• Title, Summary, Keyword: shank length

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Estiniation of Genetic Parameters for Body Weight, Shank Length, and Shank Width in Korean Pheaaant (한국꿩의 체중과 정강이 길이 및 정강이 두께에 대한 유전모수 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, J.;Yang, Y.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation for body weight, shank length and shank width at various wk of age in growing Korean pheasant. All the measurements were done from one day to 20 wk of age with 4 wk interval. The heritability estimates for body weight were in the range of 0.54~0.59 for male and of 0.49~0.81 for female from 4 to 20 wk of age. The heritability estimates of male and female were in the range of 0.38~0. 82 and 0.41~0.67 for shank length, and of 0.48~0.88 and 0.49~0.71 for shank width, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients between the measurements at different ages in each trait of body weight, shank length and shank width were medium to high positive values. Because the estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations were high, the genetic gain for body weight is expected by either a direct selection or an early selection based on the record of early growing stage.

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Estimation of the Heritabilities and Genetic Correlations on Body Shape Components in Korean Native Chicken (한국재래계의 체형에 대한 유전력 및 유전상관의 추정)

  • 한성욱;상병찬;이준현;정욱수;상병돈
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to get the basic and applicable data for breeding plan and selection in order to improve the body shape components in Korean native chicken. The hentabilities and genetic correlations on body shape components were estimated by sire, dam and combined components of variance. Data analyzed were records of 1,096 progenies produced from 180 dams and 26 sires from April, 1994 to September, 1995. On body shape components at 4, 8 and 16 weeks of age, the shank lengths were 55.63, 82.94 and 103.8Omm: breast girths were 15.087, 21.069, and 26.137mm: breast widths were 40.910, 54.575 and 73.088mm, respectively. The estimates of hentabilities of body shape components based on the variance of sires, dams, and combined components at 4, 8 and 16 weeks of age were O.O65~O.197, O.25O~O.794 and O.185~O.495 for shank length: O.123~O. 215, O.033~O.513 and 0.063~0.257 for breast girth; 0.024~0.158, 0.118~0.410 and 0.111~0.222 for breast width, respectively. The coefficients of genetic correlations among the body shape components at 4 weeks of age were 0.565, 0.725 and 0.678 for breast girth with breast width, shank length and tibia length : 0.690 and 0.804 for breast width with shank length and tibia length; 0.972 between shank length and tibia length.

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Effects of Body Weight and Shank Length at Hatch on Body Weight of Growing Pheasant (부화시 체중 및 정강이 길이가 꿩의 육성기 체중에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Y.H.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, K.I.;Kim, J.;Kim, D.C.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1995
  • A total of 514 birds were used to investigate the influence of body weight and shank length at hatch on the body weights at various ages in growing pheasant. Statistical model included the terms of hatch and sex as fixed effects and the two covariates of body weight and shank length at hatch. In this model, the effects of hatch and sex on the body weights at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 wk, and the average daily gains from hatch to 8 wk and from 8 to 16 wk of age were highly significant(P<0.01). All the regression coefficients of body weights and average daily gains on the body weight at hatch were also significant(P<0.01). Their estimates were 3.05.7.21. 13.89, 15.18 and 15.33 for the body weights at 4. 8, 12, 16 and 20 wk of age ; 0.111 and 0.142 for the average daily gains from hatch to 8 wk, and from 8 to 16 wk of age, respectively. On the shank length, only the regression coefficients of the body weights at 4 and 8 wk of age and the average daily gains from hatch to 8 wk of age were significant(P<0.01). Results of this study suggest that body weight at hatch do significantly affect the body weights in the growing periods up to' the 20 wk of age, but the shank length at hatch influences the body weights only at early age.1)

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The Association of Growth Rate with Body Weight or Shank Length at Birth in Broiler Chickens (육용계의 부하시 체중 혹은 정강이 길이와 성장률과의 상관관계에 관한 연구)

  • Suk Y. O.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the association of growth rate with body weight or shank length at birth in broiler chickens. Cobb and Ross breeds were used as experimental stocks and four groups were assigned in each breed; thirteen-male and twelve-female chicks(25 birds) were allocated in each group. The heavier body weight group(HBW) and the lighter body weight group(LBW) were established by birth weight. Whereas, the longer shank length group(LSL) and the shorter shank length group(SSL) were established by shank length at birth. The heavier group chicks in birth weight were significantly(P < 0.05) the longer in shank length at birth. The differences between HBW and LSL or between LBW and SSL in the mean 5-wk body weight of Cobb were not significantly different in each other; however, HBW and LSL were significantly(P < 0.05) heavier than LBW or SSL. Whereas, there were no significant differences in the mean 5-wk body weight of Ross although HBW was heavier by 13.1 g than LBW and LSL was heavier by 68.0 g than SSL. In the mean 5-wk shank length, the LSL of Cobb and Ross was longer by 2.9 mm and 1.3 mm than SSL, respectively; however, the significant(P < 0.05) difference was showed in Cobb only. In both breeds, the differences in the mean 5-wk shank length between HBW and LBW were not great. By the results of correlation analysis, the associations of the overall mean birth weights with the overall mean shank length at birth or the association of the 0~5 wk growth rate with the change of shank length during 0~5 wk showed highly significant(P < 0.01~0.001) in both breeds. The present study suggested that the selection based on birth weight could be at advantage due to easier and more accurate tool in using for the improvement growth rate in broiler chickens because the measurement of shank length takes individually longer and less accurate than the measurement of body weight.

Correlation and Regression Analysis of Body Weight and Shank Length of Growing Pheasant (육성기 꿩의 주령별 체중과 정강이 길이의 상관과 회귀)

  • Yang, Y.H.;Kim, J.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 1993
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation among the measurements of the body weight and shank length at the age of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 wk, and to investigate the regression of the final body weight at the age of 20 wk in selection on the body weight and shank length before 12 wk of age. From the simple correlation analysis, the range of correlation coefficients between body weight and shank length at the same age were 0.50~0.83 from females, and 0.57~0.85 from males over all wk of age(P<0.01). Correlation coefficient between the body weights at hatch and 20 wk of age was 0.44(P<0.01), but it was not significant(P>0.05) between the shank length at hatch and body weight at 20 wk of age. The favorable regression models for the estimation of the body weight at the age of 20 wk from both body weight and shank length before 12 wk of age were the models with the independent variables of measurements at hatch and 12 wk of age($R^2$=0.96), with the measurements at 8 and 12 wk of age($R^2$=0.96), and with the measurements at 0, 8 and 12 wk of age ($R^2$=0.96).

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Effects of Hatch and Sex on Body Weight and Shank Length of Growing Pheasant (육성기 꿩의 주령별 체중과 정강이 길이의 측정치에 나타나는 부화차순과 성별의 효과)

  • Yang, Y.H.;Kim, J.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.197-201
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    • 1993
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hatch and sex on the body weight and shank length of growing pheasant. Least squares means of body weight at the age of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 wks were 17.9, 96.0, 296.4, 563.4, 709.0 and 757.4 g for female, and 18.3, 104.4, 349.1, 728.5, 1001.4 and 1101.6 g for male, respectively. The hatch effect on body weight was significant at the age of 4, 8, 12 and 16 wks (P<0.05), but the effects on shank length were significant at the age of birth and 8 wks only. There was no significant hatch effect on both the body weight and shank length at the age of 20 wks(P>0.05). Least squares mean differences between female and male were significant(P<0.01) over all wks of age except at hatch.

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Effect of the Tolerance Parameters of the Horn on the Vibration of the Thermosonic Transverse Bonding Flip Chip System (횡 방향 플립 칩 초음파 접합 시 혼의 공차변수가 시스템의 진동에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Ha-Kyu;Kwon, Won-Tae;Yoon, Byung-Ok
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2009
  • Thermosonic flip chip bonding is an important technology for the electronic packaging due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and clean and dry process. Mechanical properties of the horn and the shank, such as the natural frequency and the amplitude, have a great effect on the bonding capability of the transverse flip chip bonding system. In this research, two kinds of study are performed. The first is the new design of the clamp and the second is the effect of tolerance parameters to the performance of the system. The clamp with a bent shape is newly designed to hold the nodal point of the flip chip. The second is the effect of the design parameters on the vibration amplitude and planarity at the end of the shank. The variation of the tolerance parameters changes the amplitude and the frequency of the vibration of the shank. They, in turn, have an effect on the quantity of the plastic deformation of the gold ball bump, which determined the quality of the flip chip bonding. The tolerance parameters that give the great effect on the amplitude of the shank are determined using Taguchi's method. Error of set-up angle, the length and diameter of horn and error of the length of the shank are determined to be the parameters that have peat effect on the amplitude of the system.

Determination factors for catch rate of the target species between circle hook and straight shank hook in the Korean tuna longline fishery (우리나라 다랑어연승어업에 있어서 환형낚시와 재래식낚시를 사용하여 목표종의 어획률을 결정하는 요인 분석)

  • An, Doo-Hae;Kwon, You-Jung;Bigelow, Keith;Moon, Dae-Yeon;Lee, Sung-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.344-355
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    • 2011
  • We conducted experiments to compare the catch rate of bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna between circle hooks and straight shank hook in the Korean tuna longline fishery at the eastern and central Pacific Ocean from 2005 to 2007. We analyzed difference of fork length, survival and hooking location between a circle hook and a straight shank hook for both tunas, respectively. There was no difference in the mean fork length size of yellowfin tuna caught on the two type of hook but bigeye tuna was significant. In case of survival, there was no difference between two hook type, but the difference of hooking location was significant for both species. We also analyzed to find determinants of both tunas catch rate using generalized linear models (GLMs) which were used latitude, longitude, year, month, depth, hook type, bait type and so on as independent variables. Spatial factors, latitude and longitude, and temporal factors, year and month, affected catch rate of bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna. And also, depth such as a marine environment factor was influenced on catch rate.

Analysis of the Coordination of the Trunk Tilting Angle and Bilateral Lower Limbs According to the Stirrups Length during Trot in Equestrian: Asymmetric Index Development of Overall Movement Index Algorithm (승마 속보 시 등자 길이에 따른 체간기울기와 양측 하지의 협응성 비교분석 : 비대칭 지수 및 전체이동지수 알고리즘 개발)

  • Hyun, Seung-Hyun;Ryew, Che-Cheong
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to analyze the coordination of the trunk tilting angle and bilateral lower limbs according to the stirrups length during trot in equestrian. Methods : Participants selected as subject were consisted of adult male(n=7, mean age: $45.00{\pm}3.78yrs$, mean height: $172.50{\pm}2.44cm$, mean body mass: $76.95{\pm}4.40kg$, mean, mean leg length: $97.30{\pm}2.60cm$). They were divided into 3-types of stirrups lengths(67 cm, 72 cm, 77 cm) during trot. The variables analyzed were consisted of the trunk front-rear angle, lower limb joint(Right Left hip, knee, ankle), overall movement index(OMI) of the lower limbs(thigh, shank, foot) and asymmetry index(AI%) during trot. Results : The average angle in hip and knee joint showed more extended posture according to the increase of stirrups lengths and ankle angle showed more plantarflexion posture according to increase of stirrups length during 1 stride in trot. Also, average angle showed more extended posture in right hip and ankle joint than that of left. The angle of knee joint didn't show significant difference statistically between right and left. Also asymmetric index in average angle of hip, knee and ankle joint didn't show significant difference statistically in between lower limbs, but hip joint showed higher asymmetric index in stirrup length of 77 cm and ankle joint showed higher asymmetric index in stirrup length of 67 cm than that of the others respectively. The FR angle in trunk of horse-rider showed relative backward leaning motions at stirrup length of 67 cm and 77 cm than that of stirrup length of 72 cm during stance and swing phase. OMI in thigh, shank, and foot limbs didn't show significant difference statistically according to the stirrups length of right and left lower limbs, but left lower limbs showed higher index than that of right lower limb. Stirrup length of 72 cm in shank and foot limbs showed higher index than that of stirrup length of 67 cm and 77 cm. But stirrup length of 72 cm showed higher asymmetric index than that of stirrups length of 67 cm and 77 cm. Conclusions : When considering the above, 72 cm(ratio of lower limb 74.04%) stirrup lengths could be useful in posture correction and stabilization than 67cm(ratio of lower limb 68.69%) and 77 cm(ratio of lower limb 79.18%) stirrup lengths during trot in horse back riding.

Kinematic Analysis of The Rider Postural Alignments According to The Fitting of Stirrups Lengths during Horse Walk of High Level Rider (승마 평보 시 숙련자의 등자길이 피팅에 따른 기승자세정열의 운동학적 비교분석)

  • Ryew, Che-Cheong;Hyun, Seung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.329-338
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze of the rider postural alignments according to the fitting of stirrups lengths during walk of high level riders. Participants selected as subject were consisted of horse riders of high level (age: $47.66{\pm}3.51yrs$, height: $168.40{\pm}4.84cm$, body weight: $73.36{\pm}15.58kg$, low extremity length: $94.76{\pm}3.98cm$, career: $23.33{\pm}5.77yrs$) and walk with 3 types of stirrup lengths(ratio of low extremity 68.04%, 73.25%, 78.48%). The variables analyzed were consisted of the displacement of Y axis (center of mass, head, thigh, shank and foot), FR angle, LR angle, dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), coefficient of variation (CV%), and distance (X axis) of low extremity limb between right and left. The displacement of Y axis in COM, thigh, shank, foot limbs were not statistically significant, but movements of head showed greater distance of B type and C type than that of A type during 1 stride of walk. The FR and LR angle in trunk of horse rider, dynamic postural stability index and, coefficient of variation didn't show significant difference statistically according to the fitting of stirrup lengths. Also the distance (X axis) of low extremity in thigh and shank didn't show significant difference statistically in between right and left, but right and left foot showed greater distance in C type than that of B and A types during walk in horse back riding. The hip and ankle joint angle not statistically significant according to stirrups lengths, But knee joint angle showed more extended according to the increase of stirrups lengths during stance and swing phase in walk.