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Car transmission shaft distortion correction system based on adaptive PID controller using displacement sensors (변위센서를 이용한 적응적 PID제어기반 자동차 변속기 샤프트 교정시스템)

  • Choi, Sang-Bok;Ban, Sang-Woo;Kim, Ki-Taeg
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.375-384
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, we proposed a new shaft distortion correction system having an adaptive PID controller using displacement sensors, which is adaptively reflecting variations of shaft strength owing to irregular heat treatment during an annealing process and sensitivity to the seasonal temperature changes. Generally, the shafts are annealed by heat treatment in order to enlarge the strength of the shaft, which causes an distortion of a shaft such as irregular bending of the shaft. In order to correct such a distortion of the shaft, a mechanical pressure is properly impacted to the distorted shaft. However, the strength of every shaft is different from each other owing to irregular annealing and seasonal temperature changes. Especially, the strength of a thin shaft such as a car transmission shaft is much more sensitive than that of a thick shaft. Therefore, it is very important for considering the strength of each shaft during correction of the car transmission shaft distortion in order to generate proper mechanical pressure. The conventional PID controller for the shaft distortion correction system does not consider each different strength of each shaft, which causes low productivity. Therefore, we proposed a new PID controller considering variations of shaft strength caused by seasonal temperature changes as well as irregular heat treatment and different cooling time. Three displacement sensors are used to measure a degree of distortion of the shaft at three different location. The proposed PID controller generates adaptively different coefficients according to different strength of each shaft using appropriately obtained pressure times from long-term experiments. Consequently, the proposed shaft distortion correction system increases the productivity about 30 % more than the conventional correction system in the real factory.

Calculation of the coupled free, transverse vibrations of the multi-supported shaft system by transfer matrix method (전달매트릭스법에 의한 다점지지축계의 연성자유횡진동계산에 관한 연구)

  • 안시영;전효중
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 1983
  • Coupled transverse shaft vibrations have become the target of great concern in high powered ships such as container ships. Due to increasing ship's dimensions and high propulsive power, resonance frequencies of the propeller shaft system tend to decrease and can appear in some cases within the operating speed range of engine. In this connection, the coupled free transverse vibrations of shaft system in two planes are theoretically investigated. This shaft system carries a number of discs and is flexibly supported by a number of bearing stiffness are considered for the calculation. Transfer matrix method is applied to calculate the shaft responses in both planes. A digital computer program is developed to calculate the shaft responses of the coupled transverse vibrations in two planes. An experimental model shaft system is made. It is composed of a disc, shafts, ball bearings thrust bearings and flexible bearing supports. The shaft system is excited by an electrical magnet, and shaft vibration responses in two planes are measured with the strain gage system. From these measurements, the natural frequencies of the shaft system in both planes are found out. The developed program is also used to calculate the shaft vibration responses of experimental model shaft system. From the results of these calculations, the natural frequencies of shaft system in two planes are derived. Theoretical predictions of model shaft natural frequencies show good agreements with its esperimental measurements.

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Effects of Soil Conditions on the Vibratory Motion of Drilled Shaft (지반조건이 현장 타설 말뚝 선단부의 동적 경계조건에 미치는 영향)

  • 이병식;이원구
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2000
  • Non-destructive out-hole tests, impact-echo and impact-response are widely applied to evaluate integrity of drilled shafts. In these tests, vibratory motions of drilled shafts are interpreted, which induced by impacts on the shaft head. In applying the tests to evaluating integrity of shaft, it has been attended whether the tests have resolutions enough to distinguish existence of slime at between the shaft end and a bearing soil deposit. To distinguish existence of slime by tests, modes of shaft vibrations need to be reasonably interpreted, which generally vary according to a shaft boundary condition such as, a free-free or a free-fixed condition. The boundary condition of a shaft is, however, found to be significantly affected by stiffness of soil deposits around shaft as well as penetration depths of shaft into a bearing soil deposit. Thus, these effects on the boundary condition of a shaft should be considered reasonably in interpreting test results to decide the existence of slime. To investigate the effects, in this study, vibratory motions of shafts constructed in various soil conditions and end penetration depths are examined analytically. Based on the studies, variations of boundary condition are characterized in terms of soil stiffness contrast between a shaft perimeter and a shaft end, and also the ratio of a penetration depth to a shaft length. The results can be applied to verify the applicability of tests to identify the slime.

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The Causes of Bolt Breakage During the Tightening of Impellers in Water Jet Propulsion Systems (워터제트 추진기 임펠러 체결용 볼트파손 원인 분석 연구)

  • Jung, Sang-Jin;Oh, Shini Il;Hur, Jang-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2019
  • A water jet propeller is a key component that generates propulsion during the start of a naval vessel. When failure or breakage occurs, the vessel cannot operate. Recently, a flow analysis and structural analysis were conducted to understand the cause of damage to a bolt on a water jet. In particular, the stress and strain acting on the fastening bolt (impeller shaft and tail shaft) were examined to determine the extent of misalignment between the impeller shaft and the tail shaft of the water jet propeller. The study determined that stress and strain were concentrated on the impeller shaft and the tail shaft bolt. The alignment of the propeller impeller shaft and the tail shaft increased significantly in response to the tail shaft bolt. Failure of the tail shaft bolt fastening can lead to misalignment between the impeller shaft and the tail shaft.

Investigation of Structural Safety of Monobloc Tubular Drive Shaft Subjected to Torque (비틀림 모멘트가 부가되는 일체형 중공 드라이브 샤프트의 구조 안정성 분석)

  • Guk, Dae-Sun;Ahn, Dong-Gyu;Lee, Ho-Jin;Jung, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1073-1080
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    • 2015
  • A drive shaft is used to transmit torque and rotation through the connection of components of a drive train. Recently, a monobloc drive shaft without welding regions is developed to improve the safety of the drive shaft. The drive shaft bears the shear stress induced by torque. The objective of this paper is to investigate into the structural safety of a monobloc tubular drive shaft subjected to torque. Elasto-plastic finite element (FE) analysis is performed to estimate the deformation behavior of the drive shaft and stress-strain distribution in the drive shaft. Several techniques are used to create finite element (FE) model of the monobloc tubular drive shaft subjected to torque. Through the comparison of the results of FE analyses with those of experiments from the viewpoint of rotational angle, appropriate correction coefficients for different load conditions are estimated. The safety of the tubular drive shaft is examined using the results of FE analyses for different load conditions. Finally, it is noted that the designed tubular drive shaft has a sufficient structural safety.

The Introduction of Shaft Alignment Calculation for very Large Container Vessel (초대형 콘테이너선의 축계정렬 계산 사례 소개)

  • Kang Dong Chun;Park Kun Woo;Kim Kyoung Ho
    • Special Issue of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2005
  • Recently, it is much more required to approach the accurate shaft alignment analysis according to the tendency of active showing in large container vessel and that of the heavy weight of propeller in connection with it. Shaft alignment calculation lies upon how the pressure apply on bearings properly in operation of main engine and how the stress of shaft puts within that of limit of bearing material and how the movement of shaft is prospected owing to propeller forces and moments. Therefore, we have conducted the shaft alignment calculation of very large container vessel considering the deformation of hull structure and the propeller forces and moments and the static and dynamic condition of shaft. The calculation results show the pressure distribution of aft bush and the movement of shaft in bearing. The shaft alignment calculation helps the stable application of shaft alignment, which was proved in sea trial.

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Failure Examples Study for Tribological Characteristics of Drive Shaft and Axle System in Vehicles (자동차 드라이브 샤프트와 액슬 시스템의 트라이볼로지적인 특성에 관한 고장사례 고찰)

  • Lee, Il Kwon;Moon, Hak Hoon;Youm, Kwang Wook
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 2013
  • This study examined the tribological characteristics of the drive shaft and axle system in vehicles. The first drive shaft example contained end play for a CV joint that transferred part of the transmission power to the wheel. The joint part of the drive shaft was deformed because of reduced durability due to wear. Thus, vibrations caused the body to shake and become unbalanced when the drive shaft transferred the power. The second example was the cross-section of a shaft that connected the slip-connection of the propeller shaft on the input side to the yoke flange of the output side; the durability was reduced because of corrosion. End play caused by wear between the bearing and cross-section shaft appeared to cause shaking. In the third example, a grease leak reduced lubrication and thus caused damage to the hub bearing and inside the knuckle. The failure was produced by sticking. The fourth example had noise produced by the gear and gear transfer. This was due to the backlash of the pinion and few ring gears for the differential gear. Therefore, drive shaft and axle systems must be thoroughly checked and managed to minimize and reduce failure phenomena.

A Study on Stress Analysis for Design of Composites Shaft on Small Ship by Filament Winding Process (필라멘트 와인딩 공법에 의한 소형 선박용 복합재료 축 설계를 위한 응력해석에 관한 연구)

  • 배창원;임철문;왕지석;김윤해
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.617-622
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to design and the analyze the stress of composited shaft which is wound by filament winding method. The composites shaft has high strength and reduction in weight compared to metal shaft. The classical laminate plate theory(CLT) was used fro analysis the stress, and for structure design. In order to replace metal shaft by composites shaft, the diameter of shaft was determined to $\phi$ 40. The ration of diameter was determined to 0.4 for torsional moment with CLT. In this result of analyzing the stress, composites shaft was safe $30^{\circ}~60^{\circ}$C of winding angle, and was fractured on $90^{\circ}$.

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Experimental Study on the Dynamic Response of Oil Seals

  • Sung, Boo-Yong;Shim, Woo Jeonm;Kim, Chung Kyun
    • KSTLE International Journal
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.59-62
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    • 2000
  • This paper deals with an experimental study on the dynamic response of an elastomeric oil seal when the interferences between shaft and lip as well as the dynamic eccentricities are present. The dynamic response of seal lip in oil seals was observed with the aid of an image processing apparatus. The temperature of the seal lip edge, friction torque and the dynamic sealing gap between shaft and lip are measured at different conditions of the initial interference and the shaft eccentricity, The data were simultaneously measured under dynamic conditions. Experimental results show that, as the shaft speed is increased, S/e$_{d}$ has nearly reached a constant asymptotic value fur a certain range of shaft speeds. The results indicate that the gap separation between shaft and lip is provided due to the shaft eccentricity because the seal lip cannot follow quickly the radial displacements with increasing shaft speed.d.

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A Study on the Rotary Swaging Machine and Process Development of Automotive Tubular Drive Shaft (자동차용 중공 구동축 성형장치 개발 및 성형공정에 관한 연구)

  • 오태원;유택인;현동훈
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.344-350
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    • 2003
  • This Paper deals with the weight-lowering and the traits of NVH(Noise, Vibration and Harshness) by the development of tubular shaft replacing the existing solid Drive Shaft for the lighter and less-noisy automobiles. By the review of Swaging Process this study reveals the various forming traits of Swaging, one of the forming methods for tubular shafts. Furthermore, it showed the possibility of Drive Shaft manufacturing through designing & manufacturing of Swaging machine for tubular shaft, and the production ar analysis of the tubular shaft with the relevant process and tools. This study also shows that the forming by swaging not only makes the mass production of tubular Drive Shaft possible but also may be widely applied to other products with many advantages in review of dimensional precision, thickness change, hardness increase and surface roughness of the swaged products.

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