• Title, Summary, Keyword: shear design

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Reliability of column capacity design in shear

  • Thomos, George C.;Trezos, Constantin G.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.507-521
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    • 2012
  • The capacity design of shear forces is one of the special demands of EC8 by which the ductile behavior of structures is implemented. The aim of capacity design is the formation of plastic hinges without shear failure of the elements. This is achieved by deriving the design shear forces from equilibrium conditions, assuming that plastic hinges, with their possible over-strengths, have been formed in the adjacent joints of the elements. In this equilibrium situation, the parameters (dimensions, material properties, axial forces etc) are random variables. Therefore, the capacity design of shear forces is associated with a probability of non-compliance (probability of failure). In the present study the probability of non-compliance of the shear capacity design in columns is calculated by assuming the basic variables as random variables. Parameters affecting this probability are examined and a modification of the capacity design is proposed, in order to achieve uniformity of the safety level.

The design of reinforced concrete beams for shear in current practice: A new analytical model

  • Londhe, R.S.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 2009
  • The present paper reviews the shear design (of reinforced concrete beam) provisions of four different national codes and proposes a new but simplified shear strength empirical expression, incorporating variables such as compressive strength of concrete, percentage of longitudinal and vertical steel/s, depth of beam in terms of shear span-to-depth ratio, for reinforced concrete (RC) beams without shear reinforcement. The expression is based on the experimental investigation on RC beams without shear reinforcement. Further, the comparisons of shear design provisions of four National codes viz.: (i) IS 456-2000, (iii) BS 8110-1997, (iv) ACI 318-2002 (v) EuroCode-2-2002 and the proposed expression for the prediction of shear capacity of normal beam/s, have been made by solving a numerical example. The results of the numerical example worked out suggest that there is need for revision in the shear design procedure of different codes. Also, the proposed expression is less conservative among the IS, BS & Eurocode.

Predicting the stiffness of shear diaphragm panels composed of bridge metal deck forms

  • Egilmez, Oguz O.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.213-226
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    • 2017
  • The behavior of building industry metal sheeting under shear forces has been extensively studied and equations have been developed to predict its shear stiffness. Building design engineers can make use of these equations to design a metal deck form bracing system. Bridge metal deck forms differ from building industry forms by both shape and connection detail. These two factors have implications for using these equations to predict the shear stiffness of deck form systems used in the bridge industry. The conventional eccentric connection of bridge metal deck forms reduces their shear stiffness dramatically. However, recent studies have shown that a simple modification to the connection detail can significantly increase the shear stiffness of bridge metal deck form panels. To the best of the author's knowledge currently there is not a design aid that can be used by bridge engineers to estimate the stiffness of bridge metal deck forms. Therefore, bridge engineers rely on previous test results to predict the stiffness of bridge metal deck forms in bracing applications. In an effort to provide a design aid for bridge design engineers to rely on bridge metal deck forms as a bracing source during construction, cantilever shear frame test results of bridge metal deck forms with and without edge stiffened panels have been compared with the SDI Diaphragm Design Manual and ECCS Diaphragm Stressed Skin Design Manual stiffness expressions used for building industry deck forms. The bridge metal deck form systems utilized in the tests consisted of sheets with thicknesses of 0.75 mm to 1.90 mm, heights of 50 mm to 75 mm and lengths of up to 2.7 m; which are representative of bridge metal deck forms frequently employed in steel bridge constructions. The results indicate that expressions provided in these manuals to predict the shear stiffness of building metal deck form panels can be used to estimate the shear stiffness of bridge metal deck form bracing systems with certain limitations. The SDI Diaphragm Design Manual expressions result in reasonable estimates for sheet thicknesses of 0.75 mm, 0.91 mm, and 1.21 mm and underestimate the shear stiffness of 1.52 and 1.90 mm thick bridge metal deck forms. Whereas, the ECCS Diaphragm Stressed Skin Design Manual expressions significantly underestimate the shear stiffness of bridge metal deck form systems for above mentioned deck thicknesses.

Evaluation of Shear Design Provisions for Reinforced Concrete Beams and Prestressed Concrete Beams (철근콘크리트 보와 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 보의 전단설계기준에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim Kang-Su;Kim Sang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.717-726
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    • 2005
  • Shear test data have been extracted from previous experimental research and compiled into a database that may be the largest ever made. In this paper, the shear database (SDB) was used for evaluating shear design provisions for both reinforced concrete (RC) beams and prestressd concrete (PSC) beams. A discussion on the use of the results of this evaluation related to calibration and strength reduction factor for the shear design provisions was also provided. It was observed that the shear design provisions did not provide good predictions for RC members and gave very poor predictions especially for RC members without shear reinforcement. On the other hand, the limit on shear strength contributed by transverse reinforcement was observed to be lower than necessary. The shear design provisions gave very unconservative results for the large RC members (d>700mm) without shear reinforcement having light amount of longitudinal reinforcement $(\rho_w<1.0\%)$. However, for PSC members the shear design provisions gave a good estimation of ultimate shear strength with a reasonable margin of safety. Despite of a large difference of accuracy in prediction of shear strength for RC members and PSC members, the shear design provisions used a same shear strength reduction factor for these members. As a result, the shear design provisions did not provide a uniform factor of safety against shear failure for different types of members.

Design of Shear connection in Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Bridge (프리캐스트 콘크리트 바닥판 교량의 전단연결부 설계)

  • Chang, Sung Pil;Shim, Chang Su;Kim, Jong Hee;Kim, Young Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.759-767
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    • 1998
  • Full-depth precast concrete deck bridge has shear pockets for shear connectors that give composite action with steel girder. Strength and shear stiffness of shear connection that is needed to design shear connectors in case that shear pockets are filled with nonshrink mortar are investigated. In case that simple span full-depth precast concrete deck bridge is designed by allowable stress design, distribution of shear connector is suggested and details of precast panel that is placed on the support are proposed. Appropriate distribution of shear connectors in strength design and fatigue design is investigated through parameter analyses using partial interaction theory. The effects of nonshrink mortar strength is studied using the results of experiments and analyses and adequate strength is proposed.

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Shear Tests for Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) Beams with Shear Reinforcement

  • Lim, Woo-Young;Hong, Sung-Gul
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.177-188
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    • 2016
  • One of the primary concerns about the design aspects is that how to deal with the shear reinforcement in the ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) beam. This study aims to investigate the shear behavior of UHPFRC rectangular cross sectional beams with fiber volume fraction of 1.5 % considering a spacing of shear reinforcement. Shear tests for simply supported UHPFRC beams were performed. Test results showed that the steel fibers substantially improved of the shear resistance of the UHPFRC beams. Also, shear reinforcement had a synergetic effect on enhancement of ductility. Even though the spacing of shear reinforcement exceeds the spacing limit recommended by current design codes (ACI 318-14), shear strength of UHPFRC beam was noticeably greater than current design codes. Therefore, the spacing limit of 0.75d can be allowed for UHPFRC beams.

Test on the anchoring components of steel shear keys in precast shear walls

  • Shen, Shao-Dong;Pan, Peng;Li, Wen-Feng;Miao, Qi-Song;Gong, Run-Hua
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.783-791
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    • 2019
  • Prefabricated reinforced-concrete shear walls are used extensively in building structures because they are convenient to construct and environmentally sustainable. To make large walls easier to transport, they are divided into smaller segments and then assembled at the construction site using a variety of connection methods. The present paper proposes a precast shear wall assembled using steel shear keys, wherein the shear keys are fixed on the embedded steel plates of adjacent wall segments by combined plug and fillet welding. The anchoring strength of shear keys is known to affect the mechanical properties of the wall segments. Loading tests were therefore performed to observe the behavior of precast shear wall specimens with different anchoring components for shear keys. The specimen with insufficient strength of anchoring components was found to have reduced stiffness and lateral resistance. Conversely, an extremely high anchoring strength led to a short-column effect at the base of the wall segments and low deformation ability. Finally, for practical engineering purposes, a design approach involving the safety coefficient of anchoring components for steel shear keys is suggested.

Evaluation of shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete beams using artificial neural networks

  • Nehdi, M.;El Chabib, H.;Said, A.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.81-100
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    • 2006
  • To calculate the shear capacity of concrete beams reinforced with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP), current shear design provisions use slightly modified versions of existing semi-empirical shear design equations that were primarily derived from experimental data generated on concrete beams having steel reinforcement. However, FRP materials have different mechanical properties and mode of failure than steel, and extending existing shear design equations for steel reinforced beams to cover concrete beams reinforced with FRP is questionable. This paper investigates the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate the nominal shear capacity, Vn of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars. Experimental data on 150 FRP-reinforced beams were retrieved from published literature. The resulting database was used to evaluate the validity of several existing shear design methods for FRP reinforced beams, namely the ACI 440-03, CSA S806-02, JSCE-97, and ISIS Canada-01. The database was also used to develop an ANN model to predict the shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete beams. Results show that current guidelines are either inadequate or very conservative in estimating the shear strength of FRP reinforced concrete beams. Based on ANN predictions, modified equations are proposed for the shear design of FRP reinforced concrete beams and proved to be more accurate than existing equations.

Minimum shear reinforcement ratio of prestressed concrete members for safe design

  • Park, Min-Kook;Lee, Deuck Hang;Ju, Hyunjin;Hwang, Jin-Ha;Choi, Seung-Ho;Kim, Kang Su
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.317-340
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    • 2015
  • Design codes have specified the minimum shear reinforcement requirement for reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PSC) members to prevent brittle and premature shear failure. They are, however, very different from one another, and particularly, ACI318 code allows the required minimum shear reinforcement to be reduced in PSC members, compared to that in RC members, by specifying the additional equation for PSC members whose basis is not clear. In this paper, the minimum shear reinforcement ratio for PSC members was proposed, which can provide a sufficient reserved shear strength and deformation capacity. The proposed equation was also verified by the test results of PSC specimens lightly reinforced in shear, comparing to design codes and other proposed equations from previous studies.

Design in shear of reinforced concrete short columns

  • Moretti, M.L.;Tassios, T.P.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.265-283
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    • 2013
  • This research was prompted by the paucity of specific code provisions regarding the design of short columns for shear. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the use of the normal shear design procedure of various codes may or may not be applied to reliably calculate the shear strength of short columns. Provisions of the codes American ACI 318M-08, Canadian CSA A23.3-04, Japanese AIJ Guidelines, New Zealand NZS 3101, European EN 1998 (EC8) parts 1 and 3, combined with EN 1992-1-1 (EC2), and draft fib Model Code 2010, as well as a strut-and-tie model are applied on short columns tested under cyclic loading that failed in shear. Actual shear resistances are compared to predictions, and the resulting shortcomings of the codes are identified. EN1998-3 appears to be the only code among those considered that may be reliably applied to estimate the shear resistance of short columns. Further, the proposed strut-and tie model can be a useful tool for the detailed design and assessment of short columns.