• Title, Summary, Keyword: shatter

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Development of Threshing Machine for Shatter-Resistant Sesame

  • Lee, Kyou Seung;Noh, Hyun Kwon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.110-114
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: A threshing machine for shatter-resistant sesame was designed and developed in this study. Methods: Two types of sesame (shatter-resistant and conventional) were tested using the developed sesame threshing system. Three types of serrated bars were designed and evaluated through performance tests, in terms of the ratio of unthreshed sesame. Results: In the case of conventional sesame, the ratio of unthreshed sesame did not show any difference with bar type or cylinder rotation speed. For shatter-resistant sesame, however, the ratio of unthreshed sesame decreased with increased cylinder rotating speed for all three types of bar. Conclusions: These results are useful for the construction and utilization of an efficient threshing harvester. The type-L bar showed the best result in the energy equation.

Separation Characteristic of Shatter Resistant Sesame After Threshing

  • Noh, Hyun Kwon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study set out to develop a machine for separating shatter-resistant sesame after threshing. Methods: Three grades of sieve and different blower speeds were tested for a separation system that had been designed specifically for shatter-resistant sesame. Performance tests were run to evaluate the sieve and blower systems in terms of the sesame separation and loss ratios. Results: Tests of the first separation stage using the sieve system revealed the optimum sieve perforation size to be 5 mm. Tests of the second separation stage using the blower system identified the optimum blower speed as being 220 rpm. The optimum separation and loss ratios, of 96.5% and 3.5%, respectively, were obtained at a blower speed of 220 rpm. Conclusions: These results will be useful for the design, construction, and operation of threshing harvesters. For shatter-resistant sesame, an optimum blower speed of 220 rpm was identified.

Effect of Oxygen Supply on Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Tobacco Leaves During Flue-curing (잎담배 건조중 산소공급에 따른 내용성분 및 물리성 변화)

  • 황건중;석영선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was carried out to study the effect of oxygen on chemical composition and physical properties of tobacco leaves during flue-curing. The results obtained were as follows: Starch content decreased and sucrose content increased with increasing oxygen supply during curing. Glucose and fructose of the cured leaves showed high content at the 5-10% oxygen supply. Amino-N and nitrate-N increased with increasing oxygen supply. Total nitrogen and NH4-N showed the lowest value at the 5-10% and 10-15% oxygen supply in the cutters and leaf, respectively. Chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid increased, and total volatile base decreased with increasing oxygen supply. The activity of α-amylase increased at the latter period of flue-curing, and the maximum activity point were delayed 12 hours with increasing oxygen supply. Shatter index of cured leaves decreased with increasing oxygen supply. It was desirable to supply oxygen during flue-curing for the improvement of chemical and physical properties such as starch, total sugar, chlorogenic acid, and shatter index of cured leaves.

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Effect of Yellowing Times During Yellowing Stage on Physico-chemical Properties of Immature Tobacco Leaves in Bulk Curing (Bulk건조시 미숙엽의 황변시간 조절이 잎담배 이화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이철환;진정의;한철수;이승철
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 1999
  • Leaves harvested were separated with visual characters into 2 classes such as immature and mature leaves. In the curing process, the prolonged yellowing treatment during yellowing stage was automatically controlled at the different stalk position, and condition of curing process after this period was all the same with conventional ones. In case of prolonged yellowing in immature leaves, increase of price per kg reached to 8 % compared with those of conventional ones. In physical properties, filling capacity and shatter index was decreased with the degree of maturity, and it was equal level in filling capacity of immature leaves between curing method, while shatter index was decreased in prolonged yellowing treatment than that of conventional ones. There was no difference in chemical components between immature leaves of prolonged yellowing and conventional ones. As to the prolonged yellowing of immature leaves, there was decreased in citric and malic acid contents of the nonvolatile organic acids, and it was equal level in all higher fatty acids content of leaves cured by prolonged yellowing treatment compared with in that of conventional curing method. The contents of key compounds such as solanone, damascenone, damascone in the essential oil were lower in prolonged yellowing of immature leaves than those of mature leaves cured by conventional ones.

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Bulk 건조엽의 편평엽 발생양상과 이화학적 특성

  • 이철환;진점의;한철수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 1998
  • The occurrence and physico-chemical properties of flat leaves found in 1997 curing trial related to the prevention of occurrence of flat leaves at bulk curing of flue-cured tobacco were investigated and compared with those of normal leaves. Cured leaves of NC82 were separated into 4 classes of none, slight, fair and severe symptoms of flat leaf by the percentage of flattened parts to whole leaf area. The flat leaves were mostly found among the leaves of lower stalk position, and it was estimated that growth rate of lower leaves also influenced on the occurrence of flat leaves. In chromatic aberration of cured leaf, flat leaves showed remarkably lower b and L values than in those of normals but there was no difference in a value. On the other hand, in chemical analyses of flat leaf samples, nicotine, total sugar, ether extract and total nitrogen contents were decreased with the degree of flat symptoms. In physical properties, filling capacity of cured leaves was decreased with the degree of flat symptoms comparing with those of normal leaves, while shatter index was showed a reverse tendency, and then within the same leaf, flat parts were decreased in total sugar, ether extract and filling capacity compared with those of normal ones, but remarkably increased in shatter index, and there was no difference in nicotine and total nitrogen contents.

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EFFECTS OF FIELD PRODUCTIVITY, VARIETY AND NITROGEN RATE ON THE YIELD, QUALITY AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BURLEY TOBACCO (버어리종 잎담배의 수량, 품질 및 이화학성에 미치는 포지비옥도, 품종 및 질소시용량의 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Beom;Kim, Yong-Kyoo;Han, Chul-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 1990
  • A field experiment was conducted to find out the effects of field productivity, variety and nitrogen rate on the yield, quality, chemical constituents and physical properties of burley cured leaf in three field with different productivity(Degree of field productivity: A ; high, B ; medium, C : low) during successive two years(1988~89). The yield and quality were remarkably lowered when nitrogen fertilizer being applied much in low productive field. As compared with Burley 21, KB101 showed high yield, particularly the yield of KB101 in low productive field was relatively high. The effect of nitrogen rate on the yield was somewhat different according to field productivity and production year. When the nitrogen fertilizer being applied above 22.5kg/10a, the added nitrogen had no effect on the yield. Total nitrogen content of cured leaf grown in low productive field was high while total alkaloid was low, therefore total alkaloid/total nitrogen ratio was remarkably low. The lightness, red and yellow color of cured leaf grown in low productive field was remarkably low. As compared with Burley 21, the contents of total alkaloid and total nitrogen and shatter resistance index of cured leaf was somewhat low, while the filling power, lightness, red and yellow color were slightly high. Total nitrogen content of cured leaf was increased remarkably by nitrogen addition, but total alkaloid was not increased though the nitrogen fertilizer being applied above 22.5kg/10a. The filling power and shatter resistance index of cured leaf grown in high nitrogen plot, and the lightness and yellow color were low while the red color was relatively high. It comes into question that the visual quality being increased as well as increment of yield and nitrogenous compounds by nitrogen addition in high productive field. In low productive field, it is considerable that nitrogen addition for high yield should be prohibited because it causes the decrement of yield and quality, on the contrary.

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Comparison of the change in quality indices during distribution period by import season in three grape cultivars

  • Kim, Sung-Joo;Noh, Soo-In;Lim, Byung-Sun;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2019
  • As a result of analyzing the quality of imported grapes during the 2018 season, the hardness of the grape berry was found to be 10 N or less in total. In the case of Chilean grapes, the soluble solids tended to be lower as imports and distribution periods were delayed. The berry weight was the largest at 14.4 - 14.8 g for the 'Red Globe', 7.1 - 7.4 g for the 'Thompson Seedless' and 6.0 - 7.0 g for the 'Crimson Seedless'. The 'Crimson Seedless' grapes imported from Chile, which had a high berry shatter rate, had a shorter pedicel length, pad width and brush length than that of the other 2 varieties. Regardless of the grape varieties, the weight loss during the distribution at room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) increased rapidly as the import season was delayed. Additionally, it was found that the later the distribution seasons, a higher stem browning index was observed regardless of the variety. The 'Thompson Seedless' was revealed to be more susceptible to browning than that of the other varieties. The shrinkage of the stem and the pedicel browning progressed within a short time during shelf-life as the distribution time was delayed. The incidence of berry decay of the imported grapes tended to increase with the progression of the distribution period. In the fruits distributed on April, except for the 'Crimson Seedless', the grapes were rapidly corrupted in the second half of the distribution. The 'Red Globe' grapes completely lost marketability due to a berry decay of 26.1% and 69.9% at 9 and 12 days after shelf-life, respectively.

Effects of film liners, ethylene scrubber, alcohol releaser and chlorine dioxide on the berry quality during simulated marketing in 'Campbell Early' grapes

  • Kim, Sung-Joo;Choi, Cheol;Ahn, Young-Jik;Lim, Byung-Sun;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.415-424
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the effects of an ethylene scrubber (ES) with a micro-perforated polypropylene (MP-PP, 30 ㎛) or a high density polyethylene (MP-HDPE, 30 ㎛) film liner for the export carton packaging box in 'Campbell Early' grapes. Rachis browning was highest in the untreated group, followed by MP-PP and MP-HDPE for 14 days of simulated marketing at 20℃. The combination treatment of ES with the film liners showed a partial inhibition of the rachis browning regardless of the film liners. The effects of an alcohol releaser (AR) sachet or chlorine dioxide (CD) diffuser co-packaging were also investigated in the 'Campbell Early' grapes packed with the MP-HDPE (40 × 99 pin hole·m-2) film liner. The CD 1 g treatment showed a very limited weight loss of 1.1%, which was significantly lower than the 4.7% of the untreated control after 14 days of simulation marketing at 20℃. The berry shatter was 0.7% for the MP-HDPE + CD 1 g treatment and 1.8% for the MP-HDPE + CD 5 g treatment on the 10th day of the simulated marketing, which was significantly lower than the 8.9% of the control. The stem browning was significant suppressed until the 10th day of the simulated marketing. In particular, the CD 1 g treatment in combination with the MP-HDPE showed a low rachis and pedicel browning index of 2.0, which is 50% and 40% lower than that of the untreated control and the MP-HDPE single treatment, respectively. In addition, the CD 1 g treatment group showed a higher decay reduction effect than the CD 5 g treatment group, which caused high concentration damage.

Effect of Leaf Dehydration Process and Air Flow Capacity of Curing Facility on Physical Properties and Composition of Leaves During Flue-curing (황색종 연초 건조중 탈수경과 및 풍속차가 건조엽의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Myong-Hyun;Seok, Yeong-Seon;Lee, Un-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1983
  • The effect of leaf dehydration process and air flow capacity of bulk curing on physical properties and composition of cured leaves was studied, respectively, during flue- curing. Cured leaves from excessive moisture during yellowing stage and those from rapid dehydration Process inevitably during later stages, tend towards lower equilibrium moisture contents, higher shatter index, hither protein nitrogen, and leaf scalding or deterioration of Beaves with redish cast. Early dehydration at the yellowing stage re suited in increasing of p Bamitic, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acid contents, but showed reduction of brightness difference between upper and lower surface of the cured leaves, Leaf surface lipid decreased with the progress of curing stages, more conspicuously during later stage. Lowering air flow capacity of fan by 50oye during stem drying stage resulted in increasing of leaf surface lipid and 25oye decreasing of electric power consumption , but curing period and kerosene consumption were not affected.

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