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Sleep Assessment During Shift Work in Korean Firefighters: A Cross-Sectional Study

  • Jeong, Kyoung Sook;Ahn, Yeon-Soon;Jang, Tae-Won;Lim, Gayoung;Kim, Hyung Doo;Cho, Seung-Woo;Sim, Chang-Sun
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.254-259
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    • 2019
  • Background: This cross-sectional study assessed the sleep quality using the ActiGraph and investigated the relationship between the parameters of sleep assessment and the type of shift work in Korean firefighters. Methods: The participants were 359 firefighters: 65 day workers (control group) and 294 shift workers (shift work group: 77 firefighters with 3-day shift, 72 firefighters with 6-day shift, 65 firefighters with 9-day shift, and 80 firefighters with 21-day shift). Sleep assessments were performed using the ActiGraph (wGT3X-BT) for 24 hours during day shift (control and shift work group) and night shift and rest day (shift work group). The participants recorded bed time and sleep hours during the measurement period. Results: Sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and percentage of wake after sleep onset during night work were lower in the shift work group than control group (p < 0.05). Sleep efficiency decreased in night shift and increased in rest day, whereas wake after sleep onset increased in night shift and decreased in rest day (p < 0.05). Among shift work groups, sleep efficiency of 6-day shift was higher in day shift, and sleep efficiency of 21-day shift was lower in night shift than other shift groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We found that the sleep quality in night shift of the shift work group was poorer than the control group. As to the type of shift work, sleep quality was good in 6-day shift and poor in 21-day shift. Thus, fast rotating shift such as 6-day shift may be recommended to improve the sleep quality of the firefighters.

Comparison of Shift Satisfaction, Sleep, Fatigue, Quality of Life, and Patient Safety Incidents Between Two-Shift and Three-Shift Intensive Care Unit Nurses (중환자실 간호사의 2교대와 3교대근무 간 근무 만족도, 수면, 피로, 삶의 질과 환자안전사고 비교)

  • Chae, Min Jin;Choi, Su Jung
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2020
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to compare shift satisfaction, sleep, fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and patient safety incidents between a newly implemented two-shift system and a traditional three-shift system. Methods : A total of 127 intensive care unit nurses (48 two-shift nurses and 79 three-shift nurses) working in a tertiary hospital in Seoul were recruited from January 1, 2017, to March 31, 2017. They completed a self-reported questionnaire about their work hours, shift satisfaction, sleep patterns, sleep quality, fatigue, QOL, and patient safety incidents in the past 2 weeks. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Results : The two-shift group showed higher shift satisfaction scores compared with the three-shift group (6.93 vs. 4.37, p<.001). Sleep latency was shorter and sleep quality was better in the two-shift group compared with the three-shift group. There were no significant differences in other sleep parameters, fatigue, QOL, and patient safety incidents between the two groups. Conclusion : Although a two-shift system did not improve nurses' fatigue or QOL in this study, it may effectively serve as an alternative shift-work system that can increase sleep quality and shift satisfaction without increasing patient safety incidents.

Problems of Working Hours and Shift Work Systems, and Propsed Methods for Their Improvement (근로시간 및 교대근무편성의 문제점과 개선방향)

  • Seo, Yu-Jin;;Park, Yeong-Man;Mun, Se-Geun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the present conditions of the night work and shift work systems in the heavy chemical industrial complexes found in Changwon, Masan, and Chinhae. Korea. We will attempt to define and classify their problems; and to discover further ways to improve their systems. Fifty production factories were carefully selected as the subjects for this study. The shift systems were classified into five categories. The consecutive night shifts were long in almost all cases with 6 days (36 factories) and 7 days (13 factories). It was found that the night work of about] 2 hours continues for a long period in the weekly rotation full-day shift systems and the night-including non-full-day shift systems, and there was no holiday during a shift cycle in the continuous full-day shift systems. The work time in most shift systems was longer than the 44-hours/week permitted by Korean law. Considering the characteristics of these various types of shift systems, the most essential thing to reduce the shift workers' work load may be to shorten their working hours and improve the schedule of shift systems. It is highly recommended as a fundamental solution. to reduce the portal-to-portal hours from 12 to 8 in the night-including non-full-day shift systems and the weekly rotation full-day shift systems, and at least to employ a 4-team 3-shift system in the continuous full-day shift systems. In addition to this, it should from now on be taken as a goal to restructure the types of shift systems by taking such measures as avoiding continuous night work if possible, providing sufficient off-duty intervals both before and after night shift, providing increased opportunities for workers to nap during night work. and increasing the number of holidays.

Shift Characteristics Analysis and Smooth Shift for an Automatic Power Transmission

  • Jeong, Heon-Sul;Lee, Kyo-Ill
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.499-507
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    • 2000
  • Smooth shift is one of the key issues in automatic power transmission control systems. However, the torque sensors are too expensive to be used in shift controllers on production vehicles. In order to provide a basic strategy for smooth shifting by using RPM sensors only and in order to accomplish the shift within a designated time, this paper studies detailed characteristics of the smooth shift for clutch-to-clutch shift mechanism. A desired trajectory of slip speed is proposed for smooth acceleration shift defined in this paper. Also the clutch torque needed to achieve this trajectory is derived, and it may be used as a open loop shift control law.

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Sleeping Patterns and Gastrointestinal Disorders According to the Shift Works in Female Textile Workers (섬유제조업 여성 근로자들의 교대작업에 따른 수면실태와 위장관장애)

  • Yoo, Ki-Ha
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 1994
  • To investigate the sleeping patterns and gastrointestinal disorders of shift workers, the author studied 434 female workers who worked at textile industry ill Taejon city from September 1,1992 to September 31,1992. Shift pattern were divided into 3 categories ; 3 shift(shifts per 8 hours), 2 shift(day and night shift) and day work. The results obtained were as follows : 1 The average sleeping hours when adjusted for the education level of the total study subjects was 6.1 hours. That of 3 shift workers was 6.1 hours, 2 shift workers was 6.0 hours, but that of day workers was 6.5 hours. There were no significant difference among the shift workers. 2. For the 3 shift workers, the average physiologic adjusted duration in day shift (2.2 days) was shorter than that of night shift(2.7 days) and there were significant difference among the rotating shift works (p<0.001). The sleeping problems in day shift was less than those of night shift (p<0.001). 3. 44.9% of 3 shift workers, 39.3% of 2 shift workers and 33.1% of day workers complained gastrointestinal symptoms when adjusted for the age, education level, job tenure, work post. And the rates of gastrointestinal symptoms complained increase with job tenures (p<0.001). 4. The most frequent gastrointestinal diseases were gastitis and gastric ulcer with 14.2% , Irritable bowel syndrome with 3.1 %, duodenitis and duodenal ulcer with 2.1% and combined gastrointestinal disease with 2.1%. Age, eating habit, amount of coffee per day, job tenure, work post and shift pattern showed no significant difference with the gastrointestinal diseases when adjusted for the age. According to the above results, the author suggested that the shift pattern and job tenure can affect to the sleeping problem and gastrointestinal symptoms.

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Effect of Shift Interval for the Clinical Nurse on the Circadian Rhythm (임상 간호사의 교대근무 기간이 circadian rhythm 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 황애란;정현숙;임영신;이혜원;김조자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.129-149
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    • 1991
  • Circadian rhythm is entrained in the 24-hour time interval by periodic factors in the environment, known as zeitgeber. But most rotating work schedules are outside the range of the entrainment of the pacemaker timing the human circadian sleep - wake cycle. It has been postulated that physiological and emotional disturbances occur in most human functions when the circadian rhythm is disturbed. So application of circadian principles to the design of shift schedules can aid in maintaining the temporal integrity of the circadian system and thereby minimize for the shift worker any detrimental consequences of circadian disruption. This study was a quasi-experimental study to test the effect of shift intervals for the clinical nurse on the circadian rhythm. Twenty nurses newly employed in general units of two hospitals were selected as an experimental group and twelve college nursing students as a control group. Both groups were selected according to an established criteria using a purposive sampling technique. Ten subjects were assigned to a weekly shift group and another ten to a biweekly shift group engaged in a semi -continuous shift schedule(sunday off) with a backward direction, that is, morning -evening - night shift. The control group worked a morning shift for 42 days. Oral temperature rhythm, waking tim, sleep - wake cycle, fatigue, and mental performance were measured during the experimental period. The data collection period was from April 30, 1990 to June 10, 1990. MANOVA, paired t-test, ANOVA, and Student Newman Keuls method were used for statistical analysis. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Phase delay in the acrophase of temperature rhythm was shown according to the backward rotating shift. A complete adaptation to work on the night shift was achieved between the sixth and ninth day of the night shift. 2. There was no difference in either waking time or sleep- wake cycle according to the duration of the working day for every shift group. Significant difference was found in the waking time and the sleep -wake cycle for subjects on the morning, evening, and night shift in both of the shift groups(weekly shift group : λ=0.121, p<0.01, λ=0.112, p<0.01, biweekly shift group : λ=0.116, p<0.01, λ=0.084, p<0.01). 3. There was no difference in fatigue between the first working day and the last working day for the control group and for the biweekly shift group. In the weekly shift group, physical fatigue was significantly different for the first day and the sixth day of the night shift(t=-2.28, p<0.05). Physical fatigue and total fatigue on the first day of the night shift showed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=5.79, p<0.01, F=4.56, p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05), Physical fatigue, neurosensory fatigue and total fatigue on the last day of the night shift showed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=12.65, p<0.01, F=7.77, p<0.01, F=9.68, p<0.01). There was a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05). 4. No difference in mental performance was seen between the first day and the last day of work in each case. An arithmatic test on the first day of the night shift revealed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=3.79, p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05) . The digital symbol substitution test and the arithmetic test on the last day of the night shift showed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=3.68, p<0.05, F=5.55, p<0.01), and both showed a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05). Accordingly, this study showed that during night duty, the waking time, sleep- wake cycle, and fatigue increased and mental performance decreased compared with morning and evening duty. It was also found that the weekly shift group had a higher fatigue score on the sixth day of night duty as compared to the -first day, but the waking time, sleep- wake cycle, and mental performance revealed no difference for the duration of the night duty or between shift groups, and complete adaptation of temperature rhythm was achieved between the sixth and ninth day of night duty. It is possible to conclude from these results that for intermediate circadian type in a healthy young woman, a biweekly shift system is more compatible with the circadian timing system than weekly shift system.

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Shift Control Strategy for Electric Controlled CVT Vehicle (전자 제어 CVT 차량의 변속제어전략)

  • 김동우;김현수
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, static and dynamic shift control stategies of CVT speed ratio are suggested. For the static shift control, in order to operate engine on the optimal operating region, a fuzzy control logic is used. In the fuzzy logic, S- factor that is defined as a degree of sportiness is introduced. Simulation results show that the static shift control strategy based on the fuzzy logic selects the optimal operating point automatically between the economy and the sporty mode corresponding to the driver's desire and the driving condition. For the dynamic shift control strategy, a shift speed map is suggested which determines the shift sped as fast or slow based on Δi, the difference between the desired speed ratio id and the actual speed ratio i, and throttle opening. It is seen from the simulation results that the CVT shift speed is determined by the dynamic shift control strategy to provide appropriate performance and comfort for the driver's demand and driving condition. Additionally, experiments are performed to investigate the dynamic performance of the shift speed for the lift foot up. From the experimental results, it is found that improved shift feeling can be obtained by the dynamic shift control strategy when lift foot up occurs.

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Modified Mean Shift for Color Image Processing (컬러 영상 처리를 위한 Mean Shift 기법 개선)

  • Hwang, Young-chul;Bae, Jung-ho;Cha, Eui-young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.407-410
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    • 2009
  • 본 논문에서는 개선된 mean shift를 이용한 컬러 영상 분할을 소개한다. Mean shift는 Yizong Cheng에 의해 재조명되고 Dorin Comaniciu 등에 의해 정리되어 영상 필터링(image filtering), 영상 분할(image segmentation), 물체 추적(object tracking) 등 여러 응용 분야에 널리 활용되고 있다. 커널을 이용해 밀도를 추정하고 밀도가 가장 높은 점으로 커널을 연속적으로 이동함으로써 지역적으로 주요한 위치로 데이터 값을 갱신시킨다. 그러나 영상에 포함된 모든 화소에 대해 mean shift를 수행해야하기 때문에 연산 시간이 많이 소요되는 단점이 있다. 본 논문에서는 mean shift 필터링 과정을 분석하고 참조수렴방법과 강제수렴방법을 이용해 소요 시간을 단축시켰다. 모든 점에 대해 mean shift를 수행하는 대신 특정 조건을 만족하는 픽셀은 이웃 픽셀의 수렴 값을 참조하고, mean shift 과정에 진동 또는 미미한 이동을 계속하는 픽셀은 강제 수렴을 실시하였다. 개선된 방법과 기존의 mean shift 방식을 적용하여 영상 필터링과 영상 분할에 적용한 실험에서 결과 영상에는 차이가 적고 기존의 방법에 비해 수행 시간이 24% 정도 소요됨을 확인하였다.

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ARC SHIFT NUMBER AND REGION ARC SHIFT NUMBER FOR VIRTUAL KNOTS

  • Gill, Amrendra;Kaur, Kirandeep;Madeti, Prabhakar
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.1063-1081
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, we formulate a new local move on virtual knot diagram, called arc shift move. Further, we extend it to another local move called region arc shift defined on a region of a virtual knot diagram. We establish that these arc shift and region arc shift moves are unknotting operations by showing that any virtual knot diagram can be turned into trivial knot using arc shift (region arc shift) moves. Based upon the arc shift move and region arc shift move, we define two virtual knot invariants, arc shift number and region arc shift number respectively.

DC-shift Instability in Hybrid rocket (하이브리드 로켓의 DC-shift 불안정 발생 특성)

  • Kang, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Chang-Jin;Monkhinoo, Monkhinoo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.229-232
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    • 2009
  • DC-shift phenomenon can be observed in Hybrid rocket combustion. This phenomenon makes performance drop which is structure problem or reduce thrust. Understanding of DC-shift phenomenon, the conditions of the hybrid rocket combustion stability can be found. In this paper, the condition of DC-shift was found and made by using acoustic mode and vortex shedding frequency. The conditions of stable combustion was defined from the experimental study of DC-shift phenomenon.

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