• Title, Summary, Keyword: silibinin

Search Result 29, Processing Time 0.088 seconds

Silibinin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death Via ROS-dependent Mitochondrial Pathway in Human Glioma Cells

  • Shin, Won-Yong;Jeong, Ji-Cheon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.888-894
    • /
    • 2009
  • It has been reported that silibinin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid, induces cell death in various cancer cell types. However, the underlying mechanisms by which silibinin induces apoptosis in human glioma cells are poorly understood. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the effect of silibinin on glioma cell apoptosis and to determine its underlying mechanism in human glioma cells. Apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Psi}m$) were measured using fluorescence dyes DCFH-DA and $DiOC_6$(3), respectively. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation were estimated by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies. Exposure of cells to 30 mM silibinin induced apoptosis starting at 6 h, with increasing effects after 12-48h in a time-dependent manner. Silibinin caused ROS generation and disruption of ym, which were associated with the silibinin-induced apoptosis. The silibinin-induced ROS generation and disruption in ym were prevented by inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase blocked ROS generation and apoptosis induced by silibinin. Silibinin induced cytochrome c release into cytosolic fraction and its effect was prevented by catalase and cyclosporine A. Silibinin treatment caused caspase-3 activation, which was inhibited by DVED-CHO and cyclosporine A. Pretreatment of caspase inhibitors also protected against the silibinin-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that ROS generation plays a critical role in the initiation of the silibinin-induced apoptotic cascade by mediation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway including the disruption of ${\Psi}m$, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation.

The Effect of Silibinin Extracted from Cirsium Japonicum on Allergic Inflammation (대계(大薊)의 주성분인 Silibinin이 알레르기 염증반응에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Beom-Rak;Kim, Koung-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.44-58
    • /
    • 2010
  • Silibinin is the major active molecule of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from Cirsium japonicum (CJ). It has been used for treatment of hepatitis and inflammation related diseases. The aim of this study was to prove whether Silibinin has effectiveness for allergic inflammation. Silibinin processes the inflammatory reaction in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMA plus A23187) stimulated human mast cell line (HMC-1). Its effect was examined by ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot, and Luciferase assay. The results were Silibinin inhibited the expression of histamine, TNF-$\alpha$ (tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$), IL-6 (interleukin-6), and IL-8 (interleukin-8). Silibinin suppressed NF-${\kappa}B$ (nuclear factor kappa B) activation in stimulated HMC-1 (human mast cell-1). This effect was mediated through inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of $IkB{\alpha}$, an inhibitor of NF-kB. Silibinin significantly inhibited induction of NF-kB promoter mediated Luciferase assay. These results suggest that Silibinin has a potential molecule for therapy of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.

Effects of Silibinin on the Pharmacokinetics of Carvedilol after Oral Administration in Rats

  • Lee, Chong-Ki;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
    • /
    • v.41 no.3
    • /
    • pp.153-159
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of silibinin on the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol after oral administration of carvedilol in rats. Carvedilol was administered orally (3 mg/kg) with oral silibinin (0.3, 1.5 or 6 mg/kg) and intravenously (1 mg/kg) to rats. The effects of silibinin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP2D6 activity were also evaluated. Silibinin inhibited CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity with 50% inhibition concentration ($IC_{50}$) of 5.2 ${\mu}M$ and 85.4 ${\mu}M$, respectively. In addition, silibinin significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. Compared with the control group, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was significantly increased by 36.3-57.1%, and the peak concentration was significantly increased by 51.1-88.5% in the presence of silibinin after oral administration of carvedilol. Consequently, the relative bio-availability of carvedilol was increased by 1.13- to 1.57-fold and the absolute bioavailability was significantly increased by 38.6-59.7%. The time to reach peak concentration and the terminal half-life were not significant. The enhanced oral bio-availability of carvedilol may result from inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated metabolism and P-gp-mediated efflux of carvedilol rather than inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated metabolism in the intestine and/or in the liver by silibinin.

Reactive Oxygen Species Depletion by Silibinin Stimulates Apoptosis-Like Death in Escherichia coli

  • Lee, Bin;Lee, Dong Gun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.27 no.12
    • /
    • pp.2129-2140
    • /
    • 2017
  • Silibinin is the major active component of silymarin, extracted from the medicinal plant Silybum marianum. Silibinin has potent antibacterial activity; however, the exact mechanism underlying its activity has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the novel mechanism of silibinin against Escherichia coli. Time-kill kinetic assay showed that silibinin possess a bactericidal effect at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and higher concentrations (2-and 4-fold MIC). At the membrane, depolarization and increased intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ levels were observed, considered as characteristics of bacterial apoptosis. Additionally, cells treated with MIC and higher concentrations showed apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine exposure, and caspase-like protein expression. Generally, apoptotic death is closely related with ROS generation; however, silibinin did not induce ROS generation but acted as a scavenger of intracellular ROS. These results indicate that silibinin dose-dependently induces bacterial apoptosis-like death, which was affected by ROS depletion, suggesting that silibinin is a potential candidate for controlling bacteria.

Comparative Evaluation of Silibinin Effects on Cell Cycling and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 and T47D Cell Lines

  • Jahanafrooz, Zohreh;Motameh, Nasrin;Bakhshandeh, Behnaz
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2661-2665
    • /
    • 2016
  • Silibinin is a natural polyphenol with high antioxidant and anticancer properties. In this study, its influence on two of the most commonly employed human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and T47D, and one non-malignant MCF-10A cell line, were investigated and compared. Cell viability, the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were analyzed by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The effect of silibinin on PTEN, Bcl-2, P21, and P27 mRNAs expression was also investigated by real-time RT-PCR. It was found that silibinin caused G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells but had no effect on the T47D cell cycle. Silibinin induced cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in T47D cells more than the MCF-7 cells and had no cytotoxic effect in MCF-10A cells under the same conditions. Silibinin upregulated PTEN in MCF-7 and caused slightly increased P21 mRNA expression in T47D cells and slightly increased PTEN and P21 expression in MCF-10A cells. Bcl-2 expression decreased in all of the examined cells under silibinin treatment. P27 mRNA expression upregulated in T47D and MCF-10A cells under silibinin treatment. PTEN mRNA in T47D and P21 and P27 mRNAsin MCF-7 were not affected by silibinin. These results suggest that silibinin has mostly different inhibitory effects in breast cancer cells and might be an effective anticancer agent for some cells linked to influence on cell cycle progression.

Silibinin Inhibits LPS-Induced Macrophage Activation by Blocking p38 MAPK in RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Youn, Cha Kyung;Park, Seon Joo;Lee, Min Young;Cha, Man Jin;Kim, Ok Hyeun;You, Ho Jin;Chang, In Youp;Yoon, Sang Pil;Jeon, Young Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.258-263
    • /
    • 2013
  • We demonstrate herein that silibinin, a polyphenolic flavonoid compound isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits LPS-induced activation of macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells. Western blot analysis showed silibinin inhibits iNOS gene expression. RT-PCR showed that silibinin inhibits iNOS, TNF-${\alpha}$, and $IL1{\beta}$. We also showed that silibinin strongly inhibits p38 MAPK phosphorylation, whereas the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways are not inhibited. The p38 MAPK inhibitor abrogated the LPS-induced nitrite production, whereas the MEK-1 inhibitor did not affect the nitrite production. A molecular modeling study proposed a binding pose for silibinin targeting the ATP binding site of p38 MAPK (1OUK). Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that silibinin inhibits macrophage activation by blocking p38 MAPK signaling.

Protective Effects of Silibinin and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

  • Yan, Wen-Jing;Tan, Ying-Chun;Xu, Ji-Cheng;Tang, Xian-Ping;Zhang, Chong;Zhang, Peng-Bo;Ren, Ze-Qiang
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.245-250
    • /
    • 2015
  • Silibinin, a natural flavonoid antioxidant isolated from extracts of the milk thistle herb, has recently been identified as having anti-hepatotoxic and anticancer properties. In this paper, we investigated the effects of silibinin on behavior and neuroplasticity in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). After 5 consecutive weeks of CUMS, the mice were treated with silibinin (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by oral gavage) for 3 consecutive weeks. The results showed that silibinin administration significantly alleviated the CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior, including the total number of squares crossed and the frequency of rearing in the open field test, the immobility time in the tail suspension test and the forced swimming test. Furthermore, silibinin treatment increased the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our study provides new insight into the protective effects of silibinin on the depressive status of CUMS mice, specifically by improving neuroplasticity and neurotransmission.

Involvement of Estrogen Receptor-α in the Activation of Nrf2-Antioxidative Signaling Pathways by Silibinin in Pancreatic β-Cells

  • Chu, Chun;Gao, Xiang;Li, Xiang;Zhang, Xiaoying;Ma, Ruixin;Jia, Ying;Li, Dahong;Wang, Dongkai;Xu, Fanxing
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.163-171
    • /
    • 2020
  • Silibinin exhibits antidiabetic potential by preserving the mass and function of pancreatic β-cells through up-regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression. However, the underlying protective mechanism of silibinin in pancreatic β-cells is still unclear. In the current study, we sought to determine whether ERα acts as the target of silibinin for the modulation of antioxidative response in pancreatic β-cells under high glucose and high fat conditions. Our in vivo study revealed that a 4-week oral administration of silibinin (100 mg/kg/day) decreased fasting blood glucose with a concurrent increase in levels of serum insulin in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Moreover, expression of ERα, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in pancreatic β-cells in pancreatic islets was increased by silibinin treatment. Accordingly, silibinin (10 μM) elevated viability, insulin biosynthesis, and insulin secretion of high glucose/palmitate-treated INS-1 cells accompanied by increased expression of ERα, Nrf2, and HO-1 as well as decreased reactive oxygen species production in vitro. Treatment using an ERα antagonist (MPP) in INS-1 cells or silencing ERα expression in INS-1 and NIT-1 cells with siRNA abolished the protective effects of silibinin. Our study suggests that silibinin activates the Nrf2-antioxidative pathways in pancreatic β-cells through regulation of ERα expression.

Silibinin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation Mediated by TNF Family Members

  • Kim, Jung Ha;Kim, Kabsun;Jin, Hye Mi;Song, Insun;Youn, Bang Ung;Lee, Junwon;Kim, Nacksung
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.201-207
    • /
    • 2009
  • Silibinin is a polyphenolic flavonoid compound isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), with known hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant effects. Herein, we show that silibinin inhibits receptor activator of $NF-{\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from RAW264.7 cells as well as from bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. Silibinin has no effect on the expression of RANKL or the soluble RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteoblasts. However, we demonstrate that silibinin can block the activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in osteoclast precursors in response to RANKL. Furthermore, silibinin attenuates the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. We demonstrate that silibinin can inhibit $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced osteoclastogenesis as well as the expression of NFATc1 and OSCAR. Taken together, our results indicate that silibinin has the potential to inhibit osteoclast formation by attenuating the downstream signaling cascades associated with RANKL and $TNF-{\alpha}$.

Silibinin Inhibits Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis and Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Gastric Cancer MGC803 Cells Via STAT3 Pathway Inhibition

  • Wang, Yi-Xin;Cai, Hong;Jiang, Gang;Zhou, Tian-Bao;Wu, Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.16
    • /
    • pp.6791-6798
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the effect of silibinin on proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC803 and its possible mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Human gastric cancer cell line MGC803 cells were treated with various concentration of silibinin. Cellular viability was assessed by CCK-8 assay andapoptosis and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. Protein expression and mRNA of STAT3, and cell cycle and apoptosis regulated genes were detected by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: Silibinin inhibits growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Silibinin effectively induces apoptosis of MGC803 cells and arrests MGC803 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, while decreasing the protein expression of p-STAT3, and of STAT3 downstream target genes including Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, survivin at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, silibinin caused an increase in caspase 3 and caspase 9 protein as well as mRNA levels. Silibinin caused G2/M phage arrest accompanied by a decrease in CDK1 and Cyclin B1 at protein and mRNA levels.. Conclusions: These results suggest that silibinin inhibits the proliferation of MGC803 cells, and it induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest by down-regulating CDK1, cyclinB1, survivin, Bcl-xl, Mcl-1 and activating caspase 3 and caspase 9, potentially via the STAT3 pathway.