the circular muscle strips of the antrum and fundus, while it was excitatory in the longitudinal muscle strips of the antrum and fundus. Serotonin changed mainly phasic contractions of both the circular and longitudinal muscle strips in the antrum, while it changed mainly tonic contractions of both the circular and longitudinal muscle strips in the fundus. 2) On the contractions induced by transmural nerve stimulation, serotonin decreased the amplitude in the circular muscle strips of the antrum, but it increased them in the other three groups of muscle strips(antral longitudinal, fundic circular, and fundic longitudinal). 3) On the contractions induced by direct muscle stimulation, serotonin decreased the amplitude in the circular muscle strips of the antrum and fundus. 4) In the fundic circular muscle strips serotonin potentiated excitatory junction potentials (EJPs), and in the antral circular muscle strips it evoked EJPs after inhibitory junction potentials(IJPS). 5) In the antral circular muscle strips serotonin did not affect the slow wave even at the disappearance of spontaneous contractions. On the contrary it increased the amplitude of the slow wave, when the spike component was potentiated and the second component was inhibited. 6) In the antral circular muscle strips the membrane potential was slightly hyperpolarized, but the membrane resistance was not changed. From the above results following conclusions could be made. 1) Serotonin inhibits spontaneous contractions of the circular muscle layer and it increases those of the longitudinal one, irrespective of the gastric region. 2) In the guinea-pig stomach there exists a serotoninergic facilitatory neuromodulation system which exerts its effect on cholinergically mediated contraction. 3) The excitation-contraction decoupling was observed in the effect of serotonin.

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