• Title, Summary, Keyword: singlet oxygen

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A Generator of Gaseous Singlet Oxygen

  • Matsuura, Teruo;Sato, Hideya;Suzuki, Nobutaka;Matsumoto, Masakatsu
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.409-411
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    • 2002
  • In order to prevent side reactions due to free radical formation occurring in the reactions of singlet oxygen generated in solution phse, it was required that singlet oxygen is generated in gas phase from an apparatus of a solid-gas system. We have accomplished to construct an apparatus generating singlet oxygen in solid-gas system, which is composed of a flexible optical fibre tube connected by a dye-sensitizer probe containing rose bengal dye on polymer or inorganic material. Through the optical fibre tube visible light from a laser and an oxygen stream are passed into the sensitizer probe where singlet oxygen is generated. The determination of singlet oxygen was carried out by two methods. One involves the detection of the luminescence of singlet oxygen at 1268 mn and the other involves the chemiluminescence reaction of a dihydroisobenzofuran with singlet oxygen emitting luminescence at 456 nm.

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Control of Singlet Oxygen-induced Oxidative Damage in Escherichia coli

  • Kim, Sun-Yee;Kim, Eun-Ju;Park, Jeen-Woo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.353-357
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    • 2002
  • Singlet oxygen ($^1O_2$) is highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. The oxyR gene product regulates the expression of the enzymes and proteins that are needed for cellular protection against oxidative stress. In this study, the role of oxyR in cellular defense against a singlet oxygen was investigated using Escherichia coli oxyR mutant strains. Upon exposure to methylene blue and visible light, which generates singlet oxygen, the oxyR overexpression mutant was much more resistant to singlet oxygen-mediated cellular damage when compared to the oxyR deletion mutant in regard to growth kinetics, viability and protein oxidation. Induction and inactivation of major antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide desmutase and catalase, were observed after their exposure to a singlet oxygen generating system in both oxyR strains. However, the oxyR overexpression mutant maintained significantly higher activities of anticxidant enzymes than did the oxyR deletion mutant. These results suggest that the oxyR regulon plays an important protective role in singlet oxygen-mediated cellular damage, presumably through the protection of antioxidant enzymes.

Efficiency Factors of Singlet Oxygen Generation from Core-Modified Expanded Porphyric : Tetrathiarubyrin in Ethanol

  • Ha, Jeong Hyeon;Jeong, Guk Yeong;Kim, Min Seon;Lee, Yang Hun;Sin, Gu;Kim, Yong Rok
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2001
  • The photophysical properties and the singlet oxygen generation efficiency of tetrathiarubyrin have been investigated to elucidate the possibility of its use as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The observed photophysical properties were affected by various molecular aspects, such as extended ${\pi}conjugation$, structural distortion, and internal heavy atom. The steady-state electronic absorption spectrum was red-shifted due to the extended $\pi-conjugation$, and the spin orbital coupling was enhanced by the structural distortion and the internal heavy atom effect. As a result of the enhanced spin orbital coupling, the triplet quantum yield increased to 0.90 $\pm$ 0.10 and the triplet state lifetime was shortened to 7.0 $\pm$ 1.2 ${\mu}s$. Since the triplet state decays at a relatively faster rate, the efficiency of the oxygen quenching of the triplet state decreases. The singlet oxygen quantum yield was estimated to be 0.52 $\pm$ 0.02, which is somewhat lower than expected. On the other hand, the efficiency of singlet oxygen generation during the oxygen quenching of triplet state, $f{\Delta}^T$, is near unity. Such high efficiency of singlet oxygen generation can be explained by the following two possible factors: The hydrogen bonding of ethanol which impedes the deactivation pathway of the charge transfer complex with oxygen to the ground state, the less probability of the aggregation formation.

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INVESTIGATION OF TRIPLET STATE AND SINGLET OXYGEN DYNAMICS OF BENZOPHENONE IN POLAR AND NONPOLAR SOLUTIONS WITH TIME-RESOLVED TWO-COLOR THERMAL LENSING METHOD

  • Ha, Jeong-Hyon
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 1996
  • The heat generated by nonradiative decay dynamics induces thermal lens effect. From such an effect, photodynamic properties of solutions can be investigated with two-color pulsed thermal lens experiments which have the time resolution of down to nanoseconds. In this study, using nanosecond two-color thermal lens method, we investigated the triplet state of benzophenone and the singlet oxygen state dynamics in various oxygen concentration solvents. The measured triplet state lifetimes, singlet oxygen relaxation times and singlet oxygen formation quantum yields are in good agreement with the reference values. From these parameters the existence of the triplet exciplex formation between benzophenone and benzene is proved, and it is also suggested that the relaxations of triplet states of benzophenone undergo coupled dynamics with some of singlet oxygens in oxygen-rich conditions.

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Detection of 1270 nm Emission from Singlet Oxygen due to Photodynamic Therapy in vitro and in vivo.

  • Hirano, Toru;Kohno, Eiji;Ito, Toshiaki;Okazaki, Shigetoshi;Hirohata, Toru;Niigaki, Minoru;Kageyama, Kazumi;Miyaki, Sueo
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.515-517
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    • 2002
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality which utilizes the cytotoxicity of the active singlet oxygen derived from irradiation of a tumor accumulated photosensitizer. As the oxygen in the singlet state radiates an emission of 1270nm wavelength when it decays to the triplet state, detection of the emission helps us to understand the mechanism of PDT or to evaluate photosensitizers. We detected the 1270nm emission from photosensitizers Photofrin and ATX-SI0 in vitro and in vivo by means of high sensitive NIR detectors. We obtained the maximum amount of singlet oxygen at irradiation wavelength of 665-670nm from a HeLa tumor in a nude mouse which is injected with ATX-S10.

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Relationship between Singlet Oxygen Formation and Photolysis of Phloxine B in Aqueous Solutions

  • Keum, Young-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Han;Li, Qing-Xiao
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 2003
  • Phloxine B (2,4,5,7-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachlorofluorescein disodium salt), also referred as D&C red dye no. 28, is phototoxic to many insects such as Tephritidae fruit flies. Sunlight photolysis of phloxine B in aqueous solutions was a first order kinetic reaction at low concentrations. But it turned to be more complex reactions with the increase of phloxine B concentration. The half-lives of phloxine B (6-120 ${\mu}$M) were 18-41 and 52-289 hours in oxygenated and deaerated distilled water, respectively. The photolysis rate constants increased as the phloxine B concentrations increased. The singlet oxygen formation positively correlated with the concentrations of phloxine B and humic acid in oxygenated distilled water. The formation of singlet oxygen did not stop even after the complete degradation of phloxine B, which suggested an involvement of photoproduct-mediated reactions. The results showed that singlet oxygen mediated photooxidation was a dominant reaction for phloxine B dissipation in an aqueous solution, and the self-sensitized and photoproduct-mediated reactions were also involved at the higher concentrations. Iodide and bromide ions significantly decreased phloxine B photolysis rate constants, which were in relation to the decrease of singlet oxygen formation.

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A Study on the Correlation between Anchor Point and printing quality in a Uncoated Paper (비도피지에서 투묘효과와 인쇄품질의 관계에 관한 연구)

  • 김애연
    • Journal of the Korean Printing Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.117-132
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    • 1994
  • New methodolgies for the syntheses of unsymmetrical squarylium(SQ) dyes for organic photoconductors(OPC) were developed and photostabilities for these dyes were dicucced. These dyes absorbed at 640-690nm and exhibit high molecular extinction coefficient about 10. photodegradation rate of these dyes is acceralated in the presence if singlet oxygen sensitizer. On the other hand, the photodegradation rate os retarded by adding effective singlet oxygen quencher, such as 2:1 metal dithiolate. It is suggested that the photodegration of unsymmetrical SQ dye may be due to a photo-oxidation involving singlet oxygen.

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Mechanism of Photodynamic Therapy using 9-hydroxypheophorbide-alpha on HeLa Cell Lines

  • Ahn, Jin-Chul
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2009
  • Photodynamic therapy(PDT) is a treatment utilizing the generation of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species(ROS), which selectively accumulate in target cells. The aim of present work is to investigate the photodynamic therapy mechanism of 9-HpbD-a-mediated PDT in HeLa cell lines. We studied the general reactive oxygen species(G-ROS) activation after 9-HpbD-a PDT using fluorescence stain with $H_2DCF-DA$. G-ROS activation observed after 9-HpbD-a PDT and higher activation condition was 1 hour after PDT at 0.5 ${\mu}g/ml$ 9-HpbD-a concentration. Sodium azide and reduced glutathione(the singlet oxygen quencher) could protect HeLa cells from cell death induced by 9-HpbD-a PDT. But D-mannitol(the hydroxyl radical scavenger) could not protect cell death. Singlet oxygen played a decisive role in 9-HpbD-a PDT induced HeLa cell death. Type II reaction was the main type of ROS formation at 9-HpbD-a PDT.

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Photosensitized oxidative damage of human serum albumin by water-soluble dichlorophosphorus(V) tetraphenylporphyrin

  • Ouyang, Dongyan;Hirakawa, Kazutaka
    • Rapid Communication in Photoscience
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.41-44
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    • 2015
  • Biomolecular photo-damaging activity of a water-soluble cationic porphyrin was examined using human serum albumin (HSA), a water-soluble protein as a target biomolecule model by a fluorometry. Dichlorophosphorus(V) tetraphenylporphyrin ($Cl_2P(V)TPP$), was synthesized and used as a photosensitizer. This porphyrin could bind to HSA and cause the photosensitized oxidation of HSA through the singlet oxygen generation and the oxidative photo-induced electron transfer (ET). Near infrared emission spectroscopy demonstrated the photosensitized singlet oxygen generation by this porphyrin. Decrement of the fluorescence lifetime of $Cl_2P(V)TPP$ by HSA supported the ET mechanism. Furthermore, the estimated Gibb's energy indicated that the ET mechanism is possible in the terms of energy. Because oxygen concentration in cancer cell is relatively low, ET mechanism is considered to be advantageous for photosensitizer of photodynamic therapy.

Quantum Chemistry Based Arguments about Singlet Oxygen Formation Trends from Fluorescent Proteins

  • Park, Jae Woo;Rhee, Young Min
    • Rapid Communication in Photoscience
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.18-20
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    • 2016
  • Through quantum chemical means, we inspect the energetics of the singlet oxygen formation with fluorescent proteins in their triplet excited states. By placing an oxygen molecule at varying distances, we discover that the energetic driving force for the singlet oxygen formation does not depend strongly on the chromophore $-O_2$ distance. We also observe that the chromophore vibrations contribute much to the energy gap modulation toward the surface crossing. Based on our computational results, we try to draw a series of rationalizations of different photostabilities of different fluorescent proteins. Most prominently, we argue that the chance of encountering a surface crossing point is higher with a protein with a lower photostability.