• Title, Summary, Keyword: silkworm pupa

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Effects of Silkworm Pupae on Bone Mineral Density in Ovariectomized Rat Model of Osteoporesis

  • Ryu, Kang-Sun;Lee, Heui-Sam;Kim, Kee-Young;Kim, Mi-Ja;Kang, Pil-Don
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2012
  • Osteoporosis is characterized by the reduced density of mineralized bone matrix. The loss of bone has been attributed to an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption. The silkmoth is one of the famous traditional tonic medicines. Silkworm pupa was evaluated for its antiosteoporotic activity in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The rats were ovariectomized at 6weeks of age and divided into 7 groups. All the groups were fed without calcium diet. The OVX rats were treated with water and silkworm powder for 6 weeks. In OVX rats, the body weight, feeding and water intake quantity did not show a significant change, but the silkworm pupa powder immediately before the eclosion of Yeonrokjam was significantly increased the bone mineral density in the femoral bone. The silkworm pupa powder increased the bone with increasing calcium in serum. These results also showed its protective action through promotion of bone formation. The silkworm pupa powder has a definite antiosteoporotic effect; similar to estrogen, it is especially effective for the prevention of bone fracture induced by estrogen deficiency. The silkworm pupa powder is a promising anti-osteoporotic agent that can prevent bone fractures in osteoporotic patients. The silkworm pupa powder does not show serious side effects because natural herbal medicine origin.

In Vitro Estrogenic Activity of Silkworm (Bombyx mon) Pupa and Herbs (누에(Bombyx mori) 번데기 및 한약재의 In Vitro 에스트로젠 활성)

  • Yang Ji-Won;Choi Eun-Mi;Kwon Mu-Gil;Koo Sung-Ja
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2005
  • In this study we report on the estrogen activity of silkworm pupa and herb extracts in vitro. The estrogenic activity of these resources was investigated by competition binding assays with estrogen receptor $\alpha(ER{\alpha})\;or\;ER{\beta}$, and viability of MCF-7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line. Saturation ligand-binding analysis of $ER{\alpha}\;and\;ER{\beta}$ revealed that all plant extracts competed with estrogen ligand for binding to both ER subtypes with a similar preference and degree and competed stronger with ligand for binding to $ER{\beta}\;than\;to\;ER{\alpha}$. The highest $ER{\alpha}-binding$ sample was silkworm pupa aqueous extract The highest $ER{\beta}-binding$ sample was silkworm pupa oil. These samples were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER(+) breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. Our studies showed that silkworm pupa, soritae, sesame, yam, pueraria, malt, ginseng, Polygonum multiflorum, and Curcuma longa significantly stimulated the growth of MCF-7 cells (P<0.05). In summary, these results suggested that silkworm pupa and herbs might be useful as potential phytoestrogens.

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Pathomorphological Peculiarity of Dometic Silkworm, Bombyx mori. Infected with Cordyceps, Paecilomyces tenuipes (동충하초 감염 누에의 병리형태학적 특성)

  • Yun, Jae-Su
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate infection process, symptoms and main component of the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori. larvae and pupa infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps, Paecillomyces tenuipes. The Cordyceps, Paecillomyces tenuipes, was highly infectious to the silkworms. A pathogenicities of Cordyceps, Paecillomyces tenuipes, may be highly virulent because of the low resistance or high susceptibility of the silkworms. The silkworm larva infected with Cordyceps formed phialospores on the phialides at the imperfect stage of the genus Cordyceps, But silkworm pupa infected with Cordyceps formed ascospores in the asci at the perfection stage of the genus Cordyceps. The results of analysis of health silkworm pupa and silkworm pupa infected with Cordyceps were obtained that amino acid, fatty acid, and nucleoside were very different.

Effect of Protease on the Extraction and Properties of the Protein from Silkworm pupa (Protease 처리가 누에번데기 단백질 추출 및 기능성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Hyo-Jung;Lee, Kyoung-Hwan;Kim, Jeung-Hoan;Chun, Sung-Sook;Cho, Young-Je;Cha, Won-Seup
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.304-308
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    • 2006
  • To extract insoluble proteins from silkworm pupa meal, the meal was treated with pretense produced by Bacillus sp. JH-209. The extraction of insoluble silkworm pupa protein was enhanced at alkaline pHs ranged from 7 to 11 by treatment with the protease. The optimum extraction temperature was $40^{\circ}C$ for in soluble protein treated with pretense. The optimum protease treatment time for extraction of protein was 11 hrs and optimum amount of enzyme treated for extraction of protein was 60 Unit, respectively. The treatment of enzyme extracted more protein than ordinary extraction method without pretense. The foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion capacity, and emulsion stability of silkworm pupa meal protein extracted by the treatment of the enzymes increased at all pH ranges. Further more oil absorption as well as water absorption capacities of the protein extracted by the treatment of the enzymes were also increased.

Testosterone Secretion Effect according to the Growth Stage of Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

  • Ryu, Kang-Sun;Lee, Heui-Sam;Kang, Pil-Don;Kim, Kee-Young;Kim, Mi-Ja;Lee, Kwang-Gill
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.75-77
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    • 2010
  • Until now, the main treatment for impotence has been the vasodilator injection, penile implants and etc. Among many methods, most effective way is known to be the medical therapy. The oral drug for an impotence remedy has to be above all, effective to the erection, and second, safety when taking in long-term. However, so far the drug in such condition and sufficiency has not been discovered. Consequently, it is crucial to develop the new medicine, made of natural materials only, without any uncertainty of side effect. The silkworm is very difference in physiological chemical change according to growth stage. Therefore the functional effect shows a very big difference according to preparation method with a growth stage. This research carry out the experiment with the pupa powder immediately before the eclosion, eclosion adult, the pupa extract immediately before the eclosion, and the silkworm powder of 5 instar 3rd day. The result showed not a big chance in weight, feed and water intake quantity. But testosterone hormone secretion effects of the freeze drying powder of the pupa immediately before the eclosion was very high 7.31 ng/ml, compared to 2.37 ng/ml of non treatment and 2.67 ng/ml of alcohol extraction method. As this result, the freeze drying pupa powder of the pupa immediately before the eclosion was confirmed to promote the secretion of the testosterone hormone more than alcohol extraction method of existing.

Effects of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Pupa Extract on the Function of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

  • Choi, Eun-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Koo, Sung-Ja
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.593-598
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    • 2005
  • Osteoporosis is recognized as one of the major hormonal deficiency diseases, especially in menopausal women and the elderly. When the estrogen level is reduced in the body, local factors, which are known to be related with bone resorption, are increased and promote osteoclastogenesis. In our previous study, we validated the estrogenicity of silkworm pupa. In this study, we investigated the effect of silkworm pupa extract (SPE) on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. SPE (10 and $50\;{\mu}g/mL$) significantly elevated cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and collagen content in the cells. The effect of SPE ($50\;{\mu}g/mL$) in increasing cell viability, ALP activity, and collagen content was completely inhibited by the presence of $10^{-6}\;M$ of cycloheximide and $10^{-6}\;M$ of tamoxifen, suggesting that SPE's effect results from a newly synthesized, protein component and that it might be partly involved in estrogen action. Furthermore, we examined the effect of SPE on the $H_2O_2-induced$ apoptosis and production of local factors in osteoblasts. Treatment with SPE ($50\;{\mu}g/mL$) decreased the 0.2 mM $H_2O_2-induced$ apoptosis and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO) in osteoblasts. Our data indicate that the enhancement of osteoblast function by silkworm pupa may prevent osteoporosis and inflammatory bone diseases.

Studies on tussah silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (작잠에 관한 연구)

  • 박병희;송기언;이상풍;박광의
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.5
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 1965
  • I. Breeding of tussah silkworm(preliminary report). The preliminary examination for bleeding has been carried out since 1963 in tussah silkworms. 1) The strain(l-MG-B)of the heaviest silk quantity was the green silkworm and brown cocoon in univoltine, and the strains(2-G-B, 2-MG-B) of the heaviest silk quantity were also the green silkwom and brown cocoon in bivoltine in both spring and fall in 1965. 2) It looks like the voltinism, the body color and the cocoon color have reached to pure line up to 1965. II. Best place for the winter of tussah pupa. This work was aimed to find out good ways for the winter of tussah pupa. 1) The hatch of bivoltine was better than that of univoltine. 2) The cocoons covered with the leaves were good in the emergence of moth. 3) The cocoons which were kept at natural temperature till the first emergence of moths would show bad in both hatch and emergence. 4) If some of the pupae kept under natural condition were controled at proper temperature for a few days, hatch and laying eggs were best. 5) The best places for the winter were the egg storage and the rearing room. III. Relation between incubation temperature and voltinism. 1) When the tussah pupa are kept at natural temperature during winter, the moths do not come out of the pupa. 2) There is no difference between about 18$^{\circ}C$ and about 25$^{\circ}C$ during incubation in hatching ratio. 3) The tussah silkworms of univoltine in mortality are stronger than that of bivoltine. 4) There is not any relation between voltinism and high or low temperature for pupa and eggs. IV. Induced mutation by gamma-ray and neutron in tussah silkworm. This work was carried out in order to induce the mutation by treating the pupa or the eggs of tussah silkworm with gamma my and neutron. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Though the whole pupa treated with neutron become moths, the moths have no ability to copulate each other. The only moths emerged from pupa treated with neutron, 4000${\gamma}$ are able to lay all un-fertilized eggs, some of which have a hole on the surface and nothing of contents. 2. The non-diapause eggs are treated with neutron in spring, but the hatching ratio is 50∼60 percent, but the whole eggs treated with gamma ray are never hatched. 3. The sensitivity of the pupa to neutron is weaker than that of the eggs. 4. The hatching ratio is in direct proportion to the gamma ray dose. 5. Author find out a new mutant which is excellent in the cocoon quality, so he will do the progeny test next hear.

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Microsporidian Multiplication and Spore Production in Various Tissues of Pupa and Adult, in Relation to Age and Development of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

  • Nanu, Madana Mohanan;Gupta, Sunil Kumar;Saratchandra, Beera;Haldar, Durga Prasad
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2009
  • Multiplication and spore production of three microsporidia(Nosema bombycis, Nosema sp. 1 and Nosema sp. 2) in selected tissues of pupa and adult of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. were studied in two seasons (SI, SII) with distinct temperature (SI: $20.1{\pm}0.8^{\circ}C$ and SII: $25.1{\pm}0.7^{\circ}C$) regimes. Multiplication of the microsporidia followed a logistic pattern with a lag phase, an exponential phase and a stationary phase. In SII, spore production was significantly (P<0.01) higher in various tissues. Highest spore production was observed 30 days post inoculation (p.i.) in SI and in SII, it was $21{\sim}23$ days p.i. Spore production was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the gut tissues than other tissues. Nosema sp. 2 registered significantly (P<0.01) higher spore production in both the seasons compared to Nosema bombycis and Nosema sp. 1. Results indicate that the multiplication and spore production of microsporidia are tissue specific and extremely sensitive to the temperature at which the host is reared. Through this study, the precise day that the spore numbers of the microsporidia are maximized can be predicted in both pupa and adult in case the infection is initiated in the first instar.

Anti-Oxidation of Cultured Cordyceps militaris Growing on Silkworm Pupa

  • Gong Cheng-Liang;Pan Zhong-Hua;Zheng Xiao-Jian;Xue Ren-Yu;Cao Guang Li
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2006
  • Cordyceps, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus C. sinensis growing on the larva of caterpillar. It is commonly used as a tonic of restoring vital body functions. In order to evaluate the pharmacological effects of C. militaris, the anti-oxidation and antiaging effect of cultured C. militaris growing on pupa of silkworm Bombyx mori, were investigated. The results showed! that the contents of lipofusin in myocardium were reduced and the SOD activity in the liver were elevated in a dose-dependent manner while no effect was observed for blood GSH-Px activity and liver MDA content in mice perfused with the cultured C. militaris compared to those untreated mice. Furthermore, the average life span, maximum life span and 50% death time of the fruit flies treated with cultured C. militaris were markedly prolonged. The results suggest that the cultured C. militaris growing on pupa of silkworm possesses anti-oxidation and delay senescence activity.

Simple discrimination method of male and female depending upon the specific gravity of pupa in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (잠용의 비중에 의한 간이한 자웅감별법)

  • 박광의
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.6
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    • pp.28-30
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    • 1966
  • The aim of this experiment was to investigate the method of discrimination of male and female depending upon the specific gravity of pupa in silkworm varieties which are being recommended in Korea at present. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The specific gravity of silkworm pupa existed between 1,000 and 1,100. 2. Female pupae went to the bottom of salt water(NaCl), around 1,020 of specific gravity, while male pupae came near to the surface of salt water. 3. Salt water of around 1,020 specific gravity was not harmful to the pupa, egg laying ability and moth emerging ability. 4. The effect of salt water on the other useful characters will be assigned to the next chance, and also the device of cocoon cutting machine is being studied.

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